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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We consider the design of sublinear space and query complexity algorithms for estimating the cost of a minimum spanning tree (MST) and the cost of a minimum traveling salesman (TSP) tour in a metric on n points. We start by exploring this estimation task in the regime of o(n) space, when the input is presented as a stream of all binom(n,2) entries of the metric in an arbitrary order (a metric stream). For any α ≥ 2, we show that both MST and TSP cost can be α-approximated using Õ(n/α) space, and moreover, Ω(n/α²) space is necessary for this task. We further show that even if the streaming algorithm is allowed p passes over a metric stream, it still requires Ω̃(√{n/α p²}) space.
We next consider the well-studied semi-streaming regime. In this regime, it is straightforward to compute MST cost exactly even in the case where the input stream only contains the edges of a weighted graph that induce the underlying metric (a graph stream), and the main challenging problem is to estimate TSP cost to within a factor that is strictly better than 2. We show that in graph streams, for any ε > 0, any one-pass (2-ε)-approximation of TSP cost requires Ω(ε² n²) space. On the other hand, we show that there is an Õ(n) space two-pass algorithm that approximates the TSP cost to within a factor of 1.96.
Finally, we consider the query complexity of estimating metric TSP cost to within a factor that is strictly better than 2 when the algorithm is given access to an n × n matrix that specifies pairwise distances between n points. The problem of MST cost estimation in this model is well-understood and a (1+ε)-approximation is achievable by Õ(n/ε^{O(1)}) queries. However, for estimating TSP cost, it is known that an analogous result requires Ω(n²) queries even for (1,2)-TSP, and for general metrics, no algorithm that achieves a better than 2-approximation with o(n²) queries is known. We make progress on this task by designing an algorithm that performs Õ(n^{1.5}) distance queries and achieves a strictly better than 2-approximation when either the metric is known to contain a spanning tree supported on weight-1 edges or the algorithm is given access to a minimum spanning tree of the graph. Prior to our work, such results were only known for the special cases of graphic TSP and (1,2)-TSP.
In terms of techniques, our algorithms for metric TSP cost estimation in both streaming and query settings rely on estimating the cover advantage which intuitively measures the cost needed to turn an MST into an Eulerian graph. One of our main algorithmic contributions is to show that this quantity can be meaningfully estimated by a sublinear number of queries in the query model. On one hand, the fact that a metric stream reveals pairwise distances for all pairs of vertices provably helps algorithmically. On the other hand, it also seems to render useless techniques for proving space lower bounds via reductions from well-known hard communication problems. Our main technical contribution in lower bounds is to identify and characterize the communication complexity of new problems that can serve as canonical starting point for proving metric stream lower bounds.

Yu Chen, Sanjeev Khanna, and Zihan Tan. Sublinear Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Estimating MST and TSP Cost in General Metrics. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 37:1-37:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.37, author = {Chen, Yu and Khanna, Sanjeev and Tan, Zihan}, title = {{Sublinear Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Estimating MST and TSP Cost in General Metrics}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {37:1--37:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.37}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180892}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.37}, annote = {Keywords: Minimum spanning tree, travelling salesman problem, streaming algorithms} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

The problem of sparsifying a graph or a hypergraph while approximately preserving its cut structure has been extensively studied and has many applications. In a seminal work, Benczúr and Karger (1996) showed that given any n-vertex undirected weighted graph G and a parameter ε ∈ (0,1), there is a near-linear time algorithm that outputs a weighted subgraph G' of G of size Õ(n/ε²) such that the weight of every cut in G is preserved to within a (1 ± ε)-factor in G'. The graph G' is referred to as a (1 ± ε)-approximate cut sparsifier of G. Subsequent recent work has obtained a similar result for the more general problem of hypergraph cut sparsifiers. However, all known sparsification algorithms require Ω(n + m) time where n denotes the number of vertices and m denotes the number of hyperedges in the hypergraph. Since m can be exponentially large in n, a natural question is if it is possible to create a hypergraph cut sparsifier in time polynomial in n, independent of the number of edges. We resolve this question in the affirmative, giving the first sublinear time algorithm for this problem, given appropriate query access to the hypergraph.
Specifically, we design an algorithm that constructs a (1 ± ε)-approximate cut sparsifier of a hypergraph H(V,E) in polynomial time in n, independent of the number of hyperedges, when given access to the hypergraph using the following two queries:
1) given any cut (S, ̄S), return the size |δ_E(S)| (cut value queries); and
2) given any cut (S, ̄S), return a uniformly at random edge crossing the cut (cut edge sample queries). Our algorithm outputs a sparsifier with Õ(n/ε²) edges, which is essentially optimal. We then extend our results to show that cut value and cut edge sample queries can also be used to construct hypergraph spectral sparsifiers in poly(n) time, independent of the number of hyperedges.
We complement the algorithmic results above by showing that any algorithm that has access to only one of the above two types of queries can not give a hypergraph cut sparsifier in time that is polynomial in n. Finally, we show that our algorithmic results also hold if we replace the cut edge sample queries with a pair neighbor sample query that for any pair of vertices, returns a random edge incident on them. In contrast, we show that having access only to cut value queries and queries that return a random edge incident on a given single vertex, is not sufficient.

Yu Chen, Sanjeev Khanna, and Ansh Nagda. Sublinear Time Hypergraph Sparsification via Cut and Edge Sampling Queries. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 53:1-53:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.53, author = {Chen, Yu and Khanna, Sanjeev and Nagda, Ansh}, title = {{Sublinear Time Hypergraph Sparsification via Cut and Edge Sampling Queries}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {53:1--53:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141227}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.53}, annote = {Keywords: hypergraphs, graph sparsification, cut queries} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We consider the problem of designing sublinear time algorithms for estimating the cost of minimum metric traveling salesman (TSP) tour. Specifically, given access to a n × n distance matrix D that specifies pairwise distances between n points, the goal is to estimate the TSP cost by performing only sublinear (in the size of D) queries. For the closely related problem of estimating the weight of a metric minimum spanning tree (MST), it is known that for any ε > 0, there exists an Õ(n/ε^O(1)) time algorithm that returns a (1 + ε)-approximate estimate of the MST cost. This result immediately implies an Õ(n/ε^O(1)) time algorithm to estimate the TSP cost to within a (2 + ε) factor for any ε > 0. However, no o(n²) time algorithms are known to approximate metric TSP to a factor that is strictly better than 2. On the other hand, there were also no known barriers that rule out existence of (1 + ε)-approximate estimation algorithms for metric TSP with Õ(n) time for any fixed ε > 0. In this paper, we make progress on both algorithms and lower bounds for estimating metric TSP cost.
On the algorithmic side, we first consider the graphic TSP problem where the metric D corresponds to shortest path distances in a connected unweighted undirected graph. We show that there exists an Õ(n) time algorithm that estimates the cost of graphic TSP to within a factor of (2-ε₀) for some ε₀ > 0. This is the first sublinear cost estimation algorithm for graphic TSP that achieves an approximation factor less than 2. We also consider another well-studied special case of metric TSP, namely, (1,2)-TSP where all distances are either 1 or 2, and give an Õ(n^1.5) time algorithm to estimate optimal cost to within a factor of 1.625. Our estimation algorithms for graphic TSP as well as for (1,2)-TSP naturally lend themselves to Õ(n) space streaming algorithms that give an 11/6-approximation for graphic TSP and a 1.625-approximation for (1,2)-TSP. These results motivate the natural question if analogously to metric MST, for any ε > 0, (1 + ε)-approximate estimates can be obtained for graphic TSP and (1,2)-TSP using Õ(n) queries. We answer this question in the negative - there exists an ε₀ > 0, such that any algorithm that estimates the cost of graphic TSP ((1,2)-TSP) to within a (1 + ε₀)-factor, necessarily requires Ω(n²) queries. This lower bound result highlights a sharp separation between the metric MST and metric TSP problems.
Similarly to many classical approximation algorithms for TSP, our sublinear time estimation algorithms utilize subroutines for estimating the size of a maximum matching in the underlying graph. We show that this is not merely an artifact of our approach, and that for any ε > 0, any algorithm that estimates the cost of graphic TSP or (1,2)-TSP to within a (1 + ε)-factor, can also be used to estimate the size of a maximum matching in a bipartite graph to within an ε n additive error. This connection allows us to translate known lower bounds for matching size estimation in various models to similar lower bounds for metric TSP cost estimation.

Yu Chen, Sampath Kannan, and Sanjeev Khanna. Sublinear Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Metric TSP Cost Estimation. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 30:1-30:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.30, author = {Chen, Yu and Kannan, Sampath and Khanna, Sanjeev}, title = {{Sublinear Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Metric TSP Cost Estimation}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {30:1--30:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124372}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.30}, annote = {Keywords: sublinear algorithms, TSP, streaming algorithms, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 155, 23rd International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2020)

Computing joins is expensive, and often unnecessary when the output size is large. In 1999, Chaudhuri et al. [Surajit Chaudhuri et al., 1999] posed the problem of random sampling over joins as a potentially effective approach to avoiding computing the join in full, while obtaining important statistical information about the join results. Unfortunately, no significant progress has been made in the last 20 years, except for the case of acyclic joins. In this paper, we present the first non-trivial result on sampling over cyclic joins. We show that after a linear-time preprocessing step, a join result can be drawn uniformly at random in expected time O(IN^ρ/OUT), where IN^ρ is known as the AGM bound of the join and OUT is its output size. This result holds for all joins on binary relations, as well as certain joins on relations of higher arity. We further show how this algorithm immediately leads to a join size estimation algorithm with the same running time.

Yu Chen and Ke Yi. Random Sampling and Size Estimation Over Cyclic Joins. In 23rd International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 155, pp. 7:1-7:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICDT.2020.7, author = {Chen, Yu and Yi, Ke}, title = {{Random Sampling and Size Estimation Over Cyclic Joins}}, booktitle = {23rd International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-139-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {155}, editor = {Lutz, Carsten and Jung, Jean Christoph}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-119315}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICDT.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Random sampling, joins, join size estimation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 4, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (2009)

We propose a new approach for minimizing alternating B\"uchi automata (ABA). The approach is based on the so called \emph{mediated equivalence} on states of ABA, which is the maximal equivalence contained in the so called \emph{mediated preorder}. Two states $p$ and $q$ can be related by the mediated preorder if there is a~\emph{mediator} (mediating state) which forward simulates $p$ and backward simulates $q$. Under some further conditions, letting a computation on some word jump from $q$ to $p$ (due to they get collapsed) preserves the language as the automaton can anyway already accept the word without jumps by runs through the mediator. We further show how the mediated equivalence can be computed efficiently. Finally, we show that, compared to the standard forward simulation equivalence, the mediated equivalence can yield much more significant reductions when applied within the process of complementing B\"uchi automata where ABA are used as an intermediate model.

Parosh A. Abdulla, Yu-Fang Chen, Lukas Holik, and Tomas Vojnar. Mediating for Reduction (on Minimizing Alternating Büchi Automata). In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 4, pp. 1-12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)

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@InProceedings{abdulla_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2009.2302, author = {Abdulla, Parosh A. and Chen, Yu-Fang and Holik, Lukas and Vojnar, Tomas}, title = {{Mediating for Reduction (on Minimizing Alternating B\"{u}chi Automata)}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science}, pages = {1--12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-13-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2009}, volume = {4}, editor = {Kannan, Ravi and Narayan Kumar, K.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2009.2302}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-23027}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2009.2302}, annote = {Keywords: Alternating Automata, Buchi Automata, Automata Minimization, Buchi Automata Complementation, Simulation Preorder, forward and backward simulation, mediated equivalence} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We study the time complexity of the discrete k-center problem and related (exact) geometric set cover problems when k or the size of the cover is small. We obtain a plethora of new results:
- We give the first subquadratic algorithm for rectilinear discrete 3-center in 2D, running in Õ(n^{3/2}) time.
- We prove a lower bound of Ω(n^{4/3-δ}) for rectilinear discrete 3-center in 4D, for any constant δ > 0, under a standard hypothesis about triangle detection in sparse graphs.
- Given n points and n weighted axis-aligned unit squares in 2D, we give the first subquadratic algorithm for finding a minimum-weight cover of the points by 3 unit squares, running in Õ(n^{8/5}) time. We also prove a lower bound of Ω(n^{3/2-δ}) for the same problem in 2D, under the well-known APSP Hypothesis. For arbitrary axis-aligned rectangles in 2D, our upper bound is Õ(n^{7/4}).
- We prove a lower bound of Ω(n^{2-δ}) for Euclidean discrete 2-center in 13D, under the Hyperclique Hypothesis. This lower bound nearly matches the straightforward upper bound of Õ(n^ω), if the matrix multiplication exponent ω is equal to 2.
- We similarly prove an Ω(n^{k-δ}) lower bound for Euclidean discrete k-center in O(k) dimensions for any constant k ≥ 3, under the Hyperclique Hypothesis. This lower bound again nearly matches known upper bounds if ω = 2.
- We also prove an Ω(n^{2-δ}) lower bound for the problem of finding 2 boxes to cover the largest number of points, given n points and n boxes in 12D . This matches the straightforward near-quadratic upper bound.

Timothy M. Chan, Qizheng He, and Yuancheng Yu. On the Fine-Grained Complexity of Small-Size Geometric Set Cover and Discrete k-Center for Small k. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 34:1-34:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.34, author = {Chan, Timothy M. and He, Qizheng and Yu, Yuancheng}, title = {{On the Fine-Grained Complexity of Small-Size Geometric Set Cover and Discrete k-Center for Small k}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {34:1--34:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180868}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.34}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric set cover, discrete k-center, conditional lower bounds} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We study fundamental graph parameters such as the Diameter and Radius in directed graphs, when distances are measured using a somewhat unorthodox but natural measure: the distance between u and v is the minimum of the shortest path distances from u to v and from v to u. The center node in a graph under this measure can for instance represent the optimal location for a hospital to ensure the fastest medical care for everyone, as one can either go to the hospital, or a doctor can be sent to help.
By computing All-Pairs Shortest Paths, all pairwise distances and thus the parameters we study can be computed exactly in O~(mn) time for directed graphs on n vertices, m edges and nonnegative edge weights. Furthermore, this time bound is tight under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis [Roditty-Vassilevska W. STOC 2013] so it is natural to study how well these parameters can be approximated in O(mn^{1-epsilon}) time for constant epsilon>0. Abboud, Vassilevska Williams, and Wang [SODA 2016] gave a polynomial factor approximation for Diameter and Radius, as well as a constant factor approximation for both problems in the special case where the graph is a DAG. We greatly improve upon these bounds by providing the first constant factor approximations for Diameter, Radius and the related Eccentricities problem in general graphs. Additionally, we provide a hierarchy of algorithms for Diameter that gives a time/accuracy trade-off.

Mina Dalirrooyfard, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Nikhil Vyas, Nicole Wein, Yinzhan Xu, and Yuancheng Yu. Approximation Algorithms for Min-Distance Problems. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 46:1-46:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dalirrooyfard_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.46, author = {Dalirrooyfard, Mina and Williams, Virginia Vassilevska and Vyas, Nikhil and Wein, Nicole and Xu, Yinzhan and Yu, Yuancheng}, title = {{Approximation Algorithms for Min-Distance Problems}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {46:1--46:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106223}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.46}, annote = {Keywords: fine-grained complexity, graph algorithms, diameter, radius, eccentricities} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 101, 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)

Since the introduction of retroactive data structures at SODA 2004, a major unsolved problem has been to bound the gap between the best partially retroactive data structure (where changes can be made to the past, but only the present can be queried) and the best fully retroactive data structure (where the past can also be queried) for any problem. It was proved in 2004 that any partially retroactive data structure with operation time T_{op}(n,m) can be transformed into a fully retroactive data structure with operation time O(sqrt{m} * T_{op}(n,m)), where n is the size of the data structure and m is the number of operations in the timeline [Demaine et al., 2004]. But it has been open for 14 years whether such a gap is necessary.
In this paper, we prove nearly matching upper and lower bounds on this gap for all n and m. We improve the upper bound for n << sqrt m by showing a new transformation with multiplicative overhead n log m. We then prove a lower bound of min {n log m, sqrt m}^{1-o(1)} assuming any of the following conjectures:
- Conjecture I: Circuit SAT requires 2^{n - o(n)} time on n-input circuits of size 2^{o(n)}. This conjecture is far weaker than the well-believed SETH conjecture from complexity theory, which asserts that CNF SAT with n variables and O(n) clauses already requires 2^{n-o(n)} time.
- Conjecture II: Online (min,+) product between an integer n x n matrix and n vectors requires n^{3 - o(1)} time. This conjecture is weaker than the APSP conjectures widely used in fine-grained complexity.
- Conjecture III (3-SUM Conjecture): Given three sets A,B,C of integers, each of size n, deciding whether there exist a in A, b in B, c in C such that a + b + c = 0 requires n^{2 - o(1)} time. This 1995 conjecture [Anka Gajentaan and Mark H. Overmars, 1995] was the first conjecture in fine-grained complexity.
Our lower bound construction illustrates an interesting power of fully retroactive queries: they can be used to quickly solve batched pair evaluation. We believe this technique can prove useful for other data structure lower bounds, especially dynamic ones.

Lijie Chen, Erik D. Demaine, Yuzhou Gu, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Yinzhan Xu, and Yuancheng Yu. Nearly Optimal Separation Between Partially and Fully Retroactive Data Structures. In 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 101, pp. 33:1-33:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.33, author = {Chen, Lijie and Demaine, Erik D. and Gu, Yuzhou and Williams, Virginia Vassilevska and Xu, Yinzhan and Yu, Yuancheng}, title = {{Nearly Optimal Separation Between Partially and Fully Retroactive Data Structures}}, booktitle = {16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)}, pages = {33:1--33:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-068-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {101}, editor = {Eppstein, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88593}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.33}, annote = {Keywords: retroactive data structure, conditional lower bound} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

We prove the first polynomial separation between randomized and deterministic time-space tradeoffs of multi-output functions. In particular, we present a total function that on the input of n elements in [n], outputs O(n) elements, such that:
- There exists a randomized oblivious algorithm with space O(log n), time O(nlog n) and one-way access to randomness, that computes the function with probability 1-O(1/n);
- Any deterministic oblivious branching program with space S and time T that computes the function must satisfy T²S ≥ Ω(n^{2.5}/log n). This implies that logspace randomized algorithms for multi-output functions cannot be black-box derandomized without an Ω̃(n^{1/4}) overhead in time.
Since previously all the polynomial time-space tradeoffs of multi-output functions are proved via the Borodin-Cook method, which is a probabilistic method that inherently gives the same lower bound for randomized and deterministic branching programs, our lower bound proof is intrinsically different from previous works.
We also examine other natural candidates for proving such separations, and show that any polynomial separation for these problems would resolve the long-standing open problem of proving n^{1+Ω(1)} time lower bound for decision problems with polylog(n) space.

Huacheng Yu and Wei Zhan. Randomized vs. Deterministic Separation in Time-Space Tradeoffs of Multi-Output Functions. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 99:1-99:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{yu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.99, author = {Yu, Huacheng and Zhan, Wei}, title = {{Randomized vs. Deterministic Separation in Time-Space Tradeoffs of Multi-Output Functions}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {99:1--99:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.99}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196270}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.99}, annote = {Keywords: Time-space tradeoffs, Randomness, Borodin-Cook method} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

Given a distribution over [n]ⁿ such that any k coordinates need k/log^{O(1)}n bits of communication to sample, we prove that any map that samples this distribution from uniform cells requires locality Ω(log(n/k)/log log(n/k)). In particular, we show that for any constant δ > 0, there exists ε = 2^{-Ω(n^{1-δ})} such that Ω(log n/log log n) non-adaptive cell probes on uniform cells are required to:
- Sample a uniformly random permutation on n elements with error 1-ε. This provides an exponential improvement on the Ω(log log n) cell probe lower bound by Viola.
- Sample an n-vector with each element independently drawn from a random n^{1-δ}-vector, with error 1-ε. This provides the first adaptive vs non-adaptive cell probe separation for sampling.
The major technical component in our proof is a new combinatorial theorem about flower with small kernel, i.e. a collection of sets where few elements appear more than once. We show that in a family of n sets, each with size O(log n/log log n), there must be k = poly(n) sets where at most k/log^{O(1)}n elements appear more than once.
To show the lower bound on sampling permutation, we also prove a new Ω(k) communication lower bound on sampling uniformly distributed disjoint subsets of [n] of size k, with error 1-2^{-Ω(k²/n)}. This result unifies and subsumes the lower bound for k = Θ(√n) by Ambainis et al., and the lower bound for k = Θ(n) by Göös and Watson.

Huacheng Yu and Wei Zhan. Sampling, Flowers and Communication. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 100:1-100:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{yu_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.100, author = {Yu, Huacheng and Zhan, Wei}, title = {{Sampling, Flowers and Communication}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {100:1--100:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.100}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196288}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.100}, annote = {Keywords: Flower, Sampling, Cell probe, Communcation complexity} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

Graph sketching is a powerful paradigm for analyzing graph structure via linear measurements introduced by Ahn, Guha, and McGregor (SODA'12) that has since found numerous applications in streaming, distributed computing, and massively parallel algorithms, among others. Graph sketching has proven to be quite successful for various problems such as connectivity, minimum spanning trees, edge or vertex connectivity, and cut or spectral sparsifiers. Yet, the problem of approximating shortest path metric of a graph, and specifically computing a spanner, is notably missing from the list of successes. This has turned the status of this fundamental problem into one of the most longstanding open questions in this area.
We present a partial explanation of this lack of success by proving a strong lower bound for a large family of graph sketching algorithms that encompasses prior work on spanners and many (but importantly not also all) related cut-based problems mentioned above. Our lower bound matches the algorithmic bounds of the recent result of Filtser, Kapralov, and Nouri (SODA'21), up to lower order terms, for constructing spanners via the same graph sketching family. This establishes near-optimality of these bounds, at least restricted to this family of graph sketching techniques, and makes progress on a conjecture posed in this latter work.

Sepehr Assadi, Michael Kapralov, and Huacheng Yu. On Constructing Spanners from Random Gaussian Projections. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 57:1-57:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.57, author = {Assadi, Sepehr and Kapralov, Michael and Yu, Huacheng}, title = {{On Constructing Spanners from Random Gaussian Projections}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {57:1--57:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188821}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.57}, annote = {Keywords: sketching algorithm, lower bound, graph spanner} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We study boolean constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) Max-CSP^f_n for all predicates f: {0,1}^k → {0,1}. In these problems, given an integer v and a list of constraints over n boolean variables, each obtained by applying f to a sequence of literals, we wish to decide if there is an assignment to the variables that satisfies at least v constraints. We consider these problems in the streaming model, where the algorithm makes a small number of passes over the list of constraints.
Our first and main result is the following complete characterization: For every predicate f, the streaming space complexity of the Max-CSP^f_n problem is Θ̃(n^deg(f)), where deg(f) is the degree of f when viewed as a multilinear polynomial. While the upper bound is obtained by a (very simple) one-pass streaming algorithm, our lower bound shows that a better space complexity is impossible even with constant-pass streaming algorithms.
Building on our techniques, we are also able to get an optimal Ω(n²) lower bound on the space complexity of constant-pass streaming algorithms for the well studied Max-CUT problem, even though it is not technically a Max-CSP^f_n problem as, e.g., negations of variables and repeated constraints are not allowed.

Gillat Kol, Dmitry Paramonov, Raghuvansh R. Saxena, and Huacheng Yu. Characterizing the Multi-Pass Streaming Complexity for Solving Boolean CSPs Exactly. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 80:1-80:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{kol_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.80, author = {Kol, Gillat and Paramonov, Dmitry and Saxena, Raghuvansh R. and Yu, Huacheng}, title = {{Characterizing the Multi-Pass Streaming Complexity for Solving Boolean CSPs Exactly}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {80:1--80:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175837}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.80}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming algorithms, Constraint Satisfaction Problems} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

For a directed graph G with n vertices and a start vertex u_start, we wish to (approximately) sample an L-step random walk over G starting from u_start with minimum space using an algorithm that only makes few passes over the edges of the graph. This problem found many applications, for instance, in approximating the PageRank of a webpage. If only a single pass is allowed, the space complexity of this problem was shown to be Θ̃(n ⋅ L). Prior to our work, a better space complexity was only known with Õ(√L) passes.
We essentially settle the space complexity of this random walk simulation problem for two-pass streaming algorithms, showing that it is Θ̃(n ⋅ √L), by giving almost matching upper and lower bounds. Our lower bound argument extends to every constant number of passes p, and shows that any p-pass algorithm for this problem uses Ω̃(n ⋅ L^{1/p}) space. In addition, we show a similar Θ̃(n ⋅ √L) bound on the space complexity of any algorithm (with any number of passes) for the related problem of sampling an L-step random walk from every vertex in the graph.

Lijie Chen, Gillat Kol, Dmitry Paramonov, Raghuvansh R. Saxena, Zhao Song, and Huacheng Yu. Near-Optimal Two-Pass Streaming Algorithm for Sampling Random Walks over Directed Graphs. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 52:1-52:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.52, author = {Chen, Lijie and Kol, Gillat and Paramonov, Dmitry and Saxena, Raghuvansh R. and Song, Zhao and Yu, Huacheng}, title = {{Near-Optimal Two-Pass Streaming Algorithm for Sampling Random Walks over Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {52:1--52:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141218}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.52}, annote = {Keywords: streaming algorithms, random walk sampling} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

The membership problem asks to maintain a set S ⊆ [u], supporting insertions and membership queries, i.e., testing if a given element is in the set. A data structure that computes exact answers is called a dictionary. When a (small) false positive rate ε is allowed, the data structure is called a filter.
The space usages of the standard dictionaries or filters usually depend on the upper bound on the size of S, while the actual set can be much smaller.
Pagh, Segev and Wieder [Pagh et al., 2013] were the first to study filters with varying space usage based on the current |S|. They showed in order to match the space with the current set size n = |S|, any filter data structure must use (1-o(1))n(log(1/ε)+(1-O(ε))log log n) bits, in contrast to the well-known lower bound of N log(1/ε) bits, where N is an upper bound on |S|. They also presented a data structure with almost optimal space of (1+o(1))n(log(1/ε)+O(log log n)) bits provided that n > u^0.001, with expected amortized constant insertion time and worst-case constant lookup time.
In this work, we present a filter data structure with improvements in two aspects:
- it has constant worst-case time for all insertions and lookups with high probability;
- it uses space (1+o(1))n(log (1/ε)+log log n) bits when n > u^0.001, achieving optimal leading constant for all ε = o(1). We also present a dictionary that uses (1+o(1))nlog(u/n) bits of space, matching the optimal space in terms of the current size, and performs all operations in constant time with high probability.

Mingmou Liu, Yitong Yin, and Huacheng Yu. Succinct Filters for Sets of Unknown Sizes. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 79:1-79:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.79, author = {Liu, Mingmou and Yin, Yitong and Yu, Huacheng}, title = {{Succinct Filters for Sets of Unknown Sizes}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {79:1--79:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.79}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124867}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.79}, annote = {Keywords: Bloom filters, Data structures, Approximate set membership, Dictionaries} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 205, 27th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 27) (2021)

Molecular programming - a paradigm wherein molecules are engineered to perform computation - shows great potential for applications in nanotechnology, disease diagnostics and smart therapeutics. A key challenge is to identify systematic approaches for compiling abstract models of computation to molecules. Due to their wide applicability, one of the most useful abstractions to realize is neural networks. In prior work, real-valued weights were achieved by individually controlling the concentrations of the corresponding "weight" molecules. However, large-scale preparation of reactants with precise concentrations quickly becomes intractable. Here, we propose to bypass this fundamental problem using Binarized Neural Networks (BNNs), a model that is highly scalable in a molecular setting due to the small number of distinct weight values. We devise a noise-tolerant digital molecular circuit that compactly implements a majority voting operation on binary-valued inputs to compute the neuron output. The network is also rate-independent, meaning the speed at which individual reactions occur does not affect the computation, further increasing robustness to noise. We first demonstrate our design on the MNIST classification task by simulating the system as idealized chemical reactions. Next, we map the reactions to DNA strand displacement cascades, providing simulation results that demonstrate the practical feasibility of our approach. We perform extensive noise tolerance simulations, showing that digital molecular neurons are notably more robust to noise in the concentrations of chemical reactants compared to their analog counterparts. Finally, we provide initial experimental results of a single binarized neuron. Our work suggests a solid framework for building even more complex neural network computation.

Johannes Linder, Yuan-Jyue Chen, David Wong, Georg Seelig, Luis Ceze, and Karin Strauss. Robust Digital Molecular Design of Binarized Neural Networks. In 27th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 27). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 205, pp. 1:1-1:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{linder_et_al:LIPIcs.DNA.27.1, author = {Linder, Johannes and Chen, Yuan-Jyue and Wong, David and Seelig, Georg and Ceze, Luis and Strauss, Karin}, title = {{Robust Digital Molecular Design of Binarized Neural Networks}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA 27)}, pages = {1:1--1:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-205-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {205}, editor = {Lakin, Matthew R. and \v{S}ulc, Petr}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.27.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146685}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DNA.27.1}, annote = {Keywords: Molecular Computing, Neural Network, Binarized Neural Network, Digital Logic, DNA, Strand Displacement} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)

Byzantine agreement (BA) is a distributed consensus problem where n processors want to reach agreement on an 𝓁-bit message or value, but up to t of the processors are dishonest or faulty. The challenge of this BA problem lies in achieving agreement despite the presence of dishonest processors who may arbitrarily deviate from the designed protocol. In this work by using coding theory, together with graph theory and linear algebra, we design a coded BA protocol (termed as COOL) that achieves consensus on an 𝓁-bit message with optimal resilience, asymptotically optimal round complexity, and asymptotically optimal communication complexity when 𝓁 ≥ t log t, simultaneously. The proposed COOL is a deterministic BA protocol that is guaranteed to be correct in all executions (error free) and does not rely on cryptographic technique such as signatures, hashing, authentication and secret sharing (signature free). It is secure against computationally unbounded adversary who takes full control over the dishonest processors (information-theoretic secure). The main idea of the proposed COOL is to use a carefully-crafted error correction code that provides an efficient way of exchanging "compressed" information among distributed nodes, while keeping the ability of detecting errors, masking errors, and making a consistent and validated agreement at honest distributed nodes. We show that our results can also be extended to the setting of Byzantine broadcast, aka Byzantine generals problem, where the honest processors want to agree on the message sent by a leader who is potentially dishonest. The results reveal that coding is an effective approach for achieving the fundamental limits of Byzantine agreement and its variants. Our protocol analysis borrows tools from coding theory, graph theory and linear algebra.

Jinyuan Chen. Optimal Error-Free Multi-Valued Byzantine Agreement. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 17:1-17:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chen:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.17, author = {Chen, Jinyuan}, title = {{Optimal Error-Free Multi-Valued Byzantine Agreement}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)}, pages = {17:1--17:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-210-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {209}, editor = {Gilbert, Seth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148190}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.17}, annote = {Keywords: Byzantine agreement, information-theoretic security, error correction codes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 235, 28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022)

Tree-based backtracking search is an important technique to solve Distributed Constraint optimization Problems (DCOPs), where agents cooperatively exhaust the search space by branching on each variable to divide subproblems and reporting the results to their parent after solving each subproblem. Therefore, effectively reusing the historical search results can avoid unnecessary resolutions and substantially reduce the overall overhead. However, the existing caching schemes for asynchronous algorithms cannot be applied directly to synchronous ones, in the sense that child agent reports the lower and upper bound rather than the precise cost of exploration. In addition, the existing caching scheme for synchronous algorithms has the shortcomings of incompleteness and low cache utilization. Therefore, we propose a new caching scheme for tree-based synchronous backtracking search, named Retention Scheme (RS). It utilizes the upper bounds of subproblems which avoid the reuse of suboptimal solutions to ensure the completeness, and deploys a fine-grained cache information unit targeted at each child agent to improve the cache-hit rate. Furthermore, we introduce two new cache replacement schemes to further improve performance when the memory is limited. Finally, we theoretically prove the completeness of our method and empirically show its superiority.

Jie Wang, Dingding Chen, Ziyu Chen, Xiangshuang Liu, and Junsong Gao. Completeness Matters: Towards Efficient Caching in Tree-Based Synchronous Backtracking Search for DCOPs. In 28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 235, pp. 39:1-39:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{wang_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2022.39, author = {Wang, Jie and Chen, Dingding and Chen, Ziyu and Liu, Xiangshuang and Gao, Junsong}, title = {{Completeness Matters: Towards Efficient Caching in Tree-Based Synchronous Backtracking Search for DCOPs}}, booktitle = {28th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2022)}, pages = {39:1--39:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-240-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {235}, editor = {Solnon, Christine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2022.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-166685}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2022.39}, annote = {Keywords: DCOP, Cache, Any-space Algorithms, Complete Search Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 210, 27th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2021)

Complete search algorithms are important methods for solving Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOPs), which generally utilize bounds to prune the search space. However, obtaining high-quality lower bounds is quite expensive since it requires each agent to collect more information aside from its local knowledge, which would cause tremendous traffic overheads. Instead of bothering for bounds, we propose a Bound-Independent Pruning (BIP) technique for existing tree-based complete search algorithms, which can independently reduce the search space only by exploiting local knowledge. Specifically, BIP enables each agent to determine a subspace containing the optimal solution only from its local constraints along with running contexts, which can be further exploited by any search strategies. Furthermore, we present an acceptability testing mechanism to tailor existing tree-based complete search algorithms to search the remaining space returned by BIP when they hold inconsistent contexts. Finally, we prove the correctness of our technique and the experimental results show that BIP can significantly speed up state-of-the-art tree-based complete search algorithms on various standard benchmarks.

Xiangshuang Liu, Ziyu Chen, Dingding Chen, and Junsong Gao. A Bound-Independent Pruning Technique to Speeding up Tree-Based Complete Search Algorithms for Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems. In 27th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 210, pp. 41:1-41:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.CP.2021.41, author = {Liu, Xiangshuang and Chen, Ziyu and Chen, Dingding and Gao, Junsong}, title = {{A Bound-Independent Pruning Technique to Speeding up Tree-Based Complete Search Algorithms for Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP 2021)}, pages = {41:1--41:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-211-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {210}, editor = {Michel, Laurent D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2021.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-153324}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CP.2021.41}, annote = {Keywords: DCOP, complete algorithms, search} }

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