11 Search Results for "Okrasa, Karolina"


Document
Coloring and Recognizing Mixed Interval Graphs

Authors: Grzegorz Gutowski, Konstanty Junosza-Szaniawski, Felix Klesen, Paweł Rzążewski, Alexander Wolff, and Johannes Zink

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)


Abstract
A mixed interval graph is an interval graph that has, for every pair of intersecting intervals, either an arc (directed arbitrarily) or an (undirected) edge. We are particularly interested in scenarios where edges and arcs are defined by the geometry of intervals. In a proper coloring of a mixed interval graph G, an interval u receives a lower (different) color than an interval v if G contains arc (u,v) (edge {u,v}). Coloring of mixed graphs has applications, for example, in scheduling with precedence constraints; see a survey by Sotskov [Mathematics, 2020]. For coloring general mixed interval graphs, we present a min {ω(G), λ(G)+1}-approximation algorithm, where ω(G) is the size of a largest clique and λ(G) is the length of a longest directed path in G. For the subclass of bidirectional interval graphs (introduced recently for an application in graph drawing), we show that optimal coloring is NP-hard. This was known for general mixed interval graphs. We introduce a new natural class of mixed interval graphs, which we call containment interval graphs. In such a graph, there is an arc (u,v) if interval u contains interval v, and there is an edge {u,v} if u and v overlap. We show that these graphs can be recognized in polynomial time, that coloring them with the minimum number of colors is NP-hard, and that there is a 2-approximation algorithm for coloring.

Cite as

Grzegorz Gutowski, Konstanty Junosza-Szaniawski, Felix Klesen, Paweł Rzążewski, Alexander Wolff, and Johannes Zink. Coloring and Recognizing Mixed Interval Graphs. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 36:1-36:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{gutowski_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.36,
  author =	{Gutowski, Grzegorz and Junosza-Szaniawski, Konstanty and Klesen, Felix and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l} and Wolff, Alexander and Zink, Johannes},
  title =	{{Coloring and Recognizing Mixed Interval Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)},
  pages =	{36:1--36:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-289-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{283},
  editor =	{Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.36},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193388},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.36},
  annote =	{Keywords: Interval Graphs, Mixed Graphs, Graph Coloring}
}
Document
Computing Homomorphisms in Hereditary Graph Classes: The Peculiar Case of the 5-Wheel and Graphs with No Long Claws

Authors: Michał Dębski, Zbigniew Lonc, Karolina Okrasa, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)


Abstract
For graphs G and H, an H-coloring of G is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). In the H-Coloring problem the graph H is fixed and we ask whether an instance graph G admits an H-coloring. A generalization of this problem is H-ColoringExt, where some vertices of G are already mapped to vertices of H and we ask if this partial mapping can be extended to an H-coloring. We study the complexity of variants of H-Coloring in F-free graphs, i.e., graphs excluding a fixed graph F as an induced subgraph. For integers a,b,c ⩾ 1, by S_{a,b,c} we denote the graph obtained by identifying one endvertex of three paths on a+1, b+1, and c+1 vertices, respectively. For odd k ⩾ 5, by W_k we denote the graph obtained from the k-cycle by adding a universal vertex. As our main algorithmic result we show that W_5-ColoringExt is polynomial-time solvable in S_{2,1,1}-free graphs. This result exhibits an interesting non-monotonicity of H-ColoringExt with respect to taking induced subgraphs of H. Indeed, W_5 contains a triangle, and K_3-Coloring, i.e., classical 3-coloring, is NP-hard already in claw-free (i.e., S_{1,1,1}-free) graphs. Our algorithm is based on two main observations: 1) W_5-ColoringExt in S_{2,1,1}-free graphs can be in polynomial time reduced to a variant of the problem of finding an independent set intersecting all triangles, and 2) the latter problem can be solved in polynomial time in S_{2,1,1}-free graphs. We complement this algorithmic result with several negative ones. In particular, we show that W_5-Coloring is NP-hard in P_t-free graphs for some constant t and W_5-ColoringExt is NP-hard in S_{3,3,3}-free graphs of bounded degree. This is again uncommon, as usually problems that are NP-hard in S_{a,b,c}-free graphs for some constant a,b,c are already hard in claw-free graphs

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Michał Dębski, Zbigniew Lonc, Karolina Okrasa, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski. Computing Homomorphisms in Hereditary Graph Classes: The Peculiar Case of the 5-Wheel and Graphs with No Long Claws. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 14:1-14:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{debski_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.14,
  author =	{D\k{e}bski, Micha{\l} and Lonc, Zbigniew and Okrasa, Karolina and Piecyk, Marta and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Computing Homomorphisms in Hereditary Graph Classes: The Peculiar Case of the 5-Wheel and Graphs with No Long Claws}},
  booktitle =	{33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-258-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{248},
  editor =	{Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172996},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph homomorphism, forbidden induced subgraphs, precoloring extension}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
The Fine-Grained Complexity of Graph Homomorphism Parameterized by Clique-Width

Authors: Robert Ganian, Thekla Hamm, Viktoriia Korchemna, Karolina Okrasa, and Kirill Simonov

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
The generic homomorphism problem, which asks whether an input graph G admits a homomorphism into a fixed target graph H, has been widely studied in the literature. In this article, we provide a fine-grained complexity classification of the running time of the homomorphism problem with respect to the clique-width of G (denoted cw) for virtually all choices of H under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. In particular, we identify a property of H called the signature number s(H) and show that for each H, the homomorphism problem can be solved in time O^*(s(H)^cw). Crucially, we then show that this algorithm can be used to obtain essentially tight upper bounds. Specifically, we provide a reduction that yields matching lower bounds for each H that is either a projective core or a graph admitting a factorization with additional properties - allowing us to cover all possible target graphs under long-standing conjectures.

Cite as

Robert Ganian, Thekla Hamm, Viktoriia Korchemna, Karolina Okrasa, and Kirill Simonov. The Fine-Grained Complexity of Graph Homomorphism Parameterized by Clique-Width. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 66:1-66:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{ganian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.66,
  author =	{Ganian, Robert and Hamm, Thekla and Korchemna, Viktoriia and Okrasa, Karolina and Simonov, Kirill},
  title =	{{The Fine-Grained Complexity of Graph Homomorphism Parameterized by Clique-Width}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{66:1--66:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.66},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164076},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.66},
  annote =	{Keywords: homomorphism, clique-width, fine-grained complexity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Max Weight Independent Set in Graphs with No Long Claws: An Analog of the Gyárfás' Path Argument

Authors: Konrad Majewski, Tomáš Masařík, Jana Novotná, Karolina Okrasa, Marcin Pilipczuk, Paweł Rzążewski, and Marek Sokołowski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
We revisit recent developments for the Maximum Weight Independent Set problem in graphs excluding a subdivided claw S_{t,t,t} as an induced subgraph [Chudnovsky, Pilipczuk, Pilipczuk, Thomassé, SODA 2020] and provide a subexponential-time algorithm with improved running time 2^𝒪(√nlog n) and a quasipolynomial-time approximation scheme with improved running time 2^𝒪(ε^{-1} log⁵ n). The Gyárfás' path argument, a powerful tool that is the main building block for many algorithms in P_t-free graphs, ensures that given an n-vertex P_t-free graph, in polynomial time we can find a set P of at most t-1 vertices, such that every connected component of G-N[P] has at most n/2 vertices. Our main technical contribution is an analog of this result for S_{t,t,t}-free graphs: given an n-vertex S_{t,t,t}-free graph, in polynomial time we can find a set P of 𝒪(t log n) vertices and an extended strip decomposition (an appropriate analog of the decomposition into connected components) of G-N[P] such that every particle (an appropriate analog of a connected component to recurse on) of the said extended strip decomposition has at most n/2 vertices.

Cite as

Konrad Majewski, Tomáš Masařík, Jana Novotná, Karolina Okrasa, Marcin Pilipczuk, Paweł Rzążewski, and Marek Sokołowski. Max Weight Independent Set in Graphs with No Long Claws: An Analog of the Gyárfás' Path Argument. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 93:1-93:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{majewski_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.93,
  author =	{Majewski, Konrad and Masa\v{r}{\'\i}k, Tom\'{a}\v{s} and Novotn\'{a}, Jana and Okrasa, Karolina and Pilipczuk, Marcin and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l} and Soko{\l}owski, Marek},
  title =	{{Max Weight Independent Set in Graphs with No Long Claws: An Analog of the Gy\'{a}rf\'{a}s' Path Argument}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{93:1--93:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.93},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164343},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.93},
  annote =	{Keywords: Max Independent Set, subdivided claw, QPTAS, subexponential-time algorithm}
}
Document
Complexity of the List Homomorphism Problem in Hereditary Graph Classes

Authors: Karolina Okrasa and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)


Abstract
A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). For a fixed graph H, in the list homomorphism problem, denoted by LHom(H), we are given a graph G, whose every vertex v is equipped with a list L(v) ⊆ V(H). We ask if there exists a homomorphism f from G to H, in which f(v) ∈ L(v) for every v ∈ V(G). Feder, Hell, and Huang [JGT 2003] proved that LHom(H) is polynomial time-solvable if H is a so-called bi-arc-graph, and NP-complete otherwise. We are interested in the complexity of the LHom(H) problem in F-free graphs, i.e., graphs excluding a copy of some fixed graph F as an induced subgraph. It is known that if F is connected and is not a path nor a subdivided claw, then for every non-bi-arc graph the LHom(H) problem is NP-complete and cannot be solved in subexponential time, unless the ETH fails. We consider the remaining cases for connected graphs F. If F is a path, we exhibit a full dichotomy. We define a class called predacious graphs and show that if H is not predacious, then for every fixed t the LHom(H) problem can be solved in quasi-polynomial time in P_t-free graphs. On the other hand, if H is predacious, then there exists t, such that the existence of a subexponential-time algorithm for LHom(H) in P_t-free graphs would violate the ETH. If F is a subdivided claw, we show a full dichotomy in two important cases: for H being irreflexive (i.e., with no loops), and for H being reflexive (i.e., where every vertex has a loop). Unless the ETH fails, for irreflexive H the LHom(H) problem can be solved in subexponential time in graphs excluding a fixed subdivided claw if and only if H is non-predacious and triangle-free. On the other hand, if H is reflexive, then LHom(H) cannot be solved in subexponential time whenever H is not a bi-arc graph.

Cite as

Karolina Okrasa and Paweł Rzążewski. Complexity of the List Homomorphism Problem in Hereditary Graph Classes. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 54:1-54:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{okrasa_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.54,
  author =	{Okrasa, Karolina and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Complexity of the List Homomorphism Problem in Hereditary Graph Classes}},
  booktitle =	{38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)},
  pages =	{54:1--54:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-180-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{187},
  editor =	{Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.54},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136990},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.54},
  annote =	{Keywords: list homomorphism, fine-grained complexity, hereditary graph classes}
}
Document
Fine-Grained Complexity of the List Homomorphism Problem: Feedback Vertex Set and Cutwidth

Authors: Marta Piecyk and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)


Abstract
For graphs G,H, a homomorphism from G to H is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). In the list homomorphism problem, denoted by LHom(H), we are given a graph G, whose every vertex v is equipped with a list L(v) ⊆ V(H), and we need to determine whether there exists a homomorphism from G to H which additionally respects the lists L. List homomorphisms are a natural generalization of (list) colorings. Very recently Okrasa, Piecyk, and Rzążewski [ESA 2020] studied the fine-grained complexity of the problem, parameterized by the treewidth of the instance graph G. They defined a new invariant i^*(H), and proved that for every relevant graph H, i.e., such that LHom(H) is NP-hard, this invariant is the correct base of the exponent in the running time of any algorithm solving the LHom(H) problem. In this paper we continue this direction and study the complexity of the problem under different parameterizations. As the first result, we show that i^*(H) is also the right complexity base if the parameter is the size of a minimum feedback vertex set of G, denoted by fvs(G). In particular, for every relevant graph H, the LHom(H) problem - can be solved in time i^*(H)^fvs(G) ⋅ |V(G)|^𝒪(1), if a minimum feedback vertex set of G is given, - cannot be solved in time (i^*(H) - ε)^fvs(G) ⋅ |V(G)|^𝒪(1), for any ε > 0, unless the SETH fails. Then we turn our attention to a parameterization by the cutwidth ctw(G) of G. Jansen and Nederlof [TCS 2019] showed that List k-Coloring (i.e., LHom(K_k)) can be solved in time c^ctw(G) ⋅ |V(G)|^𝒪(1) for an absolute constant c, i.e., the base of the exponential function does not depend on the number of colors. Jansen asked whether this behavior extends to graph homomorphisms. As the main result of the paper, we answer the question in the negative. We define a new graph invariant mim^*(H), closely related to the size of a maximum induced matching in H, and prove that for all relevant graphs H, the LHom(H) problem cannot be solved in time (mim^*(H)-ε)^{ctw(G)}⋅ |V(G)|^𝒪(1) for any ε > 0, unless the SETH fails. In particular, this implies that, assuming the SETH, there is no constant c, such that for every odd cycle the non-list version of the problem can be solved in time c^ctw(G) ⋅ |V(G)|^𝒪(1).

Cite as

Marta Piecyk and Paweł Rzążewski. Fine-Grained Complexity of the List Homomorphism Problem: Feedback Vertex Set and Cutwidth. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 56:1-56:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{piecyk_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.56,
  author =	{Piecyk, Marta and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Fine-Grained Complexity of the List Homomorphism Problem: Feedback Vertex Set and Cutwidth}},
  booktitle =	{38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)},
  pages =	{56:1--56:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-180-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{187},
  editor =	{Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.56},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-137012},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.56},
  annote =	{Keywords: list homomorphisms, fine-grained complexity, SETH, feedback vertex set, cutwidth}
}
Document
Vertex Deletion into Bipartite Permutation Graphs

Authors: Łukasz Bożyk, Jan Derbisz, Tomasz Krawczyk, Jana Novotná, and Karolina Okrasa

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 180, 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)


Abstract
A permutation graph can be defined as an intersection graph of segments whose endpoints lie on two parallel lines 𝓁₁ and 𝓁₂, one on each. A bipartite permutation graph is a permutation graph which is bipartite. In this paper we study the parameterized complexity of the bipartite permutation vertex deletion problem, which asks, for a given n-vertex graph, whether we can remove at most k vertices to obtain a bipartite permutation graph. This problem is NP-complete by the classical result of Lewis and Yannakakis [John M. Lewis and Mihalis Yannakakis, 1980]. We analyze the structure of the so-called almost bipartite permutation graphs which may contain holes (large induced cycles) in contrast to bipartite permutation graphs. We exploit the structural properties of the shortest hole in a such graph. We use it to obtain an algorithm for the bipartite permutation vertex deletion problem with running time f(k)n^O(1), and also give a polynomial-time 9-approximation algorithm.

Cite as

Łukasz Bożyk, Jan Derbisz, Tomasz Krawczyk, Jana Novotná, and Karolina Okrasa. Vertex Deletion into Bipartite Permutation Graphs. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 5:1-5:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{bozyk_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.5,
  author =	{Bo\.{z}yk, {\L}ukasz and Derbisz, Jan and Krawczyk, Tomasz and Novotn\'{a}, Jana and Okrasa, Karolina},
  title =	{{Vertex Deletion into Bipartite Permutation Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-172-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{180},
  editor =	{Cao, Yixin and Pilipczuk, Marcin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133087},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: permutation graphs, comparability graphs, partially ordered set, graph modification problems}
}
Document
Sparsification Lower Bounds for List H-Coloring

Authors: Hubie Chen, Bart M. P. Jansen, Karolina Okrasa, Astrid Pieterse, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)


Abstract
We investigate the List H-Coloring problem, the generalization of graph coloring that asks whether an input graph G admits a homomorphism to the undirected graph H (possibly with loops), such that each vertex v ∈ V(G) is mapped to a vertex on its list L(v) ⊆ V(H). An important result by Feder, Hell, and Huang [JGT 2003] states that List H-Coloring is polynomial-time solvable if H is a so-called bi-arc graph, and NP-complete otherwise. We investigate the NP-complete cases of the problem from the perspective of polynomial-time sparsification: can an n-vertex instance be efficiently reduced to an equivalent instance of bitsize 𝒪(n^(2-ε)) for some ε > 0? We prove that if H is not a bi-arc graph, then List H-Coloring does not admit such a sparsification algorithm unless NP ⊆ coNP/poly. Our proofs combine techniques from kernelization lower bounds with a study of the structure of graphs H which are not bi-arc graphs.

Cite as

Hubie Chen, Bart M. P. Jansen, Karolina Okrasa, Astrid Pieterse, and Paweł Rzążewski. Sparsification Lower Bounds for List H-Coloring. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 58:1-58:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.58,
  author =	{Chen, Hubie and Jansen, Bart M. P. and Okrasa, Karolina and Pieterse, Astrid and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Sparsification Lower Bounds for List H-Coloring}},
  booktitle =	{31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)},
  pages =	{58:1--58:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-173-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{181},
  editor =	{Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.58},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134027},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.58},
  annote =	{Keywords: List H-Coloring, Sparsification, Constraint Satisfaction Problem}
}
Document
The Complexity of Connectivity Problems in Forbidden-Transition Graphs And Edge-Colored Graphs

Authors: Thomas Bellitto, Shaohua Li, Karolina Okrasa, Marcin Pilipczuk, and Manuel Sorge

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)


Abstract
The notion of forbidden-transition graphs allows for a robust generalization of walks in graphs. In a forbidden-transition graph, every pair of edges incident to a common vertex is permitted or forbidden; a walk is compatible if all pairs of consecutive edges on the walk are permitted. Forbidden-transition graphs and related models have found applications in a variety of fields, such as routing in optical telecommunication networks, road networks, and bio-informatics. We initiate the study of fundamental connectivity problems from the point of view of parameterized complexity, including an in-depth study of tractability with regards to various graph-width parameters. Among several results, we prove that finding a simple compatible path between given endpoints in a forbidden-transition graph is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the vertex-deletion distance to a linear forest (so it is also hard when parameterized by pathwidth or treewidth). On the other hand, we show an algebraic trick that yields tractability when parameterized by treewidth of finding a properly colored Hamiltonian cycle in an edge-colored graph; properly colored walks in edge-colored graphs is one of the most studied special cases of compatible walks in forbidden-transition graphs.

Cite as

Thomas Bellitto, Shaohua Li, Karolina Okrasa, Marcin Pilipczuk, and Manuel Sorge. The Complexity of Connectivity Problems in Forbidden-Transition Graphs And Edge-Colored Graphs. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 59:1-59:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{bellitto_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.59,
  author =	{Bellitto, Thomas and Li, Shaohua and Okrasa, Karolina and Pilipczuk, Marcin and Sorge, Manuel},
  title =	{{The Complexity of Connectivity Problems in Forbidden-Transition Graphs And Edge-Colored Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)},
  pages =	{59:1--59:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-173-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{181},
  editor =	{Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.59},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134036},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.59},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph algorithms, fixed-parameter tractability, parameterized complexity}
}
Document
Full Complexity Classification of the List Homomorphism Problem for Bounded-Treewidth Graphs

Authors: Karolina Okrasa, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)


Abstract
A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). Let H be a fixed graph with possible loops. In the list homomorphism problem, denoted by LHom(H), we are given a graph G, whose every vertex v is assigned with a list L(v) of vertices of H. We ask whether there exists a homomorphism h from G to H, which respects lists L, i.e., for every v ∈ V(G) it holds that h(v) ∈ L(v). The complexity dichotomy for LHom(H) was proven by Feder, Hell, and Huang [JGT 2003]. The authors showed that the problem is polynomial-time solvable if H belongs to the class called bi-arc graphs, and for all other graphs H it is NP-complete. We are interested in the complexity of the LHom(H) problem, parameterized by the treewidth of the input graph. This problem was investigated by Egri, Marx, and Rzążewski [STACS 2018], who obtained tight complexity bounds for the special case of reflexive graphs H, i.e., if every vertex has a loop. In this paper we extend and generalize their results for all relevant graphs H, i.e., those, for which the LHom(H) problem is NP-hard. For every such H we find a constant k = k(H), such that the LHom(H) problem on instances G with n vertices and treewidth t - can be solved in time k^t ⋅ n^𝒪(1), provided that G is given along with a tree decomposition of width t, - cannot be solved in time (k-ε)^t ⋅ n^𝒪(1), for any ε > 0, unless the SETH fails. For some graphs H the value of k(H) is much smaller than the trivial upper bound, i.e., |V(H)|. Obtaining matching upper and lower bounds shows that the set of algorithmic tools that we have discovered cannot be extended in order to obtain faster algorithms for LHom(H) in bounded-treewidth graphs. Furthermore, neither the algorithm, nor the proof of the lower bound, is very specific to treewidth. We believe that they can be used for other variants of the LHom(H) problem, e.g. with different parameterizations.

Cite as

Karolina Okrasa, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski. Full Complexity Classification of the List Homomorphism Problem for Bounded-Treewidth Graphs. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 74:1-74:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{okrasa_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.74,
  author =	{Okrasa, Karolina and Piecyk, Marta and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Full Complexity Classification of the List Homomorphism Problem for Bounded-Treewidth Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)},
  pages =	{74:1--74:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-162-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{173},
  editor =	{Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.74},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129402},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.74},
  annote =	{Keywords: list homomorphisms, fine-grained complexity, SETH, treewidth}
}
Document
Subexponential-Time Algorithms for Finding Large Induced Sparse Subgraphs

Authors: Jana Novotná, Karolina Okrasa, Michał Pilipczuk, Paweł Rzążewski, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Bartosz Walczak

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)


Abstract
Let C and D be hereditary graph classes. Consider the following problem: given a graph G in D, find a largest, in terms of the number of vertices, induced subgraph of G that belongs to C. We prove that it can be solved in 2^{o(n)} time, where n is the number of vertices of G, if the following conditions are satisfied: - the graphs in C are sparse, i.e., they have linearly many edges in terms of the number of vertices; - the graphs in D admit balanced separators of size governed by their density, e.g., O(Delta) or O(sqrt{m}), where Delta and m denote the maximum degree and the number of edges, respectively; and - the considered problem admits a single-exponential fixed-parameter algorithm when parameterized by the treewidth of the input graph. This leads, for example, to the following corollaries for specific classes C and D: - a largest induced forest in a P_t-free graph can be found in 2^{O~(n^{2/3})} time, for every fixed t; and - a largest induced planar graph in a string graph can be found in 2^{O~(n^{3/4})} time.

Cite as

Jana Novotná, Karolina Okrasa, Michał Pilipczuk, Paweł Rzążewski, Erik Jan van Leeuwen, and Bartosz Walczak. Subexponential-Time Algorithms for Finding Large Induced Sparse Subgraphs. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 23:1-23:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{novotna_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.23,
  author =	{Novotn\'{a}, Jana and Okrasa, Karolina and Pilipczuk, Micha{\l} and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l} and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan and Walczak, Bartosz},
  title =	{{Subexponential-Time Algorithms for Finding Large Induced Sparse Subgraphs}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-129-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{148},
  editor =	{Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114845},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: subexponential algorithm, feedback vertex set, P\underlinet-free graphs, string graphs}
}
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