59 Search Results for "Umans, Chris"


Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 60

Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)

APPROX/RANDOM 2016, September 7-9, 2016, Paris, France

Editors: Klaus Jansen, Claire Mathieu, José D. P. Rolim, and Chris Umans

Document
Quantum and Classical Low-Degree Learning via a Dimension-Free Remez Inequality

Authors: Ohad Klein, Joseph Slote, Alexander Volberg, and Haonan Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Recent efforts in Analysis of Boolean Functions aim to extend core results to new spaces, including to the slice binom([n],k), the hypergrid [K]ⁿ, and noncommutative spaces (matrix algebras). We present here a new way to relate functions on the hypergrid (or products of cyclic groups) to their harmonic extensions over the polytorus. We show the supremum of a function f over products of the cyclic group {exp(2π i k/K)}_{k = 1}^K controls the supremum of f over the entire polytorus ({z ∈ ℂ:|z| = 1}ⁿ), with multiplicative constant C depending on K and deg(f) only. This Remez-type inequality appears to be the first such estimate that is dimension-free (i.e., C does not depend on n). This dimension-free Remez-type inequality removes the main technical barrier to giving 𝒪(log n) sample complexity, polytime algorithms for learning low-degree polynomials on the hypergrid and low-degree observables on level-K qudit systems. In particular, our dimension-free Remez inequality implies new Bohnenblust-Hille-type estimates which are central to the learning algorithms and appear unobtainable via standard techniques. Thus we extend to new spaces a recent line of work [Eskenazis and Ivanisvili, 2022; Huang et al., 2022; Volberg and Zhang, 2023] that gave similarly efficient methods for learning low-degree polynomials on the hypercube and observables on qubits. An additional product of these efforts is a new class of distributions over which arbitrary quantum observables are well-approximated by their low-degree truncations - a phenomenon that greatly extends the reach of low-degree learning in quantum science [Huang et al., 2022].

Cite as

Ohad Klein, Joseph Slote, Alexander Volberg, and Haonan Zhang. Quantum and Classical Low-Degree Learning via a Dimension-Free Remez Inequality. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 69:1-69:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{klein_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.69,
  author =	{Klein, Ohad and Slote, Joseph and Volberg, Alexander and Zhang, Haonan},
  title =	{{Quantum and Classical Low-Degree Learning via a Dimension-Free Remez Inequality}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{69:1--69:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.69},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195977},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.69},
  annote =	{Keywords: Analysis of Boolean Functions, Remez Inequality, Bohnenblust-Hille Inequality, Statistical Learning Theory, Qudits}
}
Document
On Generalized Corners and Matrix Multiplication

Authors: Kevin Pratt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Suppose that S ⊆ [n]² contains no three points of the form (x,y), (x,y+δ), (x+δ,y'), where δ ≠ 0. How big can S be? Trivially, n ≤ |S| ≤ n². Slight improvements on these bounds are obtained from Shkredov’s upper bound for the corners problem [Shkredov, 2006], which shows that |S| ≤ O(n²/(log log n)^c) for some small c > 0, and a construction due to Petrov [Fedor Petrov, 2023], which shows that |S| ≥ Ω(n log n/√{log log n}). Could it be that for all ε > 0, |S| ≤ O(n^{1+ε})? We show that if so, this would rule out obtaining ω = 2 using a large family of abelian groups in the group-theoretic framework of [Cohn and Umans, 2003; Cohn et al., 2005] (which is known to capture the best bounds on ω to date), for which no barriers are currently known. Furthermore, an upper bound of O(n^{4/3 - ε}) for any fixed ε > 0 would rule out a conjectured approach to obtain ω = 2 of [Cohn et al., 2005]. Along the way, we encounter several problems that have much stronger constraints and that would already have these implications.

Cite as

Kevin Pratt. On Generalized Corners and Matrix Multiplication. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 89:1-89:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{pratt:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.89,
  author =	{Pratt, Kevin},
  title =	{{On Generalized Corners and Matrix Multiplication}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{89:1--89:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.89},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196174},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.89},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algebraic computation, fast matrix multiplication, additive combinatorics}
}
Document
Parity vs. AC0 with Simple Quantum Preprocessing

Authors: Joseph Slote

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
A recent line of work [Bravyi et al., 2018; Watts et al., 2019; Grier and Schaeffer, 2020; Bravyi et al., 2020; Watts and Parham, 2023] has shown the unconditional advantage of constant-depth quantum computation, or QNC⁰, over NC⁰, AC⁰, and related models of classical computation. Problems exhibiting this advantage include search and sampling tasks related to the parity function, and it is natural to ask whether QNC⁰ can be used to help compute parity itself. Namely, we study AC⁰∘QNC⁰ - a hybrid circuit model where AC⁰ operates on measurement outcomes of a QNC⁰ circuit - and we ask whether Par ∈ AC⁰∘QNC⁰. We believe the answer is negative. In fact, we conjecture AC⁰∘QNC⁰ cannot even achieve Ω(1) correlation with parity. As evidence for this conjecture, we prove: - When the QNC⁰ circuit is ancilla-free, this model can achieve only negligible correlation with parity, even when AC⁰ is replaced with any function having LMN-like decay in its Fourier spectrum. - For the general (non-ancilla-free) case, we show via a connection to nonlocal games that the conjecture holds for any class of postprocessing functions that has approximate degree o(n) and is closed under restrictions. Moreover, this is true even when the QNC⁰ circuit is given arbitrary quantum advice. By known results [Bun et al., 2019], this confirms the conjecture for linear-size AC⁰ circuits. - Another approach to proving the conjecture is to show a switching lemma for AC⁰∘QNC⁰. Towards this goal, we study the effect of quantum preprocessing on the decision tree complexity of Boolean functions. We find that from the point of view of decision tree complexity, nonlocal channels are no better than randomness: a Boolean function f precomposed with an n-party nonlocal channel is together equal to a randomized decision tree with worst-case depth at most DT_depth[f]. Taken together, our results suggest that while QNC⁰ is surprisingly powerful for search and sampling tasks, that power is "locked away" in the global correlations of its output, inaccessible to simple classical computation for solving decision problems.

Cite as

Joseph Slote. Parity vs. AC0 with Simple Quantum Preprocessing. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 92:1-92:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{slote:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.92,
  author =	{Slote, Joseph},
  title =	{{Parity vs. AC0 with Simple Quantum Preprocessing}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{92:1--92:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.92},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196209},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.92},
  annote =	{Keywords: QNC0, AC0, Nonlocal games, k-wise indistinguishability, approximate degree, switching lemma, Fourier concentration}
}
Document
Instance-Wise Hardness Versus Randomness Tradeoffs for Arthur-Merlin Protocols

Authors: Dieter van Melkebeek and Nicollas Mocelin Sdroievski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
A fundamental question in computational complexity asks whether probabilistic polynomial-time algorithms can be simulated deterministically with a small overhead in time (the BPP vs. P problem). A corresponding question in the realm of interactive proofs asks whether Arthur-Merlin protocols can be simulated nondeterministically with a small overhead in time (the AM vs. NP problem). Both questions are intricately tied to lower bounds. Prominently, in both settings blackbox derandomization, i.e., derandomization through pseudo-random generators, has been shown equivalent to lower bounds for decision problems against circuits. Recently, Chen and Tell (FOCS'21) established near-equivalences in the BPP setting between whitebox derandomization and lower bounds for multi-bit functions against algorithms on almost-all inputs. The key ingredient is a technique to translate hardness into targeted hitting sets in an instance-wise fashion based on a layered arithmetization of the evaluation of a uniform circuit computing the hard function f on the given instance. In this paper we develop a corresponding technique for Arthur-Merlin protocols and establish similar near-equivalences in the AM setting. As an example of our results in the hardness to derandomization direction, consider a length-preserving function f computable by a nondeterministic algorithm that runs in time n^a. We show that if every Arthur-Merlin protocol that runs in time n^c for c = O(log² a) can only compute f correctly on finitely many inputs, then AM is in NP. Our main technical contribution is the construction of suitable targeted hitting-set generators based on probabilistically checkable proofs for nondeterministic computations. As a byproduct of our constructions, we obtain the first result indicating that whitebox derandomization of AM may be equivalent to the existence of targeted hitting-set generators for AM, an issue raised by Goldreich (LNCS, 2011). Byproducts in the average-case setting include the first uniform hardness vs. randomness tradeoffs for AM, as well as an unconditional mild derandomization result for AM.

Cite as

Dieter van Melkebeek and Nicollas Mocelin Sdroievski. Instance-Wise Hardness Versus Randomness Tradeoffs for Arthur-Merlin Protocols. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 17:1-17:36, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{vanmelkebeek_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.17,
  author =	{van Melkebeek, Dieter and Mocelin Sdroievski, Nicollas},
  title =	{{Instance-Wise Hardness Versus Randomness Tradeoffs for Arthur-Merlin Protocols}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:36},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182870},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Hardness versus randomness tradeoff, Arthur-Merlin protocol, targeted hitting set generator}
}
Document
Matrix Multiplication via Matrix Groups

Authors: Jonah Blasiak, Henry Cohn, Joshua A. Grochow, Kevin Pratt, and Chris Umans

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
In 2003, Cohn and Umans proposed a group-theoretic approach to bounding the exponent of matrix multiplication. Previous work within this approach ruled out certain families of groups as a route to obtaining ω = 2, while other families of groups remain potentially viable. In this paper we turn our attention to matrix groups, whose usefulness within this framework was relatively unexplored. We first show that groups of Lie type cannot prove ω = 2 within the group-theoretic approach. This is based on a representation-theoretic argument that identifies the second-smallest dimension of an irreducible representation of a group as a key parameter that determines its viability in this framework. Our proof builds on Gowers' result concerning product-free sets in quasirandom groups. We then give another barrier that rules out certain natural matrix group constructions that make use of subgroups that are far from being self-normalizing. Our barrier results leave open several natural paths to obtain ω = 2 via matrix groups. To explore these routes we propose working in the continuous setting of Lie groups, in which we develop an analogous theory. Obtaining the analogue of ω = 2 in this potentially easier setting is a key challenge that represents an intermediate goal short of actually proving ω = 2. We give two constructions in the continuous setting, each of which evades one of our two barriers.

Cite as

Jonah Blasiak, Henry Cohn, Joshua A. Grochow, Kevin Pratt, and Chris Umans. Matrix Multiplication via Matrix Groups. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 19:1-19:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{blasiak_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.19,
  author =	{Blasiak, Jonah and Cohn, Henry and Grochow, Joshua A. and Pratt, Kevin and Umans, Chris},
  title =	{{Matrix Multiplication via Matrix Groups}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175226},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fast matrix multiplication, representation theory, matrix groups}
}
Document
Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space

Authors: William M. Hoza

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 137, 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)


Abstract
Suppose a language L can be decided by a bounded-error randomized algorithm that runs in space S and time n * poly(S). We give a randomized algorithm for L that still runs in space O(S) and time n * poly(S) that uses only O(S) random bits; our algorithm has a low failure probability on all but a negligible fraction of inputs of each length. As an immediate corollary, there is a deterministic algorithm for L that runs in space O(S) and succeeds on all but a negligible fraction of inputs of each length. We also give several other complexity-theoretic applications of our technique.

Cite as

William M. Hoza. Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space. In 34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 137, pp. 9:1-9:39, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{hoza:LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9,
  author =	{Hoza, William M.},
  title =	{{Typically-Correct Derandomization for Small Time and Space}},
  booktitle =	{34th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2019)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:39},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-116-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{137},
  editor =	{Shpilka, Amir},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-108317},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2019.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Derandomization, pseudorandomness, space complexity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
AC^0[p] Lower Bounds Against MCSP via the Coin Problem

Authors: Alexander Golovnev, Rahul Ilango, Russell Impagliazzo, Valentine Kabanets, Antonina Kolokolova, and Avishay Tal

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) asks to decide if a given truth table of an n-variate boolean function has circuit complexity less than a given parameter s. We prove that MCSP is hard for constant-depth circuits with mod p gates, for any prime p >= 2 (the circuit class AC^0[p]). Namely, we show that MCSP requires d-depth AC^0[p] circuits of size at least exp(N^{0.49/d}), where N=2^n is the size of an input truth table of an n-variate boolean function. Our circuit lower bound proof shows that MCSP can solve the coin problem: distinguish uniformly random N-bit strings from those generated using independent samples from a biased random coin which is 1 with probability 1/2+N^{-0.49}, and 0 otherwise. Solving the coin problem with such parameters is known to require exponentially large AC^0[p] circuits. Moreover, this also implies that MAJORITY is computable by a non-uniform AC^0 circuit of polynomial size that also has MCSP-oracle gates. The latter has a few other consequences for the complexity of MCSP, e.g., we get that any boolean function in NC^1 (i.e., computable by a polynomial-size formula) can also be computed by a non-uniform polynomial-size AC^0 circuit with MCSP-oracle gates.

Cite as

Alexander Golovnev, Rahul Ilango, Russell Impagliazzo, Valentine Kabanets, Antonina Kolokolova, and Avishay Tal. AC^0[p] Lower Bounds Against MCSP via the Coin Problem. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 66:1-66:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{golovnev_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.66,
  author =	{Golovnev, Alexander and Ilango, Rahul and Impagliazzo, Russell and Kabanets, Valentine and Kolokolova, Antonina and Tal, Avishay},
  title =	{{AC^0\lbrackp\rbrack Lower Bounds Against MCSP via the Coin Problem}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{66:1--66:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.66},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106422},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.66},
  annote =	{Keywords: Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP), circuit lower bounds, AC0\lbrackp\rbrack, coin problem, hybrid argument, MKTP, biased random boolean functions}
}
Document
On Multidimensional and Monotone k-SUM

Authors: Chloe Ching-Yun Hsu and Chris Umans

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 83, 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)


Abstract
The well-known k-SUM conjecture is that integer k-SUM requires time Omega(n^{\ceil{k/2}-o(1)}). Recent work has studied multidimensional k-SUM in F_p^d, where the best known algorithm takes time \tilde O(n^{\ceil{k/2}}). Bhattacharyya et al. [ICS 2011] proved a min(2^{\Omega(d)},n^{\Omega(k)}) lower bound for k-SUM in F_p^d under the Exponential Time Hypothesis. We give a more refined lower bound under the standard k-SUM conjecture: for sufficiently large p, k-SUM in F_p^d requires time Omega(n^{k/2-o(1)}) if k is even, and Omega(n^{\ceil{k/2}-2k(log k)/(log p)-o(1)}) if k is odd. For a special case of the multidimensional problem, bounded monotone d-dimensional 3SUM, Chan and Lewenstein [STOC 2015] gave a surprising \tilde O(n^{2-2/(d+13)}) algorithm using additive combinatorics. We show this algorithm is essentially optimal. To be more precise, bounded monotone d-dimensional 3SUM requires time Omega(n^{2-\frac{4}{d}-o(1)}) under the standard 3SUM conjecture, and time Omega(n^{2-\frac{2}{d}-o(1)}) under the so-called strong 3SUM conjecture. Thus, even though one might hope to further exploit the structural advantage of monotonicity, no substantial improvements beyond those obtained by Chan and Lewenstein are possible for bounded monotone d-dimensional 3SUM.

Cite as

Chloe Ching-Yun Hsu and Chris Umans. On Multidimensional and Monotone k-SUM. In 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 83, pp. 50:1-50:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{hsu_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.50,
  author =	{Hsu, Chloe Ching-Yun and Umans, Chris},
  title =	{{On Multidimensional and Monotone k-SUM}},
  booktitle =	{42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)},
  pages =	{50:1--50:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-046-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{83},
  editor =	{Larsen, Kim G. and Bodlaender, Hans L. and Raskin, Jean-Francois},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.50},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80618},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.50},
  annote =	{Keywords: 3SUM, kSUM, monotone 3SUM, strong 3SUM conjecture}
}
Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 60, APPROX/RANDOM'16, Complete Volume

Authors: Klaus Jansen, Claire Mathieu, José D. P. Rolim, and Chris Umans

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 60, APPROX/RANDOM'16, Complete Volume

Cite as

Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@Proceedings{jansen_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 60, APPROX/RANDOM'16, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-018-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{60},
  editor =	{Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66809},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016},
  annote =	{Keywords: Theory of Computation, Models of Computation, Modes of Computation – Online Computation, Complexity Measures and Classes, Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity, Numerical Algorithms and Problems – Computations on Matrices, Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Program Committees, External Reviewers, List of Authors

Authors: Klaus Jansen, Claire Mathieu, José D. P. Rolim, and Chris Umans

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Program Committees, External Reviewers, List of Authors

Cite as

Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 0:i-0:xvi, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{jansen_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.0,
  author =	{Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Program Committees, External Reviewers, List of Authors}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xvi},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-018-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{60},
  editor =	{Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66235},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Program Committees, External Reviewers, List of Authors}
}
Document
Constant-Distortion Embeddings of Hausdorff Metrics into Constant-Dimensional l_p Spaces

Authors: Arturs Backurs and Anastasios Sidiropoulos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)


Abstract
We show that the Hausdorff metric over constant-size pointsets in constant-dimensional Euclidean space admits an embedding into constant-dimensional l_{infinity} space with constant distortion. More specifically for any s,d>=1, we obtain an embedding of the Hausdorff metric over pointsets of size s in d-dimensional Euclidean space, into l_{\infinity}^{s^{O(s+d)}} with distortion s^{O(s+d)}. We remark that any metric space M admits an isometric embedding into l_{infinity} with dimension proportional to the size of M. In contrast, we obtain an embedding of a space of infinite size into constant-dimensional l_{infinity}. We further improve the distortion and dimension trade-offs by considering probabilistic embeddings of the snowflake version of the Hausdorff metric. For the case of pointsets of size s in the real line of bounded resolution, we obtain a probabilistic embedding into l_1^{O(s*log(s()} with distortion O(s).

Cite as

Arturs Backurs and Anastasios Sidiropoulos. Constant-Distortion Embeddings of Hausdorff Metrics into Constant-Dimensional l_p Spaces. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 1:1-1:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{backurs_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.1,
  author =	{Backurs, Arturs and Sidiropoulos, Anastasios},
  title =	{{Constant-Distortion Embeddings of Hausdorff Metrics into Constant-Dimensional l\underlinep Spaces}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-018-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{60},
  editor =	{Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66241},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: metric embeddings, Hausdorff metric, distortion, dimension}
}
Document
Computing Approximate PSD Factorizations

Authors: Amitabh Basu, Michael Dinitz, and Xin Li

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)


Abstract
We give an algorithm for computing approximate PSD factorizations of nonnegative matrices. The running time of the algorithm is polynomial in the dimensions of the input matrix, but exponential in the PSD rank and the approximation error. The main ingredient is an exact factorization algorithm when the rows and columns of the factors are constrained to lie in a general polyhedron. This strictly generalizes nonnegative matrix factorizations which can be captured by letting this polyhedron to be the nonnegative orthant.

Cite as

Amitabh Basu, Michael Dinitz, and Xin Li. Computing Approximate PSD Factorizations. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 2:1-2:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{basu_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.2,
  author =	{Basu, Amitabh and Dinitz, Michael and Li, Xin},
  title =	{{Computing Approximate PSD Factorizations}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-018-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{60},
  editor =	{Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66258},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: PSD rank, PSD factorizations}
}
Document
Hardness of Approximation for H-Free Edge Modification Problems

Authors: Ivan Bliznets, Marek Cygan, Pawel Komosa, and Michal Pilipczuk

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)


Abstract
The H-free Edge Deletion problem asks, for a given graph G and integer k, whether it is possible to delete at most k edges from G to make it H-free, that is, not containing H as an induced subgraph. The H-free Edge Completion problem is defined similarly, but we add edges instead of deleting them. The study of these two problem families has recently been the subject of intensive studies from the point of view of parameterized complexity and kernelization. In particular, it was shown that the problems do not admit polynomial kernels (under plausible complexity assumptions) for almost all graphs H, with several important exceptions occurring when the class of H-free graphs exhibits some structural properties. In this work we complement the parameterized study of edge modification problems to H-free graphs by considering their approximability. We prove that whenever H is 3-connected and has at least two non-edges, then both H-free Edge Deletion and H-free Edge Completion are very hard to approximate: they do not admit poly(OPT)-approximation in polynomial time, unless P=NP, or even in time subexponential in OPT, unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails. The assumption of the existence of two non-edges appears to be important: we show that whenever H is a complete graph without one edge, then H-free Edge Deletion is tightly connected to the \minhorn problem, whose approximability is still open. Finally, in an attempt to extend our hardness results beyond 3-connected graphs, we consider the cases of H being a path or a cycle, and we achieve an almost complete dichotomy there.

Cite as

Ivan Bliznets, Marek Cygan, Pawel Komosa, and Michal Pilipczuk. Hardness of Approximation for H-Free Edge Modification Problems. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 3:1-3:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{bliznets_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.3,
  author =	{Bliznets, Ivan and Cygan, Marek and Komosa, Pawel and Pilipczuk, Michal},
  title =	{{Hardness of Approximation for H-Free Edge Modification Problems}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-018-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{60},
  editor =	{Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66260},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: hardness of approximation, parameterized complexity, kernelization, edge modification problems}
}
Document
On Approximating Target Set Selection

Authors: Moses Charikar, Yonatan Naamad, and Anthony Wirth

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)


Abstract
We study the Target Set Selection (TSS) problem introduced by Kempe, Kleinberg, and Tardos (2003). This problem models the propagation of influence in a network, in a sequence of rounds. A set of nodes is made "active" initially. In each subsequent round, a vertex is activated if at least a certain number of its neighbors are (already) active. In the minimization version, the goal is to activate a small set of vertices initially - a seed, or target, set - so that activation spreads to the entire graph. In the absence of a sublinear-factor algorithm for the general version, we provide a (sublinear) approximation algorithm for the bounded-round version, where the goal is to activate all the vertices in r rounds. Assuming a known conjecture on the hardness of Planted Dense Subgraph, we establish hardness-of-approximation results for the bounded-round version. We show that they translate to general Target Set Selection, leading to a hardness factor of n^(1/2-epsilon) for all epsilon > 0. This is the first polynomial hardness result for Target Set Selection, and the strongest conditional result known for a large class of monotone satisfiability problems. In the maximization version of TSS, the goal is to pick a target set of size k so as to maximize the number of nodes eventually active. We show an n^(1-epsilon) hardness result for the undirected maximization version of the problem, thus establishing that the undirected case is as hard as the directed case. Finally, we demonstrate an SETH lower bound for the exact computation of the optimal seed set.

Cite as

Moses Charikar, Yonatan Naamad, and Anthony Wirth. On Approximating Target Set Selection. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 4:1-4:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{charikar_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.4,
  author =	{Charikar, Moses and Naamad, Yonatan and Wirth, Anthony},
  title =	{{On Approximating Target Set Selection}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-018-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{60},
  editor =	{Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66274},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: target set selection, influence propagation, approximation algorithms, hardness of approximation, planted dense subgraph}
}
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