Found 9 Possible Name Variants:

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**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 36, 5th Workshop on Medical Cyber-Physical Systems (2014)

This paper presents a generic infusion pump user interface (GIP-UI) architecture that intends to capture the common characteristics and functionalities of interactive software incorporated in broad classes of infusion pumps. It is designed to facilitate the identification of use hazards and their causes in infusion pump designs. This architecture constitutes our first effort at establishing a model-based risk analysis methodology that helps manufacturers identify and mitigate use hazards in their products at early stages of the development life-cycle.
The applicability of the GIP-UI architecture has been confirmed in a hazard analysis focusing on the number entry software of existing infusion pumps, in which the GIP-UI architecture is used to identify a substantial set of user interface design errors that may contribute to use hazards found in infusion pump incidents.

Paolo Masci, Yi Zhang, Paul Jones, Harold Thimbleby, and Paul Curzon. A Generic User Interface Architecture for Analyzing Use Hazards in Infusion Pump Software. In 5th Workshop on Medical Cyber-Physical Systems. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 36, pp. 1-14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{masci_et_al:OASIcs.MCPS.2014.1, author = {Masci, Paolo and Zhang, Yi and Jones, Paul and Thimbleby, Harold and Curzon, Paul}, title = {{A Generic User Interface Architecture for Analyzing Use Hazards in Infusion Pump Software}}, booktitle = {5th Workshop on Medical Cyber-Physical Systems}, pages = {1--14}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-66-8}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2014}, volume = {36}, editor = {Turau, Volker and Kwiatkowska, Marta and Mangharam, Rahul and Weyer, Christoph}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.MCPS.2014.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-45185}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.MCPS.2014.1}, annote = {Keywords: Infusion Pump, Hazard analysis, Use hazards, User Interface, Interactive software, Design errors} }

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**Published in:** OASIcs, Volume 18, Bringing Theory to Practice: Predictability and Performance in Embedded Systems (2011)

Recent theoretical studies have shown that partitioning-based scheduling has better real-time performance than other scheduling paradigms like global scheduling on multi-cores. Especially, a class of partitioning-based scheduling algorithms (called semi-partitioned scheduling), which allow to split a small number of tasks among different cores, offer very high resource utilization, and appear to be a promising solution for scheduling real-time systems on multi-cores. The major concern about the semi-partitioned scheduling is that due to the task splitting, some tasks will migrate from one core to another at run time, and might incur higher context switch overhead than partitioned scheduling. So one would suspect whether the extra overhead caused by task splitting would counteract the theoretical performance gain of semi-partitioned scheduling.
In this work, we implement a semi-partitioned scheduler in the Linux operating system, and run experiments on a Intel Core-i7 4-cores machine to measure the real overhead in both partitioned scheduling and semi-partitioned scheduling. Then we integrate the obtained overhead into the state-of-the-art partitioned scheduling and semi-partitioned scheduling algorithms, and conduct empirical comparison of their real-time performance. Our results show that the extra overhead caused by task splitting in semi-partitioned scheduling is very low, and its effect on the system schedulability is very small. Semi-partitioned scheduling indeed outperforms partitioned scheduling in realistic systems.

Yi Zhang, Nan Guan, and Wang Yi. Towards the Implementation and Evaluation of Semi-Partitioned Multi-Core Scheduling. In Bringing Theory to Practice: Predictability and Performance in Embedded Systems. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 18, pp. 42-46, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{zhang_et_al:OASIcs.PPES.2011.42, author = {Zhang, Yi and Guan, Nan and Yi, Wang}, title = {{Towards the Implementation and Evaluation of Semi-Partitioned Multi-Core Scheduling}}, booktitle = {Bringing Theory to Practice: Predictability and Performance in Embedded Systems}, pages = {42--46}, series = {Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-28-6}, ISSN = {2190-6807}, year = {2011}, volume = {18}, editor = {Lucas, Philipp and Wilhelm, Reinhard}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.PPES.2011.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-30804}, doi = {10.4230/OASIcs.PPES.2011.42}, annote = {Keywords: real-time operating system, multi-core, semi-partitioned scheduling} }

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6431, Scalable Data Management in Evolving Networks (2007)

MonetDB/XQuery* is a fully functional publicly available XML DBMS that has
been extended with distributed and P2P data management functionality.
Our (minimal) XQuery language extension XRPC adds the
concept of RPC to XQuery, and we outlined our approach to include
the services offered by diverse P2P network structures (such as DHTs),
in a way that avoids any further intrusion in the XQuery language and semantics.
We also discussed the StreetTiVo application were mxq is
being used for data management in a large P2P environment.
new construct called XRPC.

Peter A. Boncz and Yi Zhang. P2P XQuery and the StreetTiVo application. In Scalable Data Management in Evolving Networks. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6431, p. 1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)

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@InProceedings{boncz_et_al:DagSemProc.06431.6, author = {Boncz, Peter A. and Zhang, Yi}, title = {{P2P XQuery and the StreetTiVo application}}, booktitle = {Scalable Data Management in Evolving Networks}, pages = {1--1}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2007}, volume = {6431}, editor = {Stefan B\"{o}ttcher and Le Gruenwald and Pedro Jose Marr\'{o}n and Evaggelia Pitoura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.06431.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9499}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.06431.6}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed XQuery, P2P, DHT} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 56, 30th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2016)

Protocol and typestate analyses often report some sequences of
statements ending at a program point P that needs to be
scrutinized, since P may be erroneous or imprecisely
analyzed. Program slicing focuses only on the behavior at P by
computing a slice of the program affecting the values at P. In
this paper, we propose to restrict our attention to the subset of
that behavior at P affected by one or several statement
sequences, called a sequential criterion (SC). By leveraging the
ordering information in a SC, e.g., the temporal order in a few
valid/invalid API method invocation sequences, we introduce a
new technique, program tailoring, to compute a tailored program
that comprises the statements in all possible execution paths
passing through at least one sequence in SC in the given
order. With a prototyping implementation, Tailor, we show why
tailoring is practically useful by conducting two case studies on
seven large real-world Java applications. For program
debugging and understanding, Tailor can complement program
slicing by removing SC-irrelevant statements. For program
analysis, Tailor can enable a pointer analysis, which is
unscalable to a program, to perform a more focused and therefore
potentially scalable analysis to its specific parts containing
hard language features such as reflection.

Yue Li, Tian Tan, Yifei Zhang, and Jingling Xue. Program Tailoring: Slicing by Sequential Criteria. In 30th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 56, pp. 15:1-15:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.ECOOP.2016.15, author = {Li, Yue and Tan, Tian and Zhang, Yifei and Xue, Jingling}, title = {{Program Tailoring: Slicing by Sequential Criteria}}, booktitle = {30th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2016)}, pages = {15:1--15:27}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-014-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {56}, editor = {Krishnamurthi, Shriram and Lerner, Benjamin S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2016.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-61092}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2016.15}, annote = {Keywords: Program Slicing, Program Analysis, API Protocol Analysis} }

Document

**Published in:** DARTS, Volume 2, Issue 1, Special Issue of the 30th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2016)

Protocol and typestate analyses often report some sequences of statements ending at a program point P that needs to be scrutinized, since P may be erroneous or imprecisely analyzed. Program slicing focuses only on the behavior at P by computing a slice of the program affecting the values at P. In our companion paper "Program Tailoring: Slicing by Sequential Criteria", we propose to focus on the subset of that behavior at P affected by one or several statement sequences, called a sequential criterion (SC). By leveraging the ordering information in a SC, e.g., the temporal order in a few valid/invalid API method invocation sequences, we introduce a new technique, program tailoring, to compute a tailored program that comprises the statements in all possible execution paths passing through at least one sequence in SC in the given order.
This artifact is based on TAILOR, a prototyping implementation of program tailoring, to evaluate the usefulness of TAILOR in practice. The provided package is designed to support repeatability of all the experiments of our companion paper. Specifically, it allows users to reproduce the results for all the three research questions addressed in the evaluation section of our companion paper. In addition, an extensive set of extra results, which are not described in the companion paper, are also included, in order to help users better understand this work.

Tian Tan, Yue Li, Yifei Zhang, and Jingling Xue. Program Tailoring: Slicing by Sequential Criteria (Artifact). In Special Issue of the 30th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2016). Dagstuhl Artifacts Series (DARTS), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 8:1-8:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@Article{tan_et_al:DARTS.2.1.8, author = {Tan, Tian and Li, Yue and Zhang, Yifei and Xue, Jingling}, title = {{Program Tailoring: Slicing by Sequential Criteria (Artifact)}}, pages = {8:1--8:3}, journal = {Dagstuhl Artifacts Series}, ISSN = {2509-8195}, year = {2016}, volume = {2}, number = {1}, editor = {Tan, Tian and Li, Yue and Zhang, Yifei and Xue, Jingling}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DARTS.2.1.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-61298}, doi = {10.4230/DARTS.2.1.8}, annote = {Keywords: Program Slicing, Program Analysis, API Protocol Specification} }

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8461, Planning in Multiagent Systems (2009)

When information or control in a multiagent planning system is private to the agents, they may misreport this information or refuse to execute an agreed outcome, in order to change the resulting end state of such a system to their benefit. In some domains this may result in an execution failure. We show that in such settings VCG mechanisms lose truthfulness, and that the
utility of truthful agents can become negative when using VCG payments (i.e., VCG is not strongly individually rational). To deal with this problem, we introduce an extended payment structure which takes into account the actual execution of the promised outcome. We show that this extended mechanism can guarantee a nonnegative utility and is (i) incentive compatible in a Nash equilibrium, and (ii) incentive compatible in dominant strategies if and only if all agents can be verified during execution.

Yingqian Zhang and Mathijs de Weerdt. Creating incentives to prevent execution failures: an extension of VCG mechanism. In Planning in Multiagent Systems. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 8461, pp. 1-18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)

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@InProceedings{zhang_et_al:DagSemProc.08461.4, author = {Zhang, Yingqian and de Weerdt, Mathijs}, title = {{Creating incentives to prevent execution failures: an extension of VCG mechanism}}, booktitle = {Planning in Multiagent Systems}, pages = {1--18}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2009}, volume = {8461}, editor = {J\"{u}rgen Dix and Edmund H. Durfee and Cees Witteveen}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.08461.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-18705}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.08461.4}, annote = {Keywords: Mechanism design, multiagent planning} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

We consider scheduling problems in which jobs need to be processed through a (shared) network of machines. The network is given in the form of a graph the edges of which represent the machines. We are also given a set of jobs, each specified by its processing time and a path in the graph. Every job needs to be processed in the order of edges specified by its path. We assume that jobs can wait between machines and preemption is not allowed; that is, once a job is started being processed on a machine, it must be completed without interruption. Every machine can only process one job at a time.
The makespan of a schedule is the earliest time by which all the jobs have finished processing. The flow time (a.k.a. the completion time) of a job in a schedule is the difference in time between when it finishes processing on its last machine and when the it begins processing on its first machine. The total flow time (or the sum of completion times) is the sum of flow times (or completion times) of all jobs. Our focus is on finding schedules with the minimum sum of completion times or minimum makespan.
In this paper, we develop several algorithms (both approximate and exact) for the problem both on general graphs and when the underlying graph of machines is a tree. Even in the very special case when the underlying network is a simple star, the problem is very interesting as it models a biprocessor scheduling with applications to data migration.

Zachary Friggstad, Arnoosh Golestanian, Kamyar Khodamoradi, Christopher Martin, Mirmahdi Rahgoshay, Mohsen Rezapour, Mohammad R. Salavatipour, and Yifeng Zhang. Scheduling Problems over Network of Machines. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 5:1-5:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{friggstad_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.5, author = {Friggstad, Zachary and Golestanian, Arnoosh and Khodamoradi, Kamyar and Martin, Christopher and Rahgoshay, Mirmahdi and Rezapour, Mohsen and Salavatipour, Mohammad R. and Zhang, Yifeng}, title = {{Scheduling Problems over Network of Machines}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {5:1--5:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75547}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.5}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, job-shop scheduling, min-sum edge coloring, minimum latency} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

Budgeted Red-Blue Median is a generalization of classic k-Median in that there are two sets of facilities, say R and B, that can be used to serve clients located in some metric space. The goal is to open kr facilities in R and kb facilities in B for some given bounds kr, kb and connect each client to their nearest open facility in a way that minimizes the total connection cost.
We extend work by Hajiaghayi, Khandekar, and Kortsarz [2012] and show that a multipleswap local search heuristic can be used to obtain a (5 + epsilon)-approximation for Budgeted RedBlue Median for any constant epsilon > 0. This is an improvement over their single swap analysis and beats the previous best approximation guarantee of 8 by Swamy [2014].
We also present a matching lower bound showing that for every p >= 1, there are instances of Budgeted Red-Blue Median with local optimum solutions for the p-swap heuristic whose cost is 5 + Omega(1/p) times the optimum solution cost. Thus, our analysis is tight up to the lower order terms. In particular, for any epsilon > 0 we show the single-swap heuristic admits local optima whose cost can be as bad as 7 - epsilon times the optimum solution cost.

Zachary Friggstad and Yifeng Zhang. Tight Analysis of a Multiple-Swap Heurstic for Budgeted Red-Blue Median. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 75:1-75:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{friggstad_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.75, author = {Friggstad, Zachary and Zhang, Yifeng}, title = {{Tight Analysis of a Multiple-Swap Heurstic for Budgeted Red-Blue Median}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {75:1--75:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.75}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62094}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.75}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Local search, Red-Blue Meidan} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

We study whether a depth two neural network can learn another
depth two network using gradient descent. Assuming a linear output node, we show that the question of whether gradient descent converges to the target function is equivalent to the following question in electrodynamics: Given k fixed protons in R^d, and k electrons, each moving due to the attractive force from the protons and repulsive force from the remaining electrons, whether at equilibrium all the electrons will be matched up with the protons, up to a permutation. Under the standard electrical force, this follows from the classic Earnshaw's theorem. In our setting,
the force is determined by the activation function and the
input distribution. Building on this equivalence, we prove the
existence of an activation function such that gradient descent learns at least one of the hidden nodes in the target network.
Iterating, we show that gradient descent can be used to learn the entire network one node at a time.

Rina Panigrahy, Ali Rahimi, Sushant Sachdeva, and Qiuyi Zhang. Convergence Results for Neural Networks via Electrodynamics. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 22:1-22:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{panigrahy_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.22, author = {Panigrahy, Rina and Rahimi, Ali and Sachdeva, Sushant and Zhang, Qiuyi}, title = {{Convergence Results for Neural Networks via Electrodynamics}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {22:1--22:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83521}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.22}, annote = {Keywords: Deep Learning, Learning Theory, Non-convex Optimization} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

Let G = (V, E) be an undirected connected simple graph on n vertices. A cut-equivalent tree of G is an edge-weighted tree on the same vertex set V, such that for any pair of vertices s, t ∈ V, the minimum (s, t)-cut in the tree is also a minimum (s, t)-cut in G, and these two cuts have the same cut value. In a recent paper [Abboud, Krauthgamer and Trabelsi, STOC 2021], the authors propose the first subcubic time algorithm for constructing a cut-equivalent tree. More specifically, their algorithm has Õ(n^{2.5}) running time. Later on, this running time was significantly improved to n^{2+o(1)} by two independent works [Abboud, Krauthgamer and Trabelsi, FOCS 2021] and [Li, Panigrahi, Saranurak, FOCS 2021], and then to (m+n^{1.9})^{1+o(1)} by [Abboud, Krauthgamer and Trabelsi, SODA 2022].
In this paper, we improve the running time to Õ(n²) graphs if near-linear time max-flow algorithms exist, or Õ(n^{17/8}) using the currently fastest max-flow algorithm. Although our algorithm is slower than previous works, the runtime bound becomes better by a sub-polynomial factor in dense simple graphs when assuming near-linear time max-flow algorithms.

Tianyi Zhang. Faster Cut-Equivalent Trees in Simple Graphs. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 109:1-109:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{zhang:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.109, author = {Zhang, Tianyi}, title = {{Faster Cut-Equivalent Trees in Simple Graphs}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {109:1--109:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.109}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164507}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.109}, annote = {Keywords: graph algorithms, minimum cuts, max-flow} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

In this paper we are interested in deterministically computing maximum flows in undirected simple graphs where edges have unit capacities. When the input graph has n vertices and m edges, and the maximum flow is known to be upper bounded by τ as prior knowledge, our algorithm has running time Õ(m + n^{5/3}τ^{1/2}); in the extreme case where τ = Θ(n), our algorithm has running time Õ(n^{2.17}). This always improves upon the previous best deterministic upper bound Õ(n^{9/4}τ^{1/8}) by [Duan, 2013]. Furthermore, when τ ≥ n^{0.67} our algorithm is faster than a classical upper bound of O(m + nτ^{3/2}) by [Karger and Levin, 1998].

Tianyi Zhang. Deterministic Maximum Flows in Simple Graphs. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 114:1-114:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{zhang:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.114, author = {Zhang, Tianyi}, title = {{Deterministic Maximum Flows in Simple Graphs}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {114:1--114:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.114}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141832}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.114}, annote = {Keywords: graph algorithms, maximum flows, dynamic data structures} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We study the maximum weight perfect f-factor problem on any general simple graph G = (V,E,ω) with positive integral edge weights w, and n = |V|, m = |E|. When we have a function f:V → ℕ_+ on vertices, a perfect f-factor is a generalized matching so that every vertex u is matched to exactly f(u) different edges. The previous best results on this problem have running time O(m f(V)) [Gabow 2018] or Õ(W(f(V))^2.373)) [Gabow and Sankowski 2013], where W is the maximum edge weight, and f(V) = ∑_{u ∈ V}f(u). In this paper, we present a scaling algorithm for this problem with running time Õ(mn^{2/3} log W). Previously this bound is only known for bipartite graphs [Gabow and Tarjan 1989]. The advantage is that the running time is independent of f(V), and consequently it breaks the Ω(mn) barrier for large f(V) even for the unweighted f-factor problem in general graphs.

Ran Duan, Haoqing He, and Tianyi Zhang. A Scaling Algorithm for Weighted f-Factors in General Graphs. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 41:1-41:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{duan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.41, author = {Duan, Ran and He, Haoqing and Zhang, Tianyi}, title = {{A Scaling Algorithm for Weighted f-Factors in General Graphs}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {41:1--41:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124487}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.41}, annote = {Keywords: Scaling Algorithm, f-Factors, General Graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 101, 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)

Depth first search (DFS) tree is one of the most well-known data structures for designing efficient graph algorithms. Given an undirected graph G=(V,E) with n vertices and m edges, the textbook algorithm takes O(n+m) time to construct a DFS tree. In this paper, we study the problem of maintaining a DFS tree when the graph is undergoing incremental updates. Formally, we show:
Given an arbitrary online sequence of edge or vertex insertions, there is an algorithm that reports a DFS tree in O(n) worst case time per operation, and requires O (min {m log n, n^2}) preprocessing time.
Our result improves the previous O(n log^3 n) worst case update time algorithm by Baswana et al. [Baswana et al., 2016] and the O(n log n) time by Nakamura and Sadakane [Nakamura and Sadakane, 2017], and matches the trivial Omega(n) lower bound when it is required to explicitly output a DFS tree.
Our result builds on the framework introduced in the breakthrough work by Baswana et al. [Baswana et al., 2016], together with a novel use of a tree-partition lemma by Duan and Zhang [Duan and Zhang, 2016], and the celebrated fractional cascading technique by Chazelle and Guibas [Chazelle and Guibas, 1986a; Chazelle and Guibas, 1986b].

Lijie Chen, Ran Duan, Ruosong Wang, Hanrui Zhang, and Tianyi Zhang. An Improved Algorithm for Incremental DFS Tree in Undirected Graphs. In 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 101, pp. 16:1-16:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.16, author = {Chen, Lijie and Duan, Ran and Wang, Ruosong and Zhang, Hanrui and Zhang, Tianyi}, title = {{An Improved Algorithm for Incremental DFS Tree in Undirected Graphs}}, booktitle = {16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)}, pages = {16:1--16:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-068-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {101}, editor = {Eppstein, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88427}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.16}, annote = {Keywords: DFS tree, fractional cascading, fully dynamic algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 113, 18th International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2018)

Absolute fast converging (AFC) phylogeny estimation methods are ones that have been proven to recover the true tree with high probability given sequences whose lengths are polynomial in the number of number of leaves in the tree (once the shortest and longest branch lengths are fixed). While there has been a large literature on AFC methods, the best in terms of empirical performance was DCM_NJ, published in SODA 2001. The main empirical advantage of DCM_NJ over other AFC methods is its use of neighbor joining (NJ) to construct trees on smaller taxon subsets, which are then combined into a tree on the full set of species using a supertree method; in contrast, the other AFC methods in essence depend on quartet trees that are computed independently of each other, which reduces accuracy compared to neighbor joining. However, DCM_NJ is unlikely to scale to large datasets due to its reliance on supertree methods, as no current supertree methods are able to scale to large datasets with high accuracy. In this study we present a new approach to large-scale phylogeny estimation that shares some of the features of DCM_NJ but bypasses the use of supertree methods. We prove that this new approach is AFC and uses polynomial time. Furthermore, we describe variations on this basic approach that can be used with leaf-disjoint constraint trees (computed using methods such as maximum likelihood) to produce other AFC methods that are likely to provide even better accuracy. Thus, we present a new generalizable technique for large-scale tree estimation that is designed to improve scalability for phylogeny estimation methods to ultra-large datasets, and that can be used in a variety of settings (including tree estimation from unaligned sequences, and species tree estimation from gene trees).

Qiuyi (Richard) Zhang, Satish Rao, and Tandy Warnow. New Absolute Fast Converging Phylogeny Estimation Methods with Improved Scalability and Accuracy. In 18th International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 113, pp. 8:1-8:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{zhang_et_al:LIPIcs.WABI.2018.8, author = {Zhang, Qiuyi (Richard) and Rao, Satish and Warnow, Tandy}, title = {{New Absolute Fast Converging Phylogeny Estimation Methods with Improved Scalability and Accuracy}}, booktitle = {18th International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2018)}, pages = {8:1--8:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-082-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {113}, editor = {Parida, Laxmi and Ukkonen, Esko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2018.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-93108}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2018.8}, annote = {Keywords: phylogeny estimation, short quartets, sample complexity, absolute fast converging methods, neighbor joining, maximum likelihood} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

In this work we consider the list-decodability and list-recoverability of arbitrary q-ary codes, for all integer values of q ≥ 2. A code is called (p,L)_q-list-decodable if every radius pn Hamming ball contains less than L codewords; (p,𝓁,L)_q-list-recoverability is a generalization where we place radius pn Hamming balls on every point of a combinatorial rectangle with side length 𝓁 and again stipulate that there be less than L codewords.
Our main contribution is to precisely calculate the maximum value of p for which there exist infinite families of positive rate (p,𝓁,L)_q-list-recoverable codes, the quantity we call the zero-rate threshold. Denoting this value by p_*, we in fact show that codes correcting a p_*+ε fraction of errors must have size O_ε(1), i.e., independent of n. Such a result is typically referred to as a "Plotkin bound." To complement this, a standard random code with expurgation construction shows that there exist positive rate codes correcting a p_*-ε fraction of errors. We also follow a classical proof template (typically attributed to Elias and Bassalygo) to derive from the zero-rate threshold other tradeoffs between rate and decoding radius for list-decoding and list-recovery.
Technically, proving the Plotkin bound boils down to demonstrating the Schur convexity of a certain function defined on the q-simplex as well as the convexity of a univariate function derived from it. We remark that an earlier argument claimed similar results for q-ary list-decoding; however, we point out that this earlier proof is flawed.

Nicolas Resch, Chen Yuan, and Yihan Zhang. Zero-Rate Thresholds and New Capacity Bounds for List-Decoding and List-Recovery. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 99:1-99:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{resch_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.99, author = {Resch, Nicolas and Yuan, Chen and Zhang, Yihan}, title = {{Zero-Rate Thresholds and New Capacity Bounds for List-Decoding and List-Recovery}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {99:1--99:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.99}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181518}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.99}, annote = {Keywords: Coding theory, List-decoding, List-recovery, Zero-rate thresholds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

This paper concerns itself with the question of list decoding for general adversarial channels, e.g., bit-flip (XOR) channels, erasure channels, AND (Z-) channels, OR channels, real adder channels, noisy typewriter channels, etc. We precisely characterize when exponential-sized (or positive rate) (L-1)-list decodable codes (where the list size L is a universal constant) exist for such channels. Our criterion essentially asserts that:
For any given general adversarial channel, it is possible to construct positive rate (L-1)-list decodable codes if and only if the set of completely positive tensors of order-L with admissible marginals is not entirely contained in the order-L confusability set associated to the channel.
The sufficiency is shown via random code construction (combined with expurgation or time-sharing). The necessity is shown by
1) extracting approximately equicoupled subcodes (generalization of equidistant codes) from any using hypergraph Ramsey’s theorem, and
2) significantly extending the classic Plotkin bound in coding theory to list decoding for general channels using duality between the completely positive tensor cone and the copositive tensor cone.
In the proof, we also obtain a new fact regarding asymmetry of joint distributions, which may be of independent interest.
Other results include
1) List decoding capacity with asymptotically large L for general adversarial channels;
2) A tight list size bound for most constant composition codes (generalization of constant weight codes);
3) Rederivation and demystification of Blinovsky’s [Blinovsky, 1986] characterization of the list decoding Plotkin points (threshold at which large codes are impossible) for bit-flip channels;
4) Evaluation of general bounds [Wang et al., 2019] for unique decoding in the error correction code setting.

Yihan Zhang, Amitalok J. Budkuley, and Sidharth Jaggi. Generalized List Decoding. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 51:1-51:83, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{zhang_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.51, author = {Zhang, Yihan and Budkuley, Amitalok J. and Jaggi, Sidharth}, title = {{Generalized List Decoding}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {51:1--51:83}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117368}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.51}, annote = {Keywords: Generalized Plotkin bound, general adversarial channels, equicoupled codes, random coding, completely positive tensors, copositive tensors, hypergraph Ramsey theory} }

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Brief Announcement

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

Fault-tolerant consensus is of great importance in distributed systems. This paper studies the asynchronous approximate consensus problem in the crash-recovery model with fair-loss links. In our model, up to f nodes may crash forever, while the rest may crash intermittently. Each node is equipped with a limited-size persistent storage that does not lose data when crashed. We present an algorithm that only stores three values in persistent storage - state, phase index, and a counter.

Lewis Tseng, Qinzi Zhang, and Yifan Zhang. Brief Announcement: Reaching Approximate Consensus When Everyone May Crash. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 53:1-53:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{tseng_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.53, author = {Tseng, Lewis and Zhang, Qinzi and Zhang, Yifan}, title = {{Brief Announcement: Reaching Approximate Consensus When Everyone May Crash}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {53:1--53:3}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131319}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.53}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate Consensus, Fair-loss Channel, Crash-recovery} }

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