4 Search Results for "Li, Liang"


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Standardizing Knowledge Engineering Practices with a Reference Architecture

Authors: Bradley P. Allen and Filip Ilievski

Published in: TGDK, Volume 2, Issue 1 (2024): Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 1


Abstract
Knowledge engineering is the process of creating and maintaining knowledge-producing systems. Throughout the history of computer science and AI, knowledge engineering workflows have been widely used given the importance of high-quality knowledge for reliable intelligent agents. Meanwhile, the scope of knowledge engineering, as apparent from its target tasks and use cases, has been shifting, together with its paradigms such as expert systems, semantic web, and language modeling. The intended use cases and supported user requirements between these paradigms have not been analyzed globally, as new paradigms often satisfy prior pain points while possibly introducing new ones. The recent abstraction of systemic patterns into a boxology provides an opening for aligning the requirements and use cases of knowledge engineering with the systems, components, and software that can satisfy them best, however, this direction has not been explored to date. This paper proposes a vision of harmonizing the best practices in the field of knowledge engineering by leveraging the software engineering methodology of creating reference architectures. We describe how a reference architecture can be iteratively designed and implemented to associate user needs with recurring systemic patterns, building on top of existing knowledge engineering workflows and boxologies. We provide a six-step roadmap that can enable the development of such an architecture, consisting of scope definition, selection of information sources, architectural analysis, synthesis of an architecture based on the information source analysis, evaluation through instantiation, and, ultimately, instantiation into a concrete software architecture. We provide an initial design and outcome of the definition of architectural scope, selection of information sources, and analysis. As the remaining steps of design, evaluation, and instantiation of the architecture are largely use-case specific, we provide a detailed description of their procedures and point to relevant examples. We expect that following through on this vision will lead to well-grounded reference architectures for knowledge engineering, will advance the ongoing initiatives of organizing the neurosymbolic knowledge engineering space, and will build new links to the software architectures and data science communities.

Cite as

Bradley P. Allen and Filip Ilievski. Standardizing Knowledge Engineering Practices with a Reference Architecture. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 5:1-5:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{allen_et_al:TGDK.2.1.5,
  author =	{Allen, Bradley P. and Ilievski, Filip},
  title =	{{Standardizing Knowledge Engineering Practices with a Reference Architecture}},
  journal =	{Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge},
  pages =	{5:1--5:23},
  ISSN =	{2942-7517},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{2},
  number =	{1},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/TGDK.2.1.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198623},
  doi =		{10.4230/TGDK.2.1.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: knowledge engineering, knowledge graphs, quality attributes, software architectures, sociotechnical systems}
}
Document
Connectivity in the Presence of an Opponent

Authors: Zihui Liang, Bakh Khoussainov, Toru Takisaka, and Mingyu Xiao

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
The paper introduces two player connectivity games played on finite bipartite graphs. Algorithms that solve these connectivity games can be used as subroutines for solving Müller games. Müller games constitute a well established class of games in model checking and verification. In connectivity games, the objective of one of the players is to visit every node of the game graph infinitely often. The first contribution of this paper is our proof that solving connectivity games can be reduced to the incremental strongly connected component maintenance (ISCCM) problem, an important problem in graph algorithms and data structures. The second contribution is that we non-trivially adapt two known algorithms for the ISCCM problem to provide two efficient algorithms that solve the connectivity games problem. Finally, based on the techniques developed, we recast Horn’s polynomial time algorithm that solves explicitly given Müller games and provide the first correctness proof of the algorithm. Our algorithms are more efficient than that of Horn’s algorithm. Our solution for connectivity games is used as a subroutine in the algorithm.

Cite as

Zihui Liang, Bakh Khoussainov, Toru Takisaka, and Mingyu Xiao. Connectivity in the Presence of an Opponent. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 79:1-79:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{liang_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.79,
  author =	{Liang, Zihui and Khoussainov, Bakh and Takisaka, Toru and Xiao, Mingyu},
  title =	{{Connectivity in the Presence of an Opponent}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{79:1--79:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.79},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187324},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.79},
  annote =	{Keywords: Explicit M\"{u}ller games, games played on finite graphs, winning strategies, synthesis and analysis of games}
}
Document
On the Perturbation Function of Ranking and Balance for Weighted Online Bipartite Matching

Authors: Jingxun Liang, Zhihao Gavin Tang, Yixuan Even Xu, Yuhao Zhang, and Renfei Zhou

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Ranking and Balance are arguably the two most important algorithms in the online matching literature. They achieve the same optimal competitive ratio of 1-1/e for the integral version and fractional version of online bipartite matching by Karp, Vazirani, and Vazirani (STOC 1990) respectively. The two algorithms have been generalized to weighted online bipartite matching problems, including vertex-weighted online bipartite matching and AdWords, by utilizing a perturbation function. The canonical choice of the perturbation function is f(x) = 1-e^{x-1} as it leads to the optimal competitive ratio of 1-1/e in both settings. We advance the understanding of the weighted generalizations of Ranking and Balance in this paper, with a focus on studying the effect of different perturbation functions. First, we prove that the canonical perturbation function is the unique optimal perturbation function for vertex-weighted online bipartite matching. In stark contrast, all perturbation functions achieve the optimal competitive ratio of 1-1/e in the unweighted setting. Second, we prove that the generalization of Ranking to AdWords with unknown budgets using the canonical perturbation function is at most 0.624 competitive, refuting a conjecture of Vazirani (2021). More generally, as an application of the first result, we prove that no perturbation function leads to the prominent competitive ratio of 1-1/e by establishing an upper bound of 1-1/e-0.0003. Finally, we propose the online budget-additive welfare maximization problem that is intermediate between AdWords and AdWords with unknown budgets, and we design an optimal 1-1/e competitive algorithm by generalizing Balance.

Cite as

Jingxun Liang, Zhihao Gavin Tang, Yixuan Even Xu, Yuhao Zhang, and Renfei Zhou. On the Perturbation Function of Ranking and Balance for Weighted Online Bipartite Matching. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 80:1-80:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{liang_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.80,
  author =	{Liang, Jingxun and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Xu, Yixuan Even and Zhang, Yuhao and Zhou, Renfei},
  title =	{{On the Perturbation Function of Ranking and Balance for Weighted Online Bipartite Matching}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{80:1--80:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.80},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187334},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.80},
  annote =	{Keywords: Online Matching, AdWords, Ranking, Water-Filling}
}
Document
Information Cascades on Arbitrary Topologies

Authors: Jun Wan, Yu Xia, Liang Li, and Thomas Moscibroda

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)


Abstract
In this paper, we study information cascades on graphs. In this setting, each node in the graph represents a person. One after another, each person has to take a decision based on a private signal as well as the decisions made by earlier neighboring nodes. Such information cascades commonly occur in practice and have been studied in complete graphs where everyone can overhear the decisions of every other player. It is known that information cascades can be fragile and based on very little information, and that they have a high likelihood of being wrong. Generalizing the problem to arbitrary graphs reveals interesting insights. In particular, we show that in a random graph G(n,q), for the right value of q, the number of nodes making a wrong decision is logarithmic in n. That is, in the limit for large n, the fraction of players that make a wrong decision tends to zero. This is intriguing because it contrasts to the two natural corner cases: empty graph (everyone decides independently based on his private signal) and complete graph (all decisions are heard by all nodes). In both of these cases a constant fraction of nodes make a wrong decision in expectation. Thus, our result shows that while both too little and too much information sharing causes nodes to take wrong decisions, for exactly the right amount of information sharing, asymptotically everyone can be right. We further show that this result in random graphs is asymptotically optimal for any topology, even if nodes follow a globally optimal algorithmic strategy. Based on the analysis of random graphs, we explore how topology impacts global performance and construct an optimal deterministic topology among layer graphs.

Cite as

Jun Wan, Yu Xia, Liang Li, and Thomas Moscibroda. Information Cascades on Arbitrary Topologies. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 64:1-64:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{wan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.64,
  author =	{Wan, Jun and Xia, Yu and Li, Liang and Moscibroda, Thomas},
  title =	{{Information Cascades on Arbitrary Topologies}},
  booktitle =	{43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)},
  pages =	{64:1--64:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-013-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.64},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63417},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.64},
  annote =	{Keywords: Information Cascades, Herding Effect, Random Graphs}
}
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