Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 142

14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)



Thumbnail PDF

Event

COSIT 2019, September 9-13, 2019, Regensburg, Germany

Editors

Sabine Timpf
  • University of Augsburg, Germany
Christoph Schlieder
  • University of Bamberg, Germany
Markus Kattenbeck
  • TU Wien, Austria
Bernd Ludwig
  • University of Regensburg, Germany
Kathleen Stewart
  • University of Maryland, U.S.A.

Publication Details

  • published at: 2019-09-03
  • Publisher: Schloss-Dagstuhl - Leibniz Zentrum für Informatik
  • ISBN: 978-3-95977-115-3
  • DBLP: db/conf/cosit/cosit2019

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Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 142, COSIT'19, Complete Volume

Authors: Sabine Timpf, Christoph Schlieder, Markus Kattenbeck, Bernd Ludwig, and Kathleen Stewart


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 142, COSIT'19, Complete Volume

Cite as

Sabine Timpf, Christoph Schlieder, Markus Kattenbeck, Bernd Ludwig, and Kathleen Stewart. LIPIcs, Volume 142, COSIT'19, Complete Volume. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@Proceedings{timpf_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 142, COSIT'19, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112984},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019},
  annote =	{Keywords: Information systems, Geographic information systems, Location based services,Computing methodologies, Natural language processing}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Authors: Sabine Timpf, Christoph Schlieder, Markus Kattenbeck, Bernd Ludwig, and Kathleen Stewart


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Cite as

Sabine Timpf, Christoph Schlieder, Markus Kattenbeck, Bernd Ludwig, and Kathleen Stewart. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 0:i-0:xx, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{timpf_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.0,
  author =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xx},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110921},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Human Vision at a Glance (Invited Talk)

Authors: Ruth Rosenholtz and Dian Yu


Abstract
Recent advances in human vision research have pointed toward a theory that unifies many aspects of vision relevant to information visualization. According to this theory, loss of information in peripheral vision determines performance on many visual tasks. This theory subsumes old concepts such as visual saliency, selective attention, and change blindness. It predicts the rich details we have access to at a glance. Furthermore, it provides insight into tasks not commonly studied in human vision, such as ability to comprehend connections in a network diagram, or to compare information in one part of a display with that in another.

Cite as

Ruth Rosenholtz and Dian Yu. Human Vision at a Glance (Invited Talk). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 1:1-1:4, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{rosenholtz_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.1,
  author =	{Rosenholtz, Ruth and Yu, Dian},
  title =	{{Human Vision at a Glance}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:4},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110937},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: human vision, information visualization, attention, eye movements, peripheral vision, gist, ensemble perception, search, saliency}
}
Document
Short Paper
Smartphone Usability for Emergency Evacuation Applications (Short Paper)

Authors: David Amores, Maria Vasardani, and Egemen Tanin


Abstract
Mobile phone ubiquity has allowed the implementation of a number of emergency-related evacuation aids. Yet, these applications still face a number of challenges in human-mobile interaction, namely: (1) lack of widely accepted mobile usability guidelines, (2) people’s limited cognitive capacity when using mobile phones under stress, and (3) difficulty recreating emergency scenarios as experiments for usability testing. This study is intended as an initial view into smartphone usability under emergency evacuations by compiling a list of experimental observations and setting the ground for future research in cognitively-informed spatial algorithms and app design.

Cite as

David Amores, Maria Vasardani, and Egemen Tanin. Smartphone Usability for Emergency Evacuation Applications (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 2:1-2:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{amores_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.2,
  author =	{Amores, David and Vasardani, Maria and Tanin, Egemen},
  title =	{{Smartphone Usability for Emergency Evacuation Applications}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:7},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110947},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: cognitive load, smartphone usability, ecological validity, emergency evacuation}
}
Document
Short Paper
Functional Scales in Assisted Wayfinding (Short Paper)

Authors: Heinrich Löwen, Jakub Krukar, and Angela Schwering


Abstract
GPS-based navigation systems are widely used to get wayfinding assistance. Current navigation systems incorporate different map scales for presenting wayfinding instructions, however, the selection of scale is not supported by psychological findings. Different tasks of the users such as the identification of the next decision point or the orientation within the environment might be supported best at particular scales. We propose a new conceptual distinction of functional scales with respect to their role in supporting wayfinding and orientation. We suggest that these functional scales can have a benefit for supporting wayfinding and orientation if used for providing wayfinding instructions. This we aim to empirically evaluate in future work.

Cite as

Heinrich Löwen, Jakub Krukar, and Angela Schwering. Functional Scales in Assisted Wayfinding (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 3:1-3:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{lowen_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.3,
  author =	{L\"{o}wen, Heinrich and Krukar, Jakub and Schwering, Angela},
  title =	{{Functional Scales in Assisted Wayfinding}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:7},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110953},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: navigation, wayfinding support, orientation information, scale}
}
Document
Short Paper
Representation of Interdependencies Between Urban Networks by a Multi-Layer Graph (Short Paper)

Authors: Laura Pinson, Géraldine Del Mondo, and Pierrick Tranouez


Abstract
The RGC4 (Urban resilience and Crisis Management in a Context of Slow Flood to Slow Kinetics) project aims to develop tools to help manage critical technical networks as part of the management process of crisis in a context of slow kinetic flooding in Paris. This project focuses on cascading models to identify a number of inter-dependencies between networks and to define tools capable of coordinating the actions of managers before and during the crisis. This paper revisits the conceptual and methodological bases of networks approach to study the inter-dependencies between networks. Research that studies the return to service of infrastructure networks often angle it from the perspective of operational research. The article proposes a graph theory perspective based on a multi-layer network approach and shows how to characterize the inter-dependencies between networks at three process levels (macro, meso, micro)

Cite as

Laura Pinson, Géraldine Del Mondo, and Pierrick Tranouez. Representation of Interdependencies Between Urban Networks by a Multi-Layer Graph (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 4:1-4:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{pinson_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.4,
  author =	{Pinson, Laura and Del Mondo, G\'{e}raldine and Tranouez, Pierrick},
  title =	{{Representation of Interdependencies Between Urban Networks by a Multi-Layer Graph}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110962},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph theory, multi-layer network, inter-dependencies, urban networks, urban resilience}
}
Document
Short Paper
Route Choice Through Regions by Pedestrian Agents (Short Paper)

Authors: Gabriele Filomena, Ed Manley, and Judith A. Verstegen


Abstract
Simulation models for pedestrian movement are valuable tools to support decision-making processes in urban design. However, existing models of pedestrian behaviour are built on simplistic assumptions regarding people’s representation of the urban space and spatial behaviour. In this work, a route-choice algorithm that takes into account regionalisation processes and the hierarchical organisation of geographical elements is adapted for pedestrian movement and incorporated into an agent-based model. The macro-level patterns emerging from two scenarios, one employing an angular-change minimisation algorithm and the other employing the regional algorithm here proposed, are compared for a case study in London, UK. Our routing algorithm led agents to recur to a higher number of street segments, i.e. routes were more diverse among agents. Though validation has not yet been performed, we deem the patterns resulting from the regional algorithm more plausible.

Cite as

Gabriele Filomena, Ed Manley, and Judith A. Verstegen. Route Choice Through Regions by Pedestrian Agents (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 5:1-5:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{filomena_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.5,
  author =	{Filomena, Gabriele and Manley, Ed and Verstegen, Judith A.},
  title =	{{Route Choice Through Regions by Pedestrian Agents}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110971},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: pedestrians, agent-based modelling, street network, cognitive regions, cognitive maps, Lynch}
}
Document
Vision Paper
Modeling and Representing Real-World Spatio-Temporal Data in Databases (Vision Paper)

Authors: José Moreira, José Duarte, and Paulo Dias


Abstract
Research in general-purpose spatio-temporal databases has focused mainly on the development of data models and query languages. However, since spatio-temporal data are captured as snapshots, an important research question is how to compute and represent the spatial evolution of the data between observations in databases. Current methods impose constraints to ensure data integrity, but, in some cases, these constraints do not allow the methods to obtain a natural representation of the evolution of spatio-temporal phenomena over time. This paper discusses a different approach where morphing techniques are used to represent the evolution of spatio-temporal data in databases. First, the methods proposed in the spatio-temporal databases literature are presented and their main limitations are discussed with the help of illustrative examples. Then, the paper discusses the use of morphing techniques to handle spatio-temporal data, and the requirements and the challenges that must be investigated to allow the use of these techniques in databases. Finally, a set of examples is presented to compare the approaches investigated in this work. The need for benchmarking methodologies for spatio-temporal databases is also highlighted.

Cite as

José Moreira, José Duarte, and Paulo Dias. Modeling and Representing Real-World Spatio-Temporal Data in Databases (Vision Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 6:1-6:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{moreira_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.6,
  author =	{Moreira, Jos\'{e} and Duarte, Jos\'{e} and Dias, Paulo},
  title =	{{Modeling and Representing Real-World Spatio-Temporal Data in Databases}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110984},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: spatio-temporal databases, region interpolation problem, moving regions, morphing techniques}
}
Document
Towards a Qualitative Reasoning on Shape Change and Object Division

Authors: Momo Tosue and Kazuko Takahashi


Abstract
We propose a qualitative representation for handling shape change and object division. We model the shape of a smooth curve in a two-dimensional plane together with its temporal change, using curvature extrema. The representation is based on Process-Grammar, which gives a causal account for each shape change. We introduce several rewriting rules to handle object division, that consist of making a tangent point, reconstruction, and separation. On the treatment of the division process, the expression can clarify the relative locations of multiple objects. We show formalization and application to represent a sequence of shape changes frequently observed in an organogenesis process.

Cite as

Momo Tosue and Kazuko Takahashi. Towards a Qualitative Reasoning on Shape Change and Object Division. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{tosue_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.7,
  author =	{Tosue, Momo and Takahashi, Kazuko},
  title =	{{Towards a Qualitative Reasoning on Shape Change and Object Division}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110998},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: qualitative spatial representation, symbolic shape representation, Process-Grammar}
}
Document
Vision Paper
Reproducible Research in Geoinformatics: Concepts, Challenges and Benefits (Vision Paper)

Authors: Christian Kray, Edzer Pebesma, Markus Konkol, and Daniel Nüst


Abstract
Geoinformatics deals with spatial and temporal information and its analysis. Research in this field often follows established practices of first developing computational solutions for specific spatiotemporal problems and then publishing the results and insights in a (static) paper, e.g. as a PDF. Not every detail can be included in such a paper, and particularly, the complete set of computational steps are frequently left out. While this approach conveys key knowledge to other researchers it makes it difficult to effectively re-use and reproduce the reported results. In this vision paper, we propose an alternative approach to carry out and report research in Geoinformatics. It is based on (computational) reproducibility, promises to make re-use and reproduction more effective, and creates new opportunities for further research. We report on experiences with executable research compendia (ERCs) as alternatives to classic publications in Geoinformatics, and we discuss how ERCs combined with a supporting research infrastructure can transform how we do research in Geoinformatics. We point out which challenges this idea entails and what new research opportunities emerge, in particular for the COSIT community.

Cite as

Christian Kray, Edzer Pebesma, Markus Konkol, and Daniel Nüst. Reproducible Research in Geoinformatics: Concepts, Challenges and Benefits (Vision Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 8:1-8:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{kray_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.8,
  author =	{Kray, Christian and Pebesma, Edzer and Konkol, Markus and N\"{u}st, Daniel},
  title =	{{Reproducible Research in Geoinformatics: Concepts, Challenges and Benefits}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111008},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: vision paper, Geoinformatics, reproducibility, computational, spatial and temporal information, spatial data science, GI Science}
}
Document
Short Paper
Cross-Corpora Analysis of Spatial Language: The Case of Fictive Motion (Short Paper)

Authors: Ekaterina Egorova, Niloofar Aflaki, Cristiane K. Marchis Fagundes, and Kristin Stock


Abstract
The way people describe where things are is one of the central questions of spatial information theory and has been the subject of considerable research. We investigate one particular type of location description, fictive motion (as in, The range runs along the coast). The use of this structure is known to highlight particular properties of the described entity, as well as to convey its configuration in physical space in an effective way. We annotated 496 fictive motion structures in seven corpora that represent different types of spatial discourse – news, travel blogs, texts describing outdoor pursuits and local history, as well as image and location descriptions. We analysed the results not only by examining the distribution of fictive motion structures across corpora, but also by exploring and comparing the semantic categories of verbs used in fictive motion. Our findings, first, add to our knowledge of location description strategies that go beyond prototypical locative phrases. They further reveal how the use of fictive motion varies across types of spatial discourse and reflects the nature of the described environment. Methodologically, we highlight the benefits of a cross-corpora analysis in the study of spatial language use across a variety of contexts.

Cite as

Ekaterina Egorova, Niloofar Aflaki, Cristiane K. Marchis Fagundes, and Kristin Stock. Cross-Corpora Analysis of Spatial Language: The Case of Fictive Motion (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 9:1-9:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{egorova_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.9,
  author =	{Egorova, Ekaterina and Aflaki, Niloofar and Fagundes, Cristiane K. Marchis and Stock, Kristin},
  title =	{{Cross-Corpora Analysis of Spatial Language: The Case of Fictive Motion}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111011},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: spatial language, spatial discourse, fictive motion, location, cross-corpora analysis}
}
Document
Short Paper
Talk of the Town: Discovering Open Public Data via Voice Assistants (Short Paper)

Authors: Sara Lafia, Jingyi Xiao, Thomas Hervey, and Werner Kuhn


Abstract
Access to public data in the United States and elsewhere has steadily increased as governments have launched geospatially-enabled web portals like Socrata, CKAN, and Esri Hub. However, data discovery in these portals remains a challenge for the average user. Differences between users' colloquial search terms and authoritative metadata impede data discovery. For example, a motivated user with expertise can leverage valuable public data about transportation, real estate values, and crime, yet it remains difficult for the average user to discover and leverage data. To close this gap, community dashboards that use public data are being developed to track initiatives for public consumption; however, dashboards still require users to discover and interpret data. Alternatively, local governments are now developing data discovery systems that use voice assistants like Amazon Alexa and Google Home as conversational interfaces to public data portals. We explore these emerging technologies, examining the application areas they are designed to address and the degree to which they currently leverage existing open public geospatial data. In the context of ongoing technological advances, we envision using core concepts of spatial information to organize the geospatial themes of data exposed through voice assistant applications. This will allow us to curate them for improved discovery, ultimately supporting more meaningful user questions and their translation into spatial computations.

Cite as

Sara Lafia, Jingyi Xiao, Thomas Hervey, and Werner Kuhn. Talk of the Town: Discovering Open Public Data via Voice Assistants (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 10:1-10:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{lafia_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.10,
  author =	{Lafia, Sara and Xiao, Jingyi and Hervey, Thomas and Kuhn, Werner},
  title =	{{Talk of the Town: Discovering Open Public Data via Voice Assistants}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:7},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111026},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: data discovery, open public data, voice assistants, essential model, GIS}
}
Document
Short Paper
Detecting the Geospatialness of Prepositions from Natural Language Text (Short Paper)

Authors: Mansi Radke, Prarthana Das, Kristin Stock, and Christopher B. Jones


Abstract
There is increasing interest in detecting the presence of geospatial locative expressions that include spatial relation terms such as near or within <some distance>. Being able to do so provides a foundation for interpreting relative descriptions of location and for building corpora that facilitate the development of methods for spatial relation extraction and interpretation. Here we evaluate the use of a spatial role labelling procedure to distinguish geospatial uses of prepositions from other spatial and non-spatial uses and experiment with the use of additional machine learning features to improve the quality of detection of geospatial prepositions. An annotated corpus of nearly 2000 instances of preposition usage was created for training and testing the classifiers.

Cite as

Mansi Radke, Prarthana Das, Kristin Stock, and Christopher B. Jones. Detecting the Geospatialness of Prepositions from Natural Language Text (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 11:1-11:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{radke_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.11,
  author =	{Radke, Mansi and Das, Prarthana and Stock, Kristin and Jones, Christopher B.},
  title =	{{Detecting the Geospatialness of Prepositions from Natural Language Text}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111033},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: spatial language, natural language processing, geospatial language}
}
Document
Short Paper
Initial Analysis of Simple Where-Questions and Human-Generated Answers (Short Paper)

Authors: Ehsan Hamzei, Stephan Winter, and Martin Tomko


Abstract
Geographic questions are among the most frequently asked questions in Web search and question answering systems. While currently responses to the questions are machine-generated by document/snippet retrieval, in the future these responses will need to become more similar to answers provided by humans. Here, we have analyzed human answering behavior as response to simple where questions (i.e., where questions formulated only with one toponym) in terms of type, scale, and prominence of the places referred to. We have used the largest available machine comprehension dataset, MS-MARCO v2.1. This study uses an automatic approach for extraction, encoding and analysis of the questions and answers. Here, the distribution analysis are used to describe the relation between questions and their answers. The results of this study can inform the design of automatic question answering systems for generating useful responses to where questions.

Cite as

Ehsan Hamzei, Stephan Winter, and Martin Tomko. Initial Analysis of Simple Where-Questions and Human-Generated Answers (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 12:1-12:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{hamzei_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.12,
  author =	{Hamzei, Ehsan and Winter, Stephan and Tomko, Martin},
  title =	{{Initial Analysis of Simple Where-Questions and Human-Generated Answers}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111049},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: question answering, scale, prominence, where-questions}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Spatial Information Theory and Construction Informatics – a Fruitful Symbiosis (Invited Talk)

Authors: André Borrmann


Abstract
Traditionally, Spatial Information Theory and Construction Engineering have been recognized as widely separated fields with only very little connections. However, in recent years the construction industry has undergone a substantial change: It is evolving from rather historic practices based on 2D drawings into modern digital processes based on information-rich 3D models that can be generated, analyzed and processed by means of computer technology. This progression, driven and fostered by the Construction Informatics Community, opens the possibility for innovative research in the fascinating area where Spatial Information Theory and Construction Engineering overlap. The paper gives an overview on ongoing activities in this area.

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André Borrmann. Spatial Information Theory and Construction Informatics – a Fruitful Symbiosis (Invited Talk). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 13:1-13:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{borrmann:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.13,
  author =	{Borrmann, Andr\'{e}},
  title =	{{Spatial Information Theory and Construction Informatics – a Fruitful Symbiosis}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:7},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111050},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Spatial operators, Code Compliance Checking, Design synthesis, Visual query language, Pedestrian dynamics}
}
Document
A Case for Geographic Masses

Authors: Brandon S. Plewe


Abstract
Geographic masses, the stuff we deal with that cannot be categorized as geographic objects, comprise a crucial but largely unrecognized component of the core ontology of geographic information. Although masses have been rarely acknowledged in GIScience, they appear in geographic discourse just as often as objects. A concise but consistent formal definition of a geographic mass particular, which distinguishes a mass from an object, can be applied to any endurant phenomena, enabling a richer understanding of the geographic milieu, and more informed decision making during modeling and analysis processes.

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Brandon S. Plewe. A Case for Geographic Masses. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 14:1-14:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{plewe:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.14,
  author =	{Plewe, Brandon S.},
  title =	{{A Case for Geographic Masses}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111062},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Ontology, Masses}
}
Document
Formal Qualitative Spatial Augmentation of the Simple Feature Access Model

Authors: Shirly Stephen and Torsten Hahmann


Abstract
The need to share and integrate heterogeneous geospatial data has resulted in the development of geospatial data standards such as the OGC/ISO standard Simple Feature Access (SFA), that standardize operations and simple topological and mereotopological relations over various geometric features such as points, line segments, polylines, polygons, and polyhedral surfaces. While SFA’s supplied relations enable qualitative querying over the geometric features, the relations' semantics are not formalized. This lack of formalization prevents further automated reasoning - apart from simple querying - with the geometric data, either in isolation or in conjunction with external purely qualitative information as one might extract from textual sources, such as social media. To enable joint qualitative reasoning over geometric and qualitative spatial information, this work formalizes the semantics of SFA’s geometric features and mereotopological relations by defining or restricting them in terms of the spatial entity types and relations provided by CODIB, a first-order logical theory from an existing logical formalization of multidimensional qualitative space.

Cite as

Shirly Stephen and Torsten Hahmann. Formal Qualitative Spatial Augmentation of the Simple Feature Access Model. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 15:1-15:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{stephen_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.15,
  author =	{Stephen, Shirly and Hahmann, Torsten},
  title =	{{Formal Qualitative Spatial Augmentation of the Simple Feature Access Model}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111074},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: space, geometry, geospatial semantics, qualitative spatial representation (QSR), simple feature access, topological relations, formal ontology}
}
Document
Vision Paper
Why Classificatory Information of Geographic Regions Is Quantum Information (Vision Paper)

Authors: Thomas Bittner


Abstract
This paper gives an information - theoretic argument in support of the claim that there is geographic quantum information. Quantum information is information in the sense of Shannon’s information theory, that, in addition, satisfies two characteristic postulates. The paper aims to show that if the density of information (bits per unit of space) that is possible for classificatory geographic qualities is limited, then it follows that the two characteristic postulates of quantum information are satisfied for information about those geographic qualities.

Cite as

Thomas Bittner. Why Classificatory Information of Geographic Regions Is Quantum Information (Vision Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 16:1-16:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bittner:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.16,
  author =	{Bittner, Thomas},
  title =	{{Why Classificatory Information of Geographic Regions Is Quantum Information}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111088},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Information theory, quantum information, classification and delineation}
}
Document
The Language of Architectural Diagrams

Authors: Thora Tenbrink, Ruth C. Dalton, and Anwen Jago Williams


Abstract
Complex buildings frequently present a challenge to users’ understanding, which may affect wayfinding as well as appreciation of the building’s structure. In this paper we focus on the building’s diagram, a representation by the building’s architect that captures its main ‘idea’. Motivated by the intuition that a building may be easier to understand if its conceptual diagram can be clearly and easily described, we explored perceivers’ descriptions of such diagrams' features. We asked students of Language and students of Architecture to write about the buildings represented in a variety of diagrams, and then repeated the task for photographs of the actual buildings. Using Cognitive Discourse Analysis, we aimed to create a first qualitative exploration of the linguistic and conceptual patterns that are associated with the perception of diagrams and images of complex buildings. Among other factors, results show how perception of the diagram’s meaning is fundamentally affected by subject expertise. Linguistic patterns demonstrate the ways in which written descriptions reflect observers’ understanding and concepts of building representations, providing a starting point for future studies which may address the possible relationship between the verbalisability of a diagram and the legibility of a building.

Cite as

Thora Tenbrink, Ruth C. Dalton, and Anwen Jago Williams. The Language of Architectural Diagrams. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 17:1-17:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{tenbrink_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.17,
  author =	{Tenbrink, Thora and Dalton, Ruth C. and Williams, Anwen Jago},
  title =	{{The Language of Architectural Diagrams}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111099},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: visualisation, Cognitive Discourse Analysis, linguistic representation, building legibility}
}
Document
Enabling the Discovery of Thematically Related Research Objects with Systematic Spatializations

Authors: Sara Lafia, Christina Last, and Werner Kuhn


Abstract
It is challenging for scholars to discover thematically related research in a multidisciplinary setting, such as that of a university library. In this work, we use spatialization techniques to convey the relatedness of research themes without requiring scholars to have specific knowledge of disciplinary search terminology. We approach this task conceptually by revisiting existing spatialization techniques and reframing them in terms of core concepts of spatial information, highlighting their different capacities. To apply our design, we spatialize masters and doctoral theses (two kinds of research objects available through a university library repository) using topic modeling to assign a relatively small number of research topics to the objects. We discuss and implement two distinct spaces for exploration: a field view of research topics and a network view of research objects. We find that each space enables distinct visual perceptions and questions about the relatedness of research themes. A field view enables questions about the distribution of research objects in the topic space, while a network view enables questions about connections between research objects or about their centrality. Our work contributes to spatialization theory a systematic choice of spaces informed by core concepts of spatial information. Its application to the design of library discovery tools offers two distinct and intuitive ways to gain insights into the thematic relatedness of research objects, regardless of the disciplinary terms used to describe them.

Cite as

Sara Lafia, Christina Last, and Werner Kuhn. Enabling the Discovery of Thematically Related Research Objects with Systematic Spatializations. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 18:1-18:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{lafia_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.18,
  author =	{Lafia, Sara and Last, Christina and Kuhn, Werner},
  title =	{{Enabling the Discovery of Thematically Related Research Objects with Systematic Spatializations}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111102},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: spatialization, core concepts of spatial information, information discovery}
}
Document
Vision Paper
The Future of Geographic Information Displays from GIScience, Cartographic, and Cognitive Science Perspectives (Vision Paper)

Authors: Tyler Thrash, Sara Lanini-Maggi, Sara I. Fabrikant, Sven Bertel, Annina Brügger, Sascha Credé, Cao Tri Do, Georg Gartner, Haosheng Huang, Stefan Münzer, and Kai-Florian Richter


Abstract
With the development of modern geovisual analytics tools, several researchers have emphasized the importance of understanding users' cognitive, perceptual, and affective tendencies for supporting spatial decisions with geographic information displays (GIDs). However, most recent technological developments have focused on support for navigation in terms of efficiency and effectiveness while neglecting the importance of spatial learning. In the present paper, we will envision the future of GIDs that also support spatial learning in the context of large-scale navigation. Specifically, we will illustrate the manner in which GIDs have been (in the past) and might be (in the future) designed to be context-responsive, personalized, and supportive for active spatial learning from three different perspectives (i.e., GIScience, cartography, and cognitive science). We will also explain why this approach is essential for preventing the technological infantilizing of society (i.e., the reduction of our capacity to make decisions without technological assistance). Although these issues are common to nearly all emerging digital technologies, we argue that these issues become especially relevant in consideration of a person’s current and future locations.

Cite as

Tyler Thrash, Sara Lanini-Maggi, Sara I. Fabrikant, Sven Bertel, Annina Brügger, Sascha Credé, Cao Tri Do, Georg Gartner, Haosheng Huang, Stefan Münzer, and Kai-Florian Richter. The Future of Geographic Information Displays from GIScience, Cartographic, and Cognitive Science Perspectives (Vision Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 19:1-19:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{thrash_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.19,
  author =	{Thrash, Tyler and Lanini-Maggi, Sara and Fabrikant, Sara I. and Bertel, Sven and Br\"{u}gger, Annina and Cred\'{e}, Sascha and Do, Cao Tri and Gartner, Georg and Huang, Haosheng and M\"{u}nzer, Stefan and Richter, Kai-Florian},
  title =	{{The Future of Geographic Information Displays from GIScience, Cartographic, and Cognitive Science Perspectives}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111113},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: visual displays, geographic information, cartography, cognitive science}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Twenty-Five Years of COSIT: A Brief and Tasty History (Invited Talk)

Authors: Daniel R. Montello


Abstract
In this talk, I offer a few thoughts in celebration of COSIT '14, said to be the 25th anniversary of the Conference on Spatial Information Theory. I reminisce about some of the many interesting and entertaining people who have participated in COSIT over the years, and wax nostalgic over many of the incredible memories it has engendered, from Pisa to L’Aquila, and now Regensburg. Many fascinating and truly interdisciplinary explorations have occurred, and continue to occur, at this international meeting of the minds and bodies and symbol systems. I specifically touch on three of the "curious concepts of COSIT" in my talk: cognitive maps, qualitative reasoning, and ontologies.

Cite as

Daniel R. Montello. Twenty-Five Years of COSIT: A Brief and Tasty History (Invited Talk). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 20:1-20:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{montello:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.20,
  author =	{Montello, Daniel R.},
  title =	{{Twenty-Five Years of COSIT: A Brief and Tasty History}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:3},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111120},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: History of COSIT}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Perception of Space in Virtual and Augmented Reality (Invited Talk)

Authors: Sarah H. Creem-Regehr


Abstract
Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR and AR) methods provide both opportunities and challenges for research and applications involving spatial cognition. The opportunities result from the ability to immerse a user in a realistic environment in which they can interact, while at the same time having the ability to control and manipulate environmental and body-based cues in ways that are difficult or impossible to do in the real world. The challenge comes from the notion that virtual environments will be most useful if they achieve high perceptual fidelity - that observers will perceive and act in the mediated environment as they would in the real world. Consider two approaches to the use of VR/AR for in cognitive science. The first is to serve applications. For this, I argue in many cases we need to achieve and measure perceptual fidelity. Specifically, perceiving sizes and distances similarly to the real world may be critical for applications in design or training where the accuracy in scale matters. The second approach is to use VR/AR to manipulate environment-body interactions in ways that test perception-action mechanisms. Our lab and collaborators take both of these approaches, as they often mutually inform each other. I will present two examples of this dual approach to the use of VR that take advantage of the body-based feedback available in immersive virtual environments, in adults and children. The study of children’s spatial cognition is an important new direction in VR research, now feasible with the emergence of head-mounted-display technologies that fit those with smaller heads. Immersive VR has great potential for education, specifically in advancing complex spatial thinking, but a foundational understanding of children’s perception and action must first be established. This is particularly important because children’s rapidly changing bodies likely lead to differences compared to adults in how they represent and use their bodies for perception, action, and spatial learning. Even with rapidly advancing VR technologies, one continuing challenge is how to accurately update one’s spatial position in a large virtual environment when real walking is constrained by limited physical space or tracking capabilities. In my first example, I will present research that compares different modes of locomotion that vary the extent of visual or body-based information for self-motion, and tests the ability of users to keep track of their positions during self-movement. Differences in adults and children suggest reliance on different cues for spatial updating. Research in space perception in VR suggests that viewers underestimate egocentric distances in VR as compared to the real world, although the new commodity-level head-mounted-displays have somewhat reduced this effect. In a second example, I will present research that examines the role of bodies in scaling the affordances of environmental spaces. We use judgments of action capabilities both to evaluate the perceptual fidelity of virtual environments and to test the role of visual body representations on these judgments. Finally, I will present extensions of the use of affordances to evaluate perceptual fidelity in VR to new possibilities with AR, in which virtual objects are embedded in the real world. This work demonstrates that augmented reality environments can be acted upon as the real world, but some differences exist that may be due to current technology limitations.

Cite as

Sarah H. Creem-Regehr. Perception of Space in Virtual and Augmented Reality (Invited Talk). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, p. 21:1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{creemregehr:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.21,
  author =	{Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.},
  title =	{{Perception of Space in Virtual and Augmented Reality}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111134},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: space perception, affordances, virtual reality, augmented reality}
}
Document
Planning and Explanations with a Learned Spatial Model

Authors: Susan L. Epstein and Raj Korpan


Abstract
This paper reports on a robot controller that learns and applies a cognitively-based spatial model as it travels in challenging, real-world indoor spaces. The model not only describes indoor space, but also supports robust, model-based planning. Together with the spatial model, the controller’s reasoning framework allows it to explain and defend its decisions in accessible natural language. The novel contributions of this paper are an enhanced cognitive spatial model that facilitates successful reasoning and planning, and the ability to explain navigation choices for a complex environment. Empirical evidence is provided by simulation of a commercial robot in a large, complex, realistic world.

Cite as

Susan L. Epstein and Raj Korpan. Planning and Explanations with a Learned Spatial Model. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 22:1-22:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{epstein_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.22,
  author =	{Epstein, Susan L. and Korpan, Raj},
  title =	{{Planning and Explanations with a Learned Spatial Model}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111148},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: navigation, planning, learning, explanation, spatial model, heuristics}
}
Document
Schematic Maps and Indoor Wayfinding

Authors: Christina Bauer and Bernd Ludwig


Abstract
Schematic maps are often discussed as an adequate alternative of displaying wayfinding information compared to detailed map designs. However, these depictions have not yet been compared and analyzed in-depth. In this paper, we present a user study that evaluates the wayfinding behaviour of participants either using a detailed floor plan or a schematic map that only shows the route to follow and landmarks. The study was conducted in an indoor real-world scenario. The depictions were presented with the help of a mobile navigation system. We analyzed the time it took to understand the wayfinding instruction and the workload of the users. Moreover, we examined how the depictions were visually perceived with a mobile eye tracker. Results show that wayfinders who use the detailed map spend more visual attention on the instructions. Nevertheless, the depiction does not help to solve the task: they also needed more time to orient themselves. Regarding the workload and the wayfinding errors no differences were found.

Cite as

Christina Bauer and Bernd Ludwig. Schematic Maps and Indoor Wayfinding. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 23:1-23:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bauer_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.23,
  author =	{Bauer, Christina and Ludwig, Bernd},
  title =	{{Schematic Maps and Indoor Wayfinding}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111157},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: Wayfinding, schematic maps, eye tracking, indoor environment}
}
Document
Dyadic Route Planning and Navigation in Collaborative Wayfinding

Authors: Crystal J. Bae and Daniel R. Montello


Abstract
The great majority of work in spatial cognition has taken an individual approach to the study of wayfinding, isolating the planning and decision-making process of a single navigating entity. The study we present here expands our understanding of human navigation as it unfolds in a social context, common to real-world scenarios. We investigate pedestrian navigation by pairs of people (dyads) in an unfamiliar, real-world environment. Participants collaborated on a task to plan and enact a route between a given origin and destination. Each dyad had to devise and agree upon a route to take using a paper map of the environment, and was then taken to the environment and asked to navigate to the destination from memory alone. We video-recorded and tracked the dyad as they interacted during both planning and navigation. Our results examine explanations for successful route planning and sources of uncertainty in navigation. This includes differences between situated and prospective planning - participants often modify their route-following on the fly based on unexpected challenges. We also investigate strategies of social role-taking (leading and following) within dyads.

Cite as

Crystal J. Bae and Daniel R. Montello. Dyadic Route Planning and Navigation in Collaborative Wayfinding. In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 24:1-24:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bae_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.24,
  author =	{Bae, Crystal J. and Montello, Daniel R.},
  title =	{{Dyadic Route Planning and Navigation in Collaborative Wayfinding}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111168},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: Wayfinding, Navigation, Collaboration, Leadership, Conversation Analysis}
}
Document
Short Paper
Assessing Spatial Information in Physical Environments (Short Paper)

Authors: Vinicius M. Netto, Edgardo Brigatti, Caio Cacholas, and Vinicius Gomes Aleixo


Abstract
Many approaches have dealt with the hypothesis that the environment contain information, mostly focusing on how humans decode information from the environment in visual perception, navigation, and spatial decision-making. A question yet to be fully explored is how the built environment could encode forms of information in its own physical structures. This paper explores a new measure of spatial information, and applies it to twenty cities from different spatial cultures and regions of the world. Findings suggest that this methodology is able to identify similarities between cities, generating a classification scheme that opens up new questions about what we call "cultural hypothesis": the idea that spatial configurations find consistent differences between cultures and regions.

Cite as

Vinicius M. Netto, Edgardo Brigatti, Caio Cacholas, and Vinicius Gomes Aleixo. Assessing Spatial Information in Physical Environments (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 25:1-25:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{netto_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.25,
  author =	{Netto, Vinicius M. and Brigatti, Edgardo and Cacholas, Caio and Aleixo, Vinicius Gomes},
  title =	{{Assessing Spatial Information in Physical Environments}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111179},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spatial information, physical environment, Shannon entropy}
}
Document
Short Paper
lambdaProlog(QS): Functional Spatial Reasoning in Higher Order Logic Programming (Short Paper)

Authors: Beidi Li, Mehul Bhatt, and Carl Schultz


Abstract
We present a framework and proof-of-concept implementation for functional spatial reasoning within high-order logic programming. The developed approach extends lambdaProlog to support reasoning over spatial variables via Constraint Handling Rules. We implement our approach within Embeddable lambdaProlog Interpreter (ELPI) and demonstrate key features from combined reasoning over spatial functions and relations. The reported research is an ongoing development of the declarative spatial reasoning paradigm.

Cite as

Beidi Li, Mehul Bhatt, and Carl Schultz. lambdaProlog(QS): Functional Spatial Reasoning in Higher Order Logic Programming (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 26:1-26:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.26,
  author =	{Li, Beidi and Bhatt, Mehul and Schultz, Carl},
  title =	{{lambdaProlog(QS): Functional Spatial Reasoning in Higher Order Logic Programming}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:8},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111183},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spatial reasoning, Functional logic programming, Lambda-Prolog}
}
Document
Short Paper
Towards Modeling Geographical Processes with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) (Short Paper)

Authors: David Jonietz and Michael Kopp


Abstract
Recently, Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have demonstrated great potential for a range of Machine Learning tasks, including synthetic video generation, but have so far not been applied to the domain of modeling geographical processes. In this study, we align these two problems and - motivated by the potential advantages of GANs compared to traditional geosimulation methods - test the capability of GANs to learn a set of underlying rules which determine a geographical process. For this purpose, we turn to Conway’s well-known Game of Life (GoL) as a source for spatio-temporal training data, and further argue for its (and simple variants of it) usefulness as a potential standard training data set for benchmarking generative geographical process models.

Cite as

David Jonietz and Michael Kopp. Towards Modeling Geographical Processes with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 27:1-27:9, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{jonietz_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.27,
  author =	{Jonietz, David and Kopp, Michael},
  title =	{{Towards Modeling Geographical Processes with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:9},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111193},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: GAN, generative modeling, deep learning, geosimulation, game of life}
}
Document
Short Paper
Granular Spatial Calculi of Relative Directions or Movements with Parallelism: Consistent Account (Short Paper)

Authors: Reinhard Moratz, Leif Sabellek, and Thomas Schneider


Abstract
The OPRA* calculus family, originally suggested by Frank Dylla, adds parallelism to the OPRA calculus family which is very popular in Qualitative Spatio-temporal Reasoning (QSTR). Adding parallelism enables the direct representation of parallel moving objects, which is relevant in many applications like traffic monitoring. However, it turned out that it is hard to derive a sound geometric analysis. So far no sound spatial reasoning was supported. Our new generic analysis based on combining condensed semantics lower bounds with upper bounds from algebraic mappings of related calculi already leads to a close and sound approximization. This approximization can be easily augmented with a manual analysis of few geometrically underconstrained cases and then yields a complete analysis of possible configurations in this oriented point framework. This for the first time enables sound standard QSTR constraint reasoning for the OPRA* calculus family.

Cite as

Reinhard Moratz, Leif Sabellek, and Thomas Schneider. Granular Spatial Calculi of Relative Directions or Movements with Parallelism: Consistent Account (Short Paper). In 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 142, pp. 28:1-28:9, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{moratz_et_al:LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.28,
  author =	{Moratz, Reinhard and Sabellek, Leif and Schneider, Thomas},
  title =	{{Granular Spatial Calculi of Relative Directions or Movements with Parallelism: Consistent Account}},
  booktitle =	{14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:9},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-115-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{142},
  editor =	{Timpf, Sabine and Schlieder, Christoph and Kattenbeck, Markus and Ludwig, Bernd and Stewart, Kathleen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111206},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: qualitative spatial-temporal reasoning, composition table, condensed semantics, homomorphic embeddings}
}

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