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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

Given a finite set 𝒜 of square matrices and a square matrix B, all of the same dimension, the membership problem asks if B belongs to the monoid ℳ(𝒜) generated by 𝒜. The rank one problem asks if there is a matrix of rank one in ℳ(𝒜). We study the membership and the rank one problems in the case where all matrices are upper triangular matrices over the Boolean semiring. We characterize the computational complexity of these problems, and identify their PSPACE-complete and NP-complete special cases.
We then consider, for a set 𝒜 of matrices from the same class, the problem of finding in ℳ(𝒜) a matrix of minimum rank with no zero rows. We show that the minimum rank of such matrix can be computed in linear time.We also characterize the space complexity of this problem depending on the size of 𝒜, and apply all these results to the ergodicity problem asking if ℳ(𝒜) contains a matrix with a column consisting of all ones. Finally, we show that our results give better upper bounds for the case where each row of every matrix in 𝒜 contains at most one non-zero entry than for the general case.

Andrew Ryzhikov and Petra Wolf. Monoids of Upper Triangular Matrices over the Boolean Semiring. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 81:1-81:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{ryzhikov_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.81, author = {Ryzhikov, Andrew and Wolf, Petra}, title = {{Monoids of Upper Triangular Matrices over the Boolean Semiring}}, booktitle = {49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)}, pages = {81:1--81:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-335-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {306}, editor = {Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.81}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-206377}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.81}, annote = {Keywords: matrix monoids, membership, rank, ergodicity, partially ordered automata} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

The universality problem asks whether a given finite state automaton accepts all the input words. For quantitative models of automata, where input words are mapped to real values, this is naturally extended to ask whether all the words are mapped to values above (or below) a given threshold. This is known to be undecidable for commonly studied examples such as weighted automata over the positive rational (plus-times) or the integer tropical (min-plus) semirings, or equivalently cost register automata (CRAs) over these semirings. In this paper, we prove that when restricted to CRAs with only three registers, the universality problem is still undecidable, even with additional restrictions for the CRAs to be copyless linear with resets.
In contrast, we show that, assuming the unary encoding of updates, the ∀-exact problem (does the CRA output zero on all the words?) for integer min-plus linear CRAs can be decided in polynomial time if the number of registers is constant. Without the restriction on the number of registers this problem is known to be PSPACE-complete.

Laure Daviaud and Andrew Ryzhikov. Universality and Forall-Exactness of Cost Register Automata with Few Registers. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 40:1-40:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{daviaud_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.40, author = {Daviaud, Laure and Ryzhikov, Andrew}, title = {{Universality and Forall-Exactness of Cost Register Automata with Few Registers}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {40:1--40:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185744}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.40}, annote = {Keywords: cost register automata, universality, forall-exact problem, decidability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

We study synchronizing partial DFAs, which extend the classical concept of synchronizing complete DFAs and are a special case of synchronizing unambiguous NFAs. A partial DFA is called synchronizing if it has a word (called a reset word) whose action brings a non-empty subset of states to a unique state and is undefined for all other states. While in the general case the problem of checking whether a partial DFA is synchronizing is PSPACE-complete, we show that in the strongly connected case this problem can be efficiently reduced to the same problem for a complete DFA. Using combinatorial, algebraic, and formal languages methods, we develop techniques that relate main synchronization problems for strongly connected partial DFAs with the same problems for complete DFAs. In particular, this includes the Černý and the rank conjectures, the problem of finding a reset word, and upper bounds on the length of the shortest reset words of literal automata of finite prefix codes. We conclude that solving fundamental synchronization problems is equally hard in both models, as an essential improvement of the results for one model implies an improvement for the other.

Mikhail V. Berlinkov, Robert Ferens, Andrew Ryzhikov, and Marek Szykuła. Synchronizing Strongly Connected Partial DFAs. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 12:1-12:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{berlinkov_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.12, author = {Berlinkov, Mikhail V. and Ferens, Robert and Ryzhikov, Andrew and Szyku{\l}a, Marek}, title = {{Synchronizing Strongly Connected Partial DFAs}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {12:1--12:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136579}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.12}, annote = {Keywords: \v{C}ern\'{y} conjecture, literal automaton, partial automaton, prefix code, rank conjecture, reset threshold, reset word, synchronizing automaton, synchronizing word} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)

We generalize the notions of the degree and composition from uniquely decipherable codes to arbitrary finite sets of words. We prove that if X = Y∘Z is a composition of finite sets of words with Y complete, then d(X) = d(Y) ⋅ d(Z), where d(T) is the degree of T. We also show that a finite set is synchronizing if and only if its degree equals one.
This is done by considering, for an arbitrary finite set X of words, the transition monoid of an automaton recognizing X^* with multiplicities. We prove a number of results for such monoids, which generalize corresponding results for unambiguous monoids of relations.

Dominique Perrin and Andrew Ryzhikov. The Degree of a Finite Set of Words. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 54:1-54:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{perrin_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.54, author = {Perrin, Dominique and Ryzhikov, Andrew}, title = {{The Degree of a Finite Set of Words}}, booktitle = {40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)}, pages = {54:1--54:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-174-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {182}, editor = {Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132952}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.54}, annote = {Keywords: synchronizing set, degree of a set, group of a set, monoid of relations} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

We study the problems of finding a shortest synchronizing word and its length for a given prefix code. This is done in two different settings: when the code is defined by an arbitrary decoder recognizing its star and when the code is defined by its literal decoder (whose size is polynomially equivalent to the total length of all words in the code). For the first case for every epsilon > 0 we prove n^(1 - epsilon)-inapproximability for recognizable binary maximal prefix codes, Theta(log n)-inapproximability for finite binary maximal prefix codes and n^(1/2 - epsilon)-inapproximability for finite binary prefix codes. By c-inapproximability here we mean the non-existence of a c-approximation polynomial time algorithm under the assumption P != NP, and by n the number of states of the decoder in the input. For the second case, we propose approximation and exact algorithms and conjecture that for finite maximal prefix codes the problem can be solved in polynomial time. We also study the related problems of finding a shortest mortal and a shortest avoiding word.

Andrew Ryzhikov and Marek Szykula. Finding Short Synchronizing Words for Prefix Codes. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 21:1-21:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{ryzhikov_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.21, author = {Ryzhikov, Andrew and Szykula, Marek}, title = {{Finding Short Synchronizing Words for Prefix Codes}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {21:1--21:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96037}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.21}, annote = {Keywords: synchronizing word, mortal word, avoiding word, Huffman decoder, inapproximability} }

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