92 Search Results for "Meka, Raghu"


Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 176

Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

APPROX/RANDOM 2020, August 17-19, 2020, Virtual Conference

Editors: Jarosław Byrka and Raghu Meka

Document
Loss Minimization Through the Lens Of Outcome Indistinguishability

Authors: Parikshit Gopalan, Lunjia Hu, Michael P. Kim, Omer Reingold, and Udi Wieder

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
We present a new perspective on loss minimization and the recent notion of Omniprediction through the lens of Outcome Indistingusihability. For a collection of losses and hypothesis class, omniprediction requires that a predictor provide a loss-minimization guarantee simultaneously for every loss in the collection compared to the best (loss-specific) hypothesis in the class. We present a generic template to learn predictors satisfying a guarantee we call Loss Outcome Indistinguishability. For a set of statistical tests - based on a collection of losses and hypothesis class - a predictor is Loss OI if it is indistinguishable (according to the tests) from Nature’s true probabilities over outcomes. By design, Loss OI implies omniprediction in a direct and intuitive manner. We simplify Loss OI further, decomposing it into a calibration condition plus multiaccuracy for a class of functions derived from the loss and hypothesis classes. By careful analysis of this class, we give efficient constructions of omnipredictors for interesting classes of loss functions, including non-convex losses. This decomposition highlights the utility of a new multi-group fairness notion that we call calibrated multiaccuracy, which lies in between multiaccuracy and multicalibration. We show that calibrated multiaccuracy implies Loss OI for the important set of convex losses arising from Generalized Linear Models, without requiring full multicalibration. For such losses, we show an equivalence between our computational notion of Loss OI and a geometric notion of indistinguishability, formulated as Pythagorean theorems in the associated Bregman divergence. We give an efficient algorithm for calibrated multiaccuracy with computational complexity comparable to that of multiaccuracy. In all, calibrated multiaccuracy offers an interesting tradeoff point between efficiency and generality in the omniprediction landscape.

Cite as

Parikshit Gopalan, Lunjia Hu, Michael P. Kim, Omer Reingold, and Udi Wieder. Loss Minimization Through the Lens Of Outcome Indistinguishability. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 60:1-60:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{gopalan_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.60,
  author =	{Gopalan, Parikshit and Hu, Lunjia and Kim, Michael P. and Reingold, Omer and Wieder, Udi},
  title =	{{Loss Minimization Through the Lens Of Outcome Indistinguishability}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{60:1--60:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.60},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175635},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.60},
  annote =	{Keywords: Loss Minimization, Indistinguishability}
}
Document
Random Restrictions and PRGs for PTFs in Gaussian Space

Authors: Zander Kelley and Raghu Meka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
A polynomial threshold function (PTF) f: ℝⁿ → ℝ is a function of the form f(x) = sign(p(x)) where p is a polynomial of degree at most d. PTFs are a classical and well-studied complexity class with applications across complexity theory, learning theory, approximation theory, quantum complexity and more. We address the question of designing pseudorandom generators (PRGs) for polynomial threshold functions (PTFs) in the gaussian space: design a PRG that takes a seed of few bits of randomness and outputs a n-dimensional vector whose distribution is indistinguishable from a standard multivariate gaussian by a degree d PTF. Our main result is a PRG that takes a seed of d^O(1) log(n/ε) log(1/ε)/ε² random bits with output that cannot be distinguished from an n-dimensional gaussian distribution with advantage better than ε by degree d PTFs. The best previous generator due to O'Donnell, Servedio, and Tan (STOC'20) had a quasi-polynomial dependence (i.e., seed length of d^O(log d)) in the degree d. Along the way we prove a few nearly-tight structural properties of restrictions of PTFs that may be of independent interest. Similar results were obtained in [Ryan O'Donnell et al., 2021] (independently and concurrently).

Cite as

Zander Kelley and Raghu Meka. Random Restrictions and PRGs for PTFs in Gaussian Space. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 21:1-21:24, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{kelley_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.21,
  author =	{Kelley, Zander and Meka, Raghu},
  title =	{{Random Restrictions and PRGs for PTFs in Gaussian Space}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165836},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: polynomial threshold function, pseudorandom generator, multivariate gaussian}
}
Document
Pseudorandomness of Expander Random Walks for Symmetric Functions and Permutation Branching Programs

Authors: Louis Golowich and Salil Vadhan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
We study the pseudorandomness of random walks on expander graphs against tests computed by symmetric functions and permutation branching programs. These questions are motivated by applications of expander walks in the coding theory and derandomization literatures. A line of prior work has shown that random walks on expanders with second largest eigenvalue λ fool symmetric functions up to a O(λ) error in total variation distance, but only for the case where the vertices are labeled with symbols from a binary alphabet, and with a suboptimal dependence on the bias of the labeling. We generalize these results to labelings with an arbitrary alphabet, and for the case of binary labelings we achieve an optimal dependence on the labeling bias. We extend our analysis to unify it with and strengthen the expander-walk Chernoff bound. We then show that expander walks fool permutation branching programs up to a O(λ) error in 𝓁₂-distance, and we prove that much stronger bounds hold for programs with a certain structure. We also prove lower bounds to show that our results are tight. To prove our results for symmetric functions, we analyze the Fourier coefficients of the relevant distributions using linear-algebraic techniques. Our analysis for permutation branching programs is likewise linear-algebraic in nature, but also makes use of the recently introduced singular-value approximation notion for matrices (Ahmadinejad et al. 2021).

Cite as

Louis Golowich and Salil Vadhan. Pseudorandomness of Expander Random Walks for Symmetric Functions and Permutation Branching Programs. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 27:1-27:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{golowich_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.27,
  author =	{Golowich, Louis and Vadhan, Salil},
  title =	{{Pseudorandomness of Expander Random Walks for Symmetric Functions and Permutation Branching Programs}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165893},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expander graph, Random walk, Pseudorandomness}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Smoothed Analysis of the Komlós Conjecture

Authors: Nikhil Bansal, Haotian Jiang, Raghu Meka, Sahil Singla, and Makrand Sinha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
The well-known Komlós conjecture states that given n vectors in ℝ^d with Euclidean norm at most one, there always exists a ± 1 coloring such that the 𝓁_∞ norm of the signed-sum vector is a constant independent of n and d. We prove this conjecture in a smoothed analysis setting where the vectors are perturbed by adding a small Gaussian noise and when the number of vectors n = ω(d log d). The dependence of n on d is the best possible even in a completely random setting. Our proof relies on a weighted second moment method, where instead of considering uniformly randomly colorings we apply the second moment method on an implicit distribution on colorings obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt walk algorithm to a suitable set of vectors. The main technical idea is to use various properties of these colorings, including subgaussianity, to control the second moment.

Cite as

Nikhil Bansal, Haotian Jiang, Raghu Meka, Sahil Singla, and Makrand Sinha. Smoothed Analysis of the Komlós Conjecture. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 14:1-14:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{bansal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.14,
  author =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Jiang, Haotian and Meka, Raghu and Singla, Sahil and Sinha, Makrand},
  title =	{{Smoothed Analysis of the Koml\'{o}s Conjecture}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163556},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Koml\'{o}s conjecture, smoothed analysis, weighted second moment method, subgaussian coloring}
}
Document
Prefix Discrepancy, Smoothed Analysis, and Combinatorial Vector Balancing

Authors: Nikhil Bansal, Haotian Jiang, Raghu Meka, Sahil Singla, and Makrand Sinha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
A well-known result of Banaszczyk in discrepancy theory concerns the prefix discrepancy problem (also known as the signed series problem): given a sequence of T unit vectors in ℝ^d, find ± signs for each of them such that the signed sum vector along any prefix has a small 𝓁_∞-norm? This problem is central to proving upper bounds for the Steinitz problem, and the popular Komlós problem is a special case where one is only concerned with the final signed sum vector instead of all prefixes. Banaszczyk gave an O(√{log d+ log T}) bound for the prefix discrepancy problem. We investigate the tightness of Banaszczyk’s bound and consider natural generalizations of prefix discrepancy: - We first consider a smoothed analysis setting, where a small amount of additive noise perturbs the input vectors. We show an exponential improvement in T compared to Banaszczyk’s bound. Using a primal-dual approach and a careful chaining argument, we show that one can achieve a bound of O(√{log d+ log log T}) with high probability in the smoothed setting. Moreover, this smoothed analysis bound is the best possible without further improvement on Banaszczyk’s bound in the worst case. - We also introduce a generalization of the prefix discrepancy problem to arbitrary DAGs. Here, vertices correspond to unit vectors, and the discrepancy constraints correspond to paths on a DAG on T vertices - prefix discrepancy is precisely captured when the DAG is a simple path. We show that an analog of Banaszczyk’s O(√{log d+ log T}) bound continues to hold in this setting for adversarially given unit vectors and that the √{log T} factor is unavoidable for DAGs. We also show that unlike for prefix discrepancy, the dependence on T cannot be improved significantly in the smoothed case for DAGs. - We conclude by exploring a more general notion of vector balancing, which we call combinatorial vector balancing. In this problem, the discrepancy constraints are generalized from paths of a DAG to an arbitrary set system. We obtain near-optimal bounds in this setting, up to poly-logarithmic factors.

Cite as

Nikhil Bansal, Haotian Jiang, Raghu Meka, Sahil Singla, and Makrand Sinha. Prefix Discrepancy, Smoothed Analysis, and Combinatorial Vector Balancing. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 13:1-13:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{bansal_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.13,
  author =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Jiang, Haotian and Meka, Raghu and Singla, Sahil and Sinha, Makrand},
  title =	{{Prefix Discrepancy, Smoothed Analysis, and Combinatorial Vector Balancing}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156092},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Prefix discrepancy, smoothed analysis, combinatorial vector balancing}
}
Document
Lifting with Sunflowers

Authors: Shachar Lovett, Raghu Meka, Ian Mertz, Toniann Pitassi, and Jiapeng Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
Query-to-communication lifting theorems translate lower bounds on query complexity to lower bounds for the corresponding communication model. In this paper, we give a simplified proof of deterministic lifting (in both the tree-like and dag-like settings). Our proof uses elementary counting together with a novel connection to the sunflower lemma. In addition to a simplified proof, our approach opens up a new avenue of attack towards proving lifting theorems with improved gadget size - one of the main challenges in the area. Focusing on one of the most widely used gadgets - the index gadget - existing lifting techniques are known to require at least a quadratic gadget size. Our new approach combined with robust sunflower lemmas allows us to reduce the gadget size to near linear. We conjecture that it can be further improved to polylogarithmic, similar to the known bounds for the corresponding robust sunflower lemmas.

Cite as

Shachar Lovett, Raghu Meka, Ian Mertz, Toniann Pitassi, and Jiapeng Zhang. Lifting with Sunflowers. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 104:1-104:24, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{lovett_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.104,
  author =	{Lovett, Shachar and Meka, Raghu and Mertz, Ian and Pitassi, Toniann and Zhang, Jiapeng},
  title =	{{Lifting with Sunflowers}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{104:1--104:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.104},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-157004},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.104},
  annote =	{Keywords: Lifting theorems, communication complexity, combinatorics, sunflowers}
}
Document
RANDOM
Pseudorandom Generators for Read-Once Monotone Branching Programs

Authors: Dean Doron, Raghu Meka, Omer Reingold, Avishay Tal, and Salil Vadhan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)


Abstract
Motivated by the derandomization of space-bounded computation, there has been a long line of work on constructing pseudorandom generators (PRGs) against various forms of read-once branching programs (ROBPs), with a goal of improving the O(log² n) seed length of Nisan’s classic construction [Noam Nisan, 1992] to the optimal O(log n). In this work, we construct an explicit PRG with seed length Õ(log n) for constant-width ROBPs that are monotone, meaning that the states at each time step can be ordered so that edges with the same labels never cross each other. Equivalently, for each fixed input, the transition functions are a monotone function of the state. This result is complementary to a line of work that gave PRGs with seed length O(log n) for (ordered) permutation ROBPs of constant width [Braverman et al., 2014; Koucký et al., 2011; De, 2011; Thomas Steinke, 2012], since the monotonicity constraint can be seen as the "opposite" of the permutation constraint. Our PRG also works for monotone ROBPs that can read the input bits in any order, which are strictly more powerful than read-once AC⁰. Our PRG achieves better parameters (in terms of the dependence on the depth of the circuit) than the best previous pseudorandom generator for read-once AC⁰, due to Doron, Hatami, and Hoza [Doron et al., 2019]. Our pseudorandom generator construction follows Ajtai and Wigderson’s approach of iterated pseudorandom restrictions [Ajtai and Wigderson, 1989; Gopalan et al., 2012]. We give a randomness-efficient width-reduction process which proves that the branching program simplifies to an O(log n)-junta after only O(log log n) independent applications of the Forbes-Kelley pseudorandom restrictions [Michael A. Forbes and Zander Kelley, 2018].

Cite as

Dean Doron, Raghu Meka, Omer Reingold, Avishay Tal, and Salil Vadhan. Pseudorandom Generators for Read-Once Monotone Branching Programs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 58:1-58:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{doron_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.58,
  author =	{Doron, Dean and Meka, Raghu and Reingold, Omer and Tal, Avishay and Vadhan, Salil},
  title =	{{Pseudorandom Generators for Read-Once Monotone Branching Programs}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)},
  pages =	{58:1--58:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-207-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{207},
  editor =	{Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.58},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147513},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.58},
  annote =	{Keywords: Branching programs, pseudorandom generators, constant depth circuits}
}
Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 176, APPROX/RANDOM 2020, Complete Volume

Authors: Jarosław Byrka and Raghu Meka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 176, APPROX/RANDOM 2020, Complete Volume

Cite as

Jarosław Byrka and Raghu Meka. LIPIcs, Volume 176, APPROX/RANDOM 2020, Complete Volume. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 1-1228, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@Proceedings{byrka_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 176, APPROX/RANDOM 2020, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{1--1228},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126021},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020},
  annote =	{Keywords: LIPIcs, Volume 176, APPROX/RANDOM 2020, Complete Volume}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Authors: Jarosław Byrka and Raghu Meka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Cite as

Jarosław Byrka and Raghu Meka. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 0:i-0:xx, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{byrka_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.0,
  author =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xx},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126037},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}
}
Document
RANDOM
Extractor Lower Bounds, Revisited

Authors: Divesh Aggarwal, Siyao Guo, Maciej Obremski, João Ribeiro, and Noah Stephens-Davidowitz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
We revisit the fundamental problem of determining seed length lower bounds for strong extractors and natural variants thereof. These variants stem from a "change in quantifiers" over the seeds of the extractor: While a strong extractor requires that the average output bias (over all seeds) is small for all input sources with sufficient min-entropy, a somewhere extractor only requires that there exists a seed whose output bias is small. More generally, we study what we call probable extractors, which on input a source with sufficient min-entropy guarantee that a large enough fraction of seeds have small enough associated output bias. Such extractors have played a key role in many constructions of pseudorandom objects, though they are often defined implicitly and have not been studied extensively. Prior known techniques fail to yield good seed length lower bounds when applied to the variants above. Our novel approach yields significantly improved lower bounds for somewhere and probable extractors. To complement this, we construct a somewhere extractor that implies our lower bound for such functions is tight in the high min-entropy regime. Surprisingly, this means that a random function is far from an optimal somewhere extractor in this regime. The techniques that we develop also yield an alternative, simpler proof of the celebrated optimal lower bound for strong extractors originally due to Radhakrishnan and Ta-Shma (SIAM J. Discrete Math., 2000).

Cite as

Divesh Aggarwal, Siyao Guo, Maciej Obremski, João Ribeiro, and Noah Stephens-Davidowitz. Extractor Lower Bounds, Revisited. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 1:1-1:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{aggarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.1,
  author =	{Aggarwal, Divesh and Guo, Siyao and Obremski, Maciej and Ribeiro, Jo\~{a}o and Stephens-Davidowitz, Noah},
  title =	{{Extractor Lower Bounds, Revisited}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126041},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: randomness extractors, lower bounds, explicit constructions}
}
Document
RANDOM
A Simpler Strong Refutation of Random k-XOR

Authors: Kwangjun Ahn

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
Strong refutation of random CSPs is a fundamental question in theoretical computer science that has received particular attention due to the long-standing gap between the information-theoretic limit and the computational limit. This gap is recently bridged by Raghavendra, Rao and Schramm where they study sub-exponential algorithms for the regime between the two limits. In this work, we take a simpler approach to their algorithms and analyses.

Cite as

Kwangjun Ahn. A Simpler Strong Refutation of Random k-XOR. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 2:1-2:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{ahn:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.2,
  author =	{Ahn, Kwangjun},
  title =	{{A Simpler Strong Refutation of Random k-XOR}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126053},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Strong refutation, Random k-XOR, Spectral method, Trace power method}
}
Document
RANDOM
Iterated Decomposition of Biased Permutations via New Bounds on the Spectral Gap of Markov Chains

Authors: Sarah Miracle, Amanda Pascoe Streib, and Noah Streib

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
In this paper, we address a conjecture of Fill [Fill03] about the spectral gap of a nearest-neighbor transposition Markov chain ℳ_nn over biased permutations of [n]. Suppose we are given a set of input probabilities 𝒫 = {p_{i,j}} for all 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n with p_{i, j} = 1-p_{j, i}. The Markov chain ℳ_nn operates by uniformly choosing a pair of adjacent elements, i and j, and putting i ahead of j with probability p_{i,j} and j ahead of i with probability p_{j,i}, independent of their current ordering. We build on previous work [S. Miracle and A.P. Streib, 2018] that analyzed the spectral gap of ℳ_nn when the particles in [n] fall into k classes. There, the authors iteratively decomposed ℳ_nn into simpler chains, but incurred a multiplicative penalty of n^-2 for each application of the decomposition theorem of [Martin and Randall, 2000], leading to an exponentially small lower bound on the gap. We make progress by introducing a new complementary decomposition theorem. We introduce the notion of ε-orthogonality, and show that for ε-orthogonal chains, the complementary decomposition theorem may be iterated O(1/√ε) times while only giving away a constant multiplicative factor on the overall spectral gap. We show the decomposition given in [S. Miracle and A.P. Streib, 2018] of a related Markov chain ℳ_pp over k-class particle systems is 1/n²-orthogonal when the number of particles in each class is at least C log n, where C is a constant not depending on n. We then apply the complementary decomposition theorem iteratively n times to prove nearly optimal bounds on the spectral gap of ℳ_pp and to further prove the first inverse-polynomial bound on the spectral gap of ℳ_nn when k is as large as Θ(n/log n). The previous best known bound assumed k was at most a constant.

Cite as

Sarah Miracle, Amanda Pascoe Streib, and Noah Streib. Iterated Decomposition of Biased Permutations via New Bounds on the Spectral Gap of Markov Chains. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 3:1-3:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{miracle_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.3,
  author =	{Miracle, Sarah and Streib, Amanda Pascoe and Streib, Noah},
  title =	{{Iterated Decomposition of Biased Permutations via New Bounds on the Spectral Gap of Markov Chains}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126069},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Markov chains, Permutations, Decomposition, Spectral Gap, Iterated Decomposition}
}
Document
RANDOM
Improved Explicit Hitting-Sets for ROABPs

Authors: Zeyu Guo and Rohit Gurjar

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
We give improved explicit constructions of hitting-sets for read-once oblivious algebraic branching programs (ROABPs) and related models. For ROABPs in an unknown variable order, our hitting-set has size polynomial in (nr)^{(log n)/(max{1, log log n-log log r})}d over a field whose characteristic is zero or large enough, where n is the number of variables, d is the individual degree, and r is the width of the ROABP. A similar improved construction works over fields of arbitrary characteristic with a weaker size bound. Based on a result of Bisht and Saxena (2020), we also give an improved explicit construction of hitting-sets for sum of several ROABPs. In particular, when the characteristic of the field is zero or large enough, we give polynomial-size explicit hitting-sets for sum of constantly many log-variate ROABPs of width r = 2^{O(log d/log log d)}. Finally, we give improved explicit hitting-sets for polynomials computable by width-r ROABPs in any variable order, also known as any-order ROABPs. Our hitting-set has polynomial size for width r up to 2^{O(log(nd)/log log(nd))} or 2^{O(log^{1-ε} (nd))}, depending on the characteristic of the field. Previously, explicit hitting-sets of polynomial size are unknown for r = ω(1).

Cite as

Zeyu Guo and Rohit Gurjar. Improved Explicit Hitting-Sets for ROABPs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 4:1-4:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{guo_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.4,
  author =	{Guo, Zeyu and Gurjar, Rohit},
  title =	{{Improved Explicit Hitting-Sets for ROABPs}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126076},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: polynomial identity testing, hitting-set, ROABP, arithmetic branching programs, derandomization}
}
Document
RANDOM
Almost Optimal Testers for Concise Representations

Authors: Nader H. Bshouty

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
We give improved and almost optimal testers for several classes of Boolean functions on n variables that have concise representation in the uniform and distribution-free model. Classes, such as k-Junta, k-Linear, s-Term DNF, s-Term Monotone DNF, r-DNF, Decision List, r-Decision List, size-s Decision Tree, size-s Boolean Formula, size-s Branching Program, s-Sparse Polynomial over the binary field and functions with Fourier Degree at most d. The approach is new and combines ideas from Diakonikolas et al. [Ilias Diakonikolas et al., 2007], Bshouty [Nader H. Bshouty, 2018], Goldreich et al. [Oded Goldreich et al., 1998], and learning theory. The method can be extended to several other classes of functions over any domain that can be approximated by functions with a small number of relevant variables.

Cite as

Nader H. Bshouty. Almost Optimal Testers for Concise Representations. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 5:1-5:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{bshouty:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.5,
  author =	{Bshouty, Nader H.},
  title =	{{Almost Optimal Testers for Concise Representations}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126087},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Property Testing, Boolean function, Junta}
}
  • Refine by Author
  • 8 Meka, Raghu
  • 3 Bansal, Nikhil
  • 3 Doron, Dean
  • 3 Guruswami, Venkatesan
  • 3 Reingold, Omer
  • Show More...

  • Refine by Classification
  • 11 Theory of computation → Pseudorandomness and derandomization
  • 9 Theory of computation → Streaming, sublinear and near linear time algorithms
  • 8 Theory of computation → Approximation algorithms analysis
  • 6 Theory of computation → Randomness, geometry and discrete structures
  • 5 Mathematics of computing → Combinatorial optimization
  • Show More...

  • Refine by Keyword
  • 5 approximation algorithms
  • 4 Approximation Algorithms
  • 4 Pseudorandomness
  • 3 Approximation
  • 3 pseudorandom generators
  • Show More...

  • Refine by Type
  • 91 document
  • 1 volume

  • Refine by Publication Year
  • 67 2020
  • 8 2019
  • 6 2014
  • 5 2022
  • 4 2015
  • Show More...

Questions / Remarks / Feedback
X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing


Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail