20 Search Results for "Jecker, Ismaël"


Document
Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming
Improved Algorithm for Reachability in d-VASS

Authors: Yuxi Fu, Qizhe Yang, and Yangluo Zheng

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
An 𝖥_{d} upper bound for the reachability problem in vector addition systems with states (VASS) in fixed dimension is given, where 𝖥_d is the d-th level of the Grzegorczyk hierarchy of complexity classes. The new algorithm combines the idea of the linear path scheme characterization of the reachability in the 2-dimension VASSes with the general decomposition algorithm by Mayr, Kosaraju and Lambert. The result improves the 𝖥_{d + 4} upper bound due to Leroux and Schmitz (LICS 2019).

Cite as

Yuxi Fu, Qizhe Yang, and Yangluo Zheng. Improved Algorithm for Reachability in d-VASS. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 136:1-136:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{fu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.136,
  author =	{Fu, Yuxi and Yang, Qizhe and Zheng, Yangluo},
  title =	{{Improved Algorithm for Reachability in d-VASS}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{136:1--136:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.136},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202799},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.136},
  annote =	{Keywords: Petri net, vector addition system, reachability}
}
Document
New Lower Bounds for Reachability in Vector Addition Systems

Authors: Wojciech Czerwiński, Ismaël Jecker, Sławomir Lasota, Jérôme Leroux, and Łukasz Orlikowski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)


Abstract
We investigate the dimension-parametric complexity of the reachability problem in vector addition systems with states (VASS) and its extension with pushdown stack (pushdown VASS). Up to now, the problem is known to be F_d-hard for VASS of dimension 3d+2 (the complexity class F_d corresponds to the kth level of the fast-growing hierarchy), and no essentially better bound is known for pushdown VASS. We provide a new construction that improves the lower bound for VASS: F_d-hardness in dimension 2d+3. Furthermore, building on our new insights we show a new lower bound for pushdown VASS: F_d-hardness in dimension d/2 + 6. This dimension-parametric lower bound is strictly stronger than the upper bound for VASS, which suggests that the (still unknown) complexity of the reachability problem in pushdown VASS is higher than in plain VASS (where it is Ackermann-complete).

Cite as

Wojciech Czerwiński, Ismaël Jecker, Sławomir Lasota, Jérôme Leroux, and Łukasz Orlikowski. New Lower Bounds for Reachability in Vector Addition Systems. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 35:1-35:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{czerwinski_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.35,
  author =	{Czerwi\'{n}ski, Wojciech and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Lasota, S{\l}awomir and Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Orlikowski, {\L}ukasz},
  title =	{{New Lower Bounds for Reachability in Vector Addition Systems}},
  booktitle =	{43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)},
  pages =	{35:1--35:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-304-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{284},
  editor =	{Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.35},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194088},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.35},
  annote =	{Keywords: vector addition systems, reachability problem, pushdown vector addition system, lower bounds}
}
Document
History-Deterministic Vector Addition Systems

Authors: Sougata Bose, David Purser, and Patrick Totzke

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 279, 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023)


Abstract
We consider history-determinism, a restricted form of non-determinism, for Vector Addition Systems with States (VASS) when used as acceptors to recognise languages of finite words. History-determinism requires that the non-deterministic choices can be resolved on-the-fly; based on the past and without jeopardising acceptance of any possible continuation of the input word. Our results show that the history-deterministic (HD) VASS sit strictly between deterministic and non-deterministic VASS regardless of the number of counters. We compare the relative expressiveness of HD systems, and closure-properties of the induced language classes, with coverability and reachability semantics, and with and without ε-labelled transitions. Whereas in dimension 1, inclusion and regularity remain decidable, from dimension two onwards, HD-VASS with suitable resolver strategies, are essentially able to simulate 2-counter Minsky machines, leading to several undecidability results: It is undecidable whether a VASS is history-deterministic, or if a language equivalent history-deterministic VASS exists. Checking language inclusion between history-deterministic 2-VASS is also undecidable.

Cite as

Sougata Bose, David Purser, and Patrick Totzke. History-Deterministic Vector Addition Systems. In 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 279, pp. 18:1-18:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bose_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.18,
  author =	{Bose, Sougata and Purser, David and Totzke, Patrick},
  title =	{{History-Deterministic Vector Addition Systems}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-299-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{279},
  editor =	{P\'{e}rez, Guillermo A. and Raskin, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-190120},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: Vector Addition Systems, History-determinism, Good-for Games}
}
Document
History-Deterministic Parikh Automata

Authors: Enzo Erlich, Shibashis Guha, Ismaël Jecker, Karoliina Lehtinen, and Martin Zimmermann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 279, 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023)


Abstract
Parikh automata extend finite automata by counters that can be tested for membership in a semilinear set, but only at the end of a run. Thereby, they preserve many of the desirable properties of finite automata. Deterministic Parikh automata are strictly weaker than nondeterministic ones, but enjoy better closure and algorithmic properties. This state of affairs motivates the study of intermediate forms of nondeterminism. Here, we investigate history-deterministic Parikh automata, i.e., automata whose nondeterminism can be resolved on the fly. This restricted form of nondeterminism is well-suited for applications which classically call for determinism, e.g., solving games and composition. We show that history-deterministic Parikh automata are strictly more expressive than deterministic ones, incomparable to unambiguous ones, and enjoy almost all of the closure properties of deterministic automata.

Cite as

Enzo Erlich, Shibashis Guha, Ismaël Jecker, Karoliina Lehtinen, and Martin Zimmermann. History-Deterministic Parikh Automata. In 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 279, pp. 31:1-31:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{erlich_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.31,
  author =	{Erlich, Enzo and Guha, Shibashis and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Lehtinen, Karoliina and Zimmermann, Martin},
  title =	{{History-Deterministic Parikh Automata}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-299-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{279},
  editor =	{P\'{e}rez, Guillermo A. and Raskin, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-190250},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parikh automata, History-determinism, Reversal-bounded Counter Machines}
}
Document
A Regular and Complete Notion of Delay for Streaming String Transducers

Authors: Emmanuel Filiot, Ismaël Jecker, Christof Löding, and Sarah Winter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 254, 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)


Abstract
The notion of delay between finite transducers is a core element of numerous fundamental results of transducer theory. The goal of this work is to provide a similar notion for more complex abstract machines: we introduce a new notion of delay tailored to measure the similarity between streaming string transducers (SST). We show that our notion is regular: we design a finite automaton that can check whether the delay between any two SSTs executions is smaller than some given bound. As a consequence, our notion enjoys good decidability properties: in particular, while equivalence between non-deterministic SSTs is undecidable, we show that equivalence up to fixed delay is decidable. Moreover, we show that our notion has good completeness properties: we prove that two SSTs are equivalent if and only if they are equivalent up to some (computable) bounded delay. Together with the regularity of our delay notion, it provides an alternative proof that SSTs equivalence is decidable. Finally, the definition of our delay notion is machine-independent, as it only depends on the origin semantics of SSTs. As a corollary, the completeness result also holds for equivalent machine models such as deterministic two-way transducers, or MSO transducers.

Cite as

Emmanuel Filiot, Ismaël Jecker, Christof Löding, and Sarah Winter. A Regular and Complete Notion of Delay for Streaming String Transducers. In 40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 254, pp. 32:1-32:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{filiot_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2023.32,
  author =	{Filiot, Emmanuel and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and L\"{o}ding, Christof and Winter, Sarah},
  title =	{{A Regular and Complete Notion of Delay for Streaming String Transducers}},
  booktitle =	{40th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2023)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-266-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{254},
  editor =	{Berenbrink, Petra and Bouyer, Patricia and Dawar, Anuj and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-176843},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2023.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: Streaming string transducers, Delay, Origin}
}
Document
Complexity of Spatial Games

Authors: Krishnendu Chatterjee, Rasmus Ibsen-Jensen, Ismaël Jecker, and Jakub Svoboda

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 250, 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)


Abstract
Spatial games form a widely-studied class of games from biology and physics modeling the evolution of social behavior. Formally, such a game is defined by a square (d by d) payoff matrix M and an undirected graph G. Each vertex of G represents an individual, that initially follows some strategy i ∈ {1,2,…,d}. In each round of the game, every individual plays the matrix game with each of its neighbors: An individual following strategy i meeting a neighbor following strategy j receives a payoff equal to the entry (i,j) of M. Then, each individual updates its strategy to its neighbors' strategy with the highest sum of payoffs, and the next round starts. The basic computational problems consist of reachability between configurations and the average frequency of a strategy. For general spatial games and graphs, these problems are in PSPACE. In this paper, we examine restricted setting: the game is a prisoner’s dilemma; and G is a subgraph of grid. We prove that basic computational problems for spatial games with prisoner’s dilemma on a subgraph of a grid are PSPACE-hard.

Cite as

Krishnendu Chatterjee, Rasmus Ibsen-Jensen, Ismaël Jecker, and Jakub Svoboda. Complexity of Spatial Games. In 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 250, pp. 11:1-11:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chatterjee_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.11,
  author =	{Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Svoboda, Jakub},
  title =	{{Complexity of Spatial Games}},
  booktitle =	{42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-261-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{250},
  editor =	{Dawar, Anuj and Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-174038},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: spatial games, computational complexity, prisoner’s dilemma, dynamical systems}
}
Document
Parikh Automata over Infinite Words

Authors: Shibashis Guha, Ismaël Jecker, Karoliina Lehtinen, and Martin Zimmermann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 250, 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)


Abstract
Parikh automata extend finite automata by counters that can be tested for membership in a semilinear set, but only at the end of a run, thereby preserving many of the desirable algorithmic properties of finite automata. Here, we study the extension of the classical framework onto infinite inputs: We introduce reachability, safety, Büchi, and co-Büchi Parikh automata on infinite words and study expressiveness, closure properties, and the complexity of verification problems. We show that almost all classes of automata have pairwise incomparable expressiveness, both in the deterministic and the nondeterministic case; a result that sharply contrasts with the well-known hierarchy in the ω-regular setting. Furthermore, emptiness is shown decidable for Parikh automata with reachability or Büchi acceptance, but undecidable for safety and co-Büchi acceptance. Most importantly, we show decidability of model checking with specifications given by deterministic Parikh automata with safety or co-Büchi acceptance, but also undecidability for all other types of automata. Finally, solving games is undecidable for all types.

Cite as

Shibashis Guha, Ismaël Jecker, Karoliina Lehtinen, and Martin Zimmermann. Parikh Automata over Infinite Words. In 42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 250, pp. 40:1-40:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{guha_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.40,
  author =	{Guha, Shibashis and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Lehtinen, Karoliina and Zimmermann, Martin},
  title =	{{Parikh Automata over Infinite Words}},
  booktitle =	{42nd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2022)},
  pages =	{40:1--40:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-261-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{250},
  editor =	{Dawar, Anuj and Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.40},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-174327},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2022.40},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parikh automata, \omega-automata, Infinite Games}
}
Document
Invited Talk
An Updated Survey of Bidding Games on Graphs (Invited Talk)

Authors: Guy Avni and Thomas A. Henzinger

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)


Abstract
A graph game is a two-player zero-sum game in which the players move a token throughout a graph to produce an infinite path, which determines the winner or payoff of the game. In bidding games, both players have budgets, and in each turn, we hold an "auction" (bidding) to determine which player moves the token. In this survey, we consider several bidding mechanisms and their effect on the properties of the game. Specifically, bidding games, and in particular bidding games of infinite duration, have an intriguing equivalence with random-turn games in which in each turn, the player who moves is chosen randomly. We summarize how minor changes in the bidding mechanism lead to unexpected differences in the equivalence with random-turn games.

Cite as

Guy Avni and Thomas A. Henzinger. An Updated Survey of Bidding Games on Graphs (Invited Talk). In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 3:1-3:6, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{avni_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.3,
  author =	{Avni, Guy and Henzinger, Thomas A.},
  title =	{{An Updated Survey of Bidding Games on Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:6},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-256-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{241},
  editor =	{Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168017},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Bidding games, Richman bidding, poorman bidding, mean-payoff, parity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Algorithms and Data Structures for First-Order Logic with Connectivity Under Vertex Failures

Authors: Michał Pilipczuk, Nicole Schirrmacher, Sebastian Siebertz, Szymon Toruńczyk, and Alexandre Vigny

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
We introduce a new data structure for answering connectivity queries in undirected graphs subject to batched vertex failures. Precisely, given any graph G and integer parameter k, we can in fixed-parameter time construct a data structure that can later be used to answer queries of the form: "are vertices s and t connected via a path that avoids vertices u₁,…, u_k?" in time 2^𝒪(k). In the terminology of the literature on data structures, this gives the first deterministic data structure for connectivity under vertex failures where for every fixed number of failures, all operations can be performed in constant time. With the aim to understand the power and the limitations of our new techniques, we prove an algorithmic meta theorem for the recently introduced separator logic, which extends first-order logic with atoms for connectivity under vertex failures. We prove that the model-checking problem for separator logic is fixed-parameter tractable on every class of graphs that exclude a fixed topological minor. We also show a weak converse. This implies that from the point of view of parameterized complexity, under standard complexity theoretical assumptions, the frontier of tractability of separator logic is almost exactly delimited by classes excluding a fixed topological minor. The backbone of our proof relies on a decomposition theorem of Cygan, Lokshtanov, Pilipczuk, Pilipczuk, and Saurabh [SICOMP '19], which provides a tree decomposition of a given graph into bags that are unbreakable. Crucially, unbreakability allows to reduce separator logic to plain first-order logic within each bag individually. Guided by this observation, we design our model-checking algorithm using dynamic programming over the tree decomposition, where the transition at each bag amounts to running a suitable model-checking subprocedure for plain first-order logic. This approach is robust enough to provide also an extension to efficient enumeration of answers to a query expressed in separator logic.

Cite as

Michał Pilipczuk, Nicole Schirrmacher, Sebastian Siebertz, Szymon Toruńczyk, and Alexandre Vigny. Algorithms and Data Structures for First-Order Logic with Connectivity Under Vertex Failures. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 102:1-102:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{pilipczuk_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.102,
  author =	{Pilipczuk, Micha{\l} and Schirrmacher, Nicole and Siebertz, Sebastian and Toru\'{n}czyk, Szymon and Vigny, Alexandre},
  title =	{{Algorithms and Data Structures for First-Order Logic with Connectivity Under Vertex Failures}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{102:1--102:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.102},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164432},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.102},
  annote =	{Keywords: Combinatorics and graph theory, Computational applications of logic, Data structures, Fixed-parameter algorithms and complexity, Graph algorithms}
}
Document
On the Complexity of Intersection Non-emptiness for Star-Free Language Classes

Authors: Emmanuel Arrighi, Henning Fernau, Stefan Hoffmann, Markus Holzer, Ismaël Jecker, Mateus de Oliveira Oliveira, and Petra Wolf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)


Abstract
In the Intersection Non-emptiness problem, we are given a list of finite automata A_1, A_2,… , A_m over a common alphabet Σ as input, and the goal is to determine whether some string w ∈ Σ^* lies in the intersection of the languages accepted by the automata in the list. We analyze the complexity of the Intersection Non-emptiness problem under the promise that all input automata accept a language in some level of the dot-depth hierarchy, or some level of the Straubing-Thérien hierarchy. Automata accepting languages from the lowest levels of these hierarchies arise naturally in the context of model checking. We identify a dichotomy in the dot-depth hierarchy by showing that the problem is already NP-complete when all input automata accept languages of the levels B_0 or B_{1/2} and already PSPACE-hard when all automata accept a language from the level B_1. Conversely, we identify a tetrachotomy in the Straubing-Thérien hierarchy. More precisely, we show that the problem is in AC^0 when restricted to level L_0; complete for L or NL, depending on the input representation, when restricted to languages in the level L_{1/2}; NP-complete when the input is given as DFAs accepting a language in L_1 or L_{3/2}; and finally, PSPACE-complete when the input automata accept languages in level L_2 or higher. Moreover, we show that the proof technique used to show containment in NP for DFAs accepting languages in L_1 or L_{3/2} does not generalize to the context of NFAs. To prove this, we identify a family of languages that provide an exponential separation between the state complexity of general NFAs and that of partially ordered NFAs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first superpolynomial separation between these two models of computation.

Cite as

Emmanuel Arrighi, Henning Fernau, Stefan Hoffmann, Markus Holzer, Ismaël Jecker, Mateus de Oliveira Oliveira, and Petra Wolf. On the Complexity of Intersection Non-emptiness for Star-Free Language Classes. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 34:1-34:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{arrighi_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.34,
  author =	{Arrighi, Emmanuel and Fernau, Henning and Hoffmann, Stefan and Holzer, Markus and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and de Oliveira Oliveira, Mateus and Wolf, Petra},
  title =	{{On the Complexity of Intersection Non-emptiness for Star-Free Language Classes}},
  booktitle =	{41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-215-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{213},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155456},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Intersection Non-emptiness Problem, Star-Free Languages, Straubing-Th\'{e}rien Hierarchy, dot-depth Hierarchy, Commutative Languages, Complexity}
}
Document
A Bit of Nondeterminism Makes Pushdown Automata Expressive and Succinct

Authors: Shibashis Guha, Ismaël Jecker, Karoliina Lehtinen, and Martin Zimmermann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)


Abstract
We study the expressiveness and succinctness of good-for-games pushdown automata (GFG-PDA) over finite words, that is, pushdown automata whose nondeterminism can be resolved based on the run constructed so far, but independently of the remainder of the input word. We prove that GFG-PDA recognise more languages than deterministic PDA (DPDA) but not all context-free languages (CFL). This class is orthogonal to unambiguous CFL. We further show that GFG-PDA can be exponentially more succinct than DPDA, while PDA can be double-exponentially more succinct than GFG-PDA. We also study GFGness in visibly pushdown automata (VPA), which enjoy better closure properties than PDA, and for which we show GFGness to be ExpTime-complete. GFG-VPA can be exponentially more succinct than deterministic VPA, while VPA can be exponentially more succinct than GFG-VPA. Both of these lower bounds are tight. Finally, we study the complexity of resolving nondeterminism in GFG-PDA. Every GFG-PDA has a positional resolver, a function that resolves nondeterminism and that is only dependant on the current configuration. Pushdown transducers are sufficient to implement the resolvers of GFG-VPA, but not those of GFG-PDA. GFG-PDA with finite-state resolvers are determinisable.

Cite as

Shibashis Guha, Ismaël Jecker, Karoliina Lehtinen, and Martin Zimmermann. A Bit of Nondeterminism Makes Pushdown Automata Expressive and Succinct. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 53:1-53:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{guha_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.53,
  author =	{Guha, Shibashis and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Lehtinen, Karoliina and Zimmermann, Martin},
  title =	{{A Bit of Nondeterminism Makes Pushdown Automata Expressive and Succinct}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)},
  pages =	{53:1--53:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-201-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{202},
  editor =	{Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.53},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-144932},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.53},
  annote =	{Keywords: Pushdown Automata, Good-for-games, Synthesis, Succintness}
}
Document
Decomposing Permutation Automata

Authors: Ismaël Jecker, Nicolas Mazzocchi, and Petra Wolf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 203, 32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021)


Abstract
A deterministic finite automaton (DFA) 𝒜 is composite if its language L(𝒜) can be decomposed into an intersection ⋂_{i = 1}^k L(𝒜_i) of languages of smaller DFAs. Otherwise, 𝒜 is prime. This notion of primality was introduced by Kupferman and Mosheiff in 2013, and while they proved that we can decide whether a DFA is composite, the precise complexity of this problem is still open, with a doubly-exponential gap between the upper and lower bounds. In this work, we focus on permutation DFAs, i.e., those for which the transition monoid is a group. We provide an NP algorithm to decide whether a permutation DFA is composite, and show that the difficulty of this problem comes from the number of non-accepting states of the instance: we give a fixed-parameter tractable algorithm with the number of rejecting states as the parameter. Moreover, we investigate the class of commutative permutation DFAs. Their structural properties allow us to decide compositionality in NL, and even in LOGSPACE if the alphabet size is fixed. Despite this low complexity, we show that complex behaviors still arise in this class: we provide a family of composite DFAs each requiring polynomially many factors with respect to its size. We also consider the variant of the problem that asks whether a DFA is k-factor composite, that is, decomposable into k smaller DFAs, for some given integer k ∈ ℕ. We show that, for commutative permutation DFAs, restricting the number of factors makes the decision computationally harder, and yields a problem with tight bounds: it is NP-complete. Finally, we show that in general, this problem is in PSPACE, and it is in LOGSPACE for DFAs with a singleton alphabet.

Cite as

Ismaël Jecker, Nicolas Mazzocchi, and Petra Wolf. Decomposing Permutation Automata. In 32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 203, pp. 18:1-18:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{jecker_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.18,
  author =	{Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Mazzocchi, Nicolas and Wolf, Petra},
  title =	{{Decomposing Permutation Automata}},
  booktitle =	{32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-203-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{203},
  editor =	{Haddad, Serge and Varacca, Daniele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143956},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: Deterministic finite automata (DFA), Permutation automata, Commutative languages, Decomposition, Regular Languages, Primality}
}
Document
A Ramsey Theorem for Finite Monoids

Authors: Ismaël Jecker

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)


Abstract
Repeated idempotent elements are commonly used to characterise iterable behaviours in abstract models of computation. Therefore, given a monoid M, it is natural to ask how long a sequence of elements of M needs to be to ensure the presence of consecutive idempotent factors. This question is formalised through the notion of the Ramsey function R_M associated to M, obtained by mapping every k ∈ ℕ to the minimal integer R_M(k) such that every word u ∈ M^* of length R_M(k) contains k consecutive non-empty factors that correspond to the same idempotent element of M. In this work, we study the behaviour of the Ramsey function R_M by investigating the regular 𝒟-length of M, defined as the largest size L(M) of a submonoid of M isomorphic to the set of natural numbers {1,2, …, L(M)} equipped with the max operation. We show that the regular 𝒟-length of M determines the degree of R_M, by proving that k^L(M) ≤ R_M(k) ≤ (k|M|⁴)^L(M). To allow applications of this result, we provide the value of the regular 𝒟-length of diverse monoids. In particular, we prove that the full monoid of n × n Boolean matrices, which is used to express transition monoids of non-deterministic automata, has a regular 𝒟-length of (n²+n+2)/2.

Cite as

Ismaël Jecker. A Ramsey Theorem for Finite Monoids. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 44:1-44:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{jecker:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.44,
  author =	{Jecker, Isma\"{e}l},
  title =	{{A Ramsey Theorem for Finite Monoids}},
  booktitle =	{38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)},
  pages =	{44:1--44:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-180-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{187},
  editor =	{Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.44},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136890},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.44},
  annote =	{Keywords: Semigroup, monoid, idempotent, automaton}
}
Document
Invited Paper
A Survey of Bidding Games on Graphs (Invited Paper)

Authors: Guy Avni and Thomas A. Henzinger

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 171, 31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020)


Abstract
A graph game is a two-player zero-sum game in which the players move a token throughout a graph to produce an infinite path, which determines the winner or payoff of the game. In bidding games, both players have budgets, and in each turn, we hold an "auction" (bidding) to determine which player moves the token. In this survey, we consider several bidding mechanisms and study their effect on the properties of the game. Specifically, bidding games, and in particular bidding games of infinite duration, have an intriguing equivalence with random-turn games in which in each turn, the player who moves is chosen randomly. We show how minor changes in the bidding mechanism lead to unexpected differences in the equivalence with random-turn games.

Cite as

Guy Avni and Thomas A. Henzinger. A Survey of Bidding Games on Graphs (Invited Paper). In 31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 171, pp. 2:1-2:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{avni_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.2,
  author =	{Avni, Guy and Henzinger, Thomas A.},
  title =	{{A Survey of Bidding Games on Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{31st International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2020)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-160-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{171},
  editor =	{Konnov, Igor and Kov\'{a}cs, Laura},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128147},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2020.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Bidding games, Richman bidding, poorman bidding, mean-payoff, parity}
}
Document
Simplified Game of Life: Algorithms and Complexity

Authors: Krishnendu Chatterjee, Rasmus Ibsen-Jensen, Ismaël Jecker, and Jakub Svoboda

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)


Abstract
Game of Life is a simple and elegant model to study dynamical system over networks. The model consists of a graph where every vertex has one of two types, namely, dead or alive. A configuration is a mapping of the vertices to the types. An update rule describes how the type of a vertex is updated given the types of its neighbors. In every round, all vertices are updated synchronously, which leads to a configuration update. While in general, Game of Life allows a broad range of update rules, we focus on two simple families of update rules, namely, underpopulation and overpopulation, that model several interesting dynamics studied in the literature. In both settings, a dead vertex requires at least a desired number of live neighbors to become alive. For underpopulation (resp., overpopulation), a live vertex requires at least (resp. at most) a desired number of live neighbors to remain alive. We study the basic computation problems, e.g., configuration reachability, for these two families of rules. For underpopulation rules, we show that these problems can be solved in polynomial time, whereas for overpopulation rules they are PSPACE-complete.

Cite as

Krishnendu Chatterjee, Rasmus Ibsen-Jensen, Ismaël Jecker, and Jakub Svoboda. Simplified Game of Life: Algorithms and Complexity. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 22:1-22:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{chatterjee_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.22,
  author =	{Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus and Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Svoboda, Jakub},
  title =	{{Simplified Game of Life: Algorithms and Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-159-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{170},
  editor =	{Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126903},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: game of life, cellular automata, computational complexity, dynamical systems}
}
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