114 Search Results for "Huang, Shang-En"


Document
Survey
Towards Representing Processes and Reasoning with Process Descriptions on the Web

Authors: Andreas Harth, Tobias Käfer, Anisa Rula, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Eduard Kamburjan, and Martin Giese

Published in: TGDK, Volume 2, Issue 1 (2024): Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 1


Abstract
We work towards a vocabulary to represent processes and temporal logic specifications as graph-structured data. Different fields use incompatible terminologies for describing essentially the same process-related concepts. In addition, processes can be represented from different perspectives and levels of abstraction: both state-centric and event-centric perspectives offer distinct insights into the underlying processes. In this work, we strive to unify the representation of processes and related concepts by leveraging the power of knowledge graphs. We survey approaches to representing processes and reasoning with process descriptions from different fields and provide a selection of scenarios to help inform the scope of a unified representation of processes. We focus on processes that can be executed and observed via web interfaces. We propose to provide a representation designed to combine state-centric and event-centric perspectives while incorporating temporal querying and reasoning capabilities on temporal logic specifications. A standardised vocabulary and representation for processes and temporal specifications would contribute towards bridging the gap between the terminologies from different fields and fostering the broader application of methods involving temporal logics, such as formal verification and program synthesis.

Cite as

Andreas Harth, Tobias Käfer, Anisa Rula, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Eduard Kamburjan, and Martin Giese. Towards Representing Processes and Reasoning with Process Descriptions on the Web. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 1:1-1:32, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{harth_et_al:TGDK.2.1.1,
  author =	{Harth, Andreas and K\"{a}fer, Tobias and Rula, Anisa and Calbimonte, Jean-Paul and Kamburjan, Eduard and Giese, Martin},
  title =	{{Towards Representing Processes and Reasoning with Process Descriptions on the Web}},
  journal =	{Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge},
  pages =	{1:1--1:32},
  ISSN =	{2942-7517},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{2},
  number =	{1},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/TGDK.2.1.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198583},
  doi =		{10.4230/TGDK.2.1.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Process modelling, Process ontology, Temporal logic, Web services}
}
Document
Position
Grounding Stream Reasoning Research

Authors: Pieter Bonte, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Daniel de Leng, Daniele Dell'Aglio, Emanuele Della Valle, Thomas Eiter, Federico Giannini, Fredrik Heintz, Konstantin Schekotihin, Danh Le-Phuoc, Alessandra Mileo, Patrik Schneider, Riccardo Tommasini, Jacopo Urbani, and Giacomo Ziffer

Published in: TGDK, Volume 2, Issue 1 (2024): Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 1


Abstract
In the last decade, there has been a growing interest in applying AI technologies to implement complex data analytics over data streams. To this end, researchers in various fields have been organising a yearly event called the "Stream Reasoning Workshop" to share perspectives, challenges, and experiences around this topic. In this paper, the previous organisers of the workshops and other community members provide a summary of the main research results that have been discussed during the first six editions of the event. These results can be categorised into four main research areas: The first is concerned with the technological challenges related to handling large data streams. The second area aims at adapting and extending existing semantic technologies to data streams. The third and fourth areas focus on how to implement reasoning techniques, either considering deductive or inductive techniques, to extract new and valuable knowledge from the data in the stream. This summary is written not only to provide a crystallisation of the field, but also to point out distinctive traits of the stream reasoning community. Moreover, it also provides a foundation for future research by enumerating a list of use cases and open challenges, to stimulate others to join this exciting research area.

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Pieter Bonte, Jean-Paul Calbimonte, Daniel de Leng, Daniele Dell'Aglio, Emanuele Della Valle, Thomas Eiter, Federico Giannini, Fredrik Heintz, Konstantin Schekotihin, Danh Le-Phuoc, Alessandra Mileo, Patrik Schneider, Riccardo Tommasini, Jacopo Urbani, and Giacomo Ziffer. Grounding Stream Reasoning Research. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 2:1-2:47, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{bonte_et_al:TGDK.2.1.2,
  author =	{Bonte, Pieter and Calbimonte, Jean-Paul and de Leng, Daniel and Dell'Aglio, Daniele and Della Valle, Emanuele and Eiter, Thomas and Giannini, Federico and Heintz, Fredrik and Schekotihin, Konstantin and Le-Phuoc, Danh and Mileo, Alessandra and Schneider, Patrik and Tommasini, Riccardo and Urbani, Jacopo and Ziffer, Giacomo},
  title =	{{Grounding Stream Reasoning Research}},
  journal =	{Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge},
  pages =	{2:1--2:47},
  ISSN =	{2942-7517},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{2},
  number =	{1},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/TGDK.2.1.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198597},
  doi =		{10.4230/TGDK.2.1.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Stream Reasoning, Stream Processing, RDF streams, Streaming Linked Data, Continuous query processing, Temporal Logics, High-performance computing, Databases}
}
Document
Survey
Semantic Web: Past, Present, and Future

Authors: Ansgar Scherp, Gerd Groener, Petr Škoda, Katja Hose, and Maria-Esther Vidal

Published in: TGDK, Volume 2, Issue 1 (2024): Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 1


Abstract
Ever since the vision was formulated, the Semantic Web has inspired many generations of innovations. Semantic technologies have been used to share vast amounts of information on the Web, enhance them with semantics to give them meaning, and enable inference and reasoning on them. Throughout the years, semantic technologies, and in particular knowledge graphs, have been used in search engines, data integration, enterprise settings, and machine learning. In this paper, we recap the classical concepts and foundations of the Semantic Web as well as modern and recent concepts and applications, building upon these foundations. The classical topics we cover include knowledge representation, creating and validating knowledge on the Web, reasoning and linking, and distributed querying. We enhance this classical view of the so-called "Semantic Web Layer Cake" with an update of recent concepts that include provenance, security and trust, as well as a discussion of practical impacts from industry-led contributions. We conclude with an outlook on the future directions of the Semantic Web. This is a living document. If you like to contribute, please contact the first author and visit: https://github.com/ascherp/semantic-web-primer

Cite as

Ansgar Scherp, Gerd Groener, Petr Škoda, Katja Hose, and Maria-Esther Vidal. Semantic Web: Past, Present, and Future. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 3:1-3:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{scherp_et_al:TGDK.2.1.3,
  author =	{Scherp, Ansgar and Groener, Gerd and \v{S}koda, Petr and Hose, Katja and Vidal, Maria-Esther},
  title =	{{Semantic Web: Past, Present, and Future}},
  journal =	{Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge},
  pages =	{3:1--3:37},
  ISSN =	{2942-7517},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{2},
  number =	{1},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/TGDK.2.1.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198607},
  doi =		{10.4230/TGDK.2.1.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Linked Open Data, Semantic Web Graphs, Knowledge Graphs}
}
Document
Position
Standardizing Knowledge Engineering Practices with a Reference Architecture

Authors: Bradley P. Allen and Filip Ilievski

Published in: TGDK, Volume 2, Issue 1 (2024): Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 1


Abstract
Knowledge engineering is the process of creating and maintaining knowledge-producing systems. Throughout the history of computer science and AI, knowledge engineering workflows have been widely used given the importance of high-quality knowledge for reliable intelligent agents. Meanwhile, the scope of knowledge engineering, as apparent from its target tasks and use cases, has been shifting, together with its paradigms such as expert systems, semantic web, and language modeling. The intended use cases and supported user requirements between these paradigms have not been analyzed globally, as new paradigms often satisfy prior pain points while possibly introducing new ones. The recent abstraction of systemic patterns into a boxology provides an opening for aligning the requirements and use cases of knowledge engineering with the systems, components, and software that can satisfy them best, however, this direction has not been explored to date. This paper proposes a vision of harmonizing the best practices in the field of knowledge engineering by leveraging the software engineering methodology of creating reference architectures. We describe how a reference architecture can be iteratively designed and implemented to associate user needs with recurring systemic patterns, building on top of existing knowledge engineering workflows and boxologies. We provide a six-step roadmap that can enable the development of such an architecture, consisting of scope definition, selection of information sources, architectural analysis, synthesis of an architecture based on the information source analysis, evaluation through instantiation, and, ultimately, instantiation into a concrete software architecture. We provide an initial design and outcome of the definition of architectural scope, selection of information sources, and analysis. As the remaining steps of design, evaluation, and instantiation of the architecture are largely use-case specific, we provide a detailed description of their procedures and point to relevant examples. We expect that following through on this vision will lead to well-grounded reference architectures for knowledge engineering, will advance the ongoing initiatives of organizing the neurosymbolic knowledge engineering space, and will build new links to the software architectures and data science communities.

Cite as

Bradley P. Allen and Filip Ilievski. Standardizing Knowledge Engineering Practices with a Reference Architecture. In Special Issue on Trends in Graph Data and Knowledge - Part 2. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge (TGDK), Volume 2, Issue 1, pp. 5:1-5:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@Article{allen_et_al:TGDK.2.1.5,
  author =	{Allen, Bradley P. and Ilievski, Filip},
  title =	{{Standardizing Knowledge Engineering Practices with a Reference Architecture}},
  journal =	{Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge},
  pages =	{5:1--5:23},
  ISSN =	{2942-7517},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{2},
  number =	{1},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/TGDK.2.1.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198623},
  doi =		{10.4230/TGDK.2.1.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: knowledge engineering, knowledge graphs, quality attributes, software architectures, sociotechnical systems}
}
Document
Quantum and Classical Communication Complexity of Permutation-Invariant Functions

Authors: Ziyi Guan, Yunqi Huang, Penghui Yao, and Zekun Ye

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 289, 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)


Abstract
This paper gives a nearly tight characterization of the quantum communication complexity of the permutation-invariant Boolean functions. With such a characterization, we show that the quantum and randomized communication complexity of the permutation-invariant Boolean functions are quadratically equivalent (up to a logarithmic factor). Our results extend a recent line of research regarding query complexity [Scott Aaronson and Andris Ambainis, 2014; André Chailloux, 2019; Shalev Ben-David et al., 2020] to communication complexity, showing symmetry prevents exponential quantum speedups. Furthermore, we show the Log-rank Conjecture holds for any non-trivial total permutation-invariant Boolean function. Moreover, we establish a relationship between the quantum/classical communication complexity and the approximate rank of permutation-invariant Boolean functions. This implies the correctness of the Log-approximate-rank Conjecture for permutation-invariant Boolean functions in both randomized and quantum settings (up to a logarithmic factor).

Cite as

Ziyi Guan, Yunqi Huang, Penghui Yao, and Zekun Ye. Quantum and Classical Communication Complexity of Permutation-Invariant Functions. In 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 289, pp. 39:1-39:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{guan_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2024.39,
  author =	{Guan, Ziyi and Huang, Yunqi and Yao, Penghui and Ye, Zekun},
  title =	{{Quantum and Classical Communication Complexity of Permutation-Invariant Functions}},
  booktitle =	{41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)},
  pages =	{39:1--39:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-311-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{289},
  editor =	{Beyersdorff, Olaf and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Kupferman, Orna and Lokshtanov, Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.39},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197498},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.39},
  annote =	{Keywords: Communication complexity, Permutation-invariant functions, Log-rank Conjecture, Quantum advantages}
}
Document
Quantum and Classical Low-Degree Learning via a Dimension-Free Remez Inequality

Authors: Ohad Klein, Joseph Slote, Alexander Volberg, and Haonan Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Recent efforts in Analysis of Boolean Functions aim to extend core results to new spaces, including to the slice binom([n],k), the hypergrid [K]ⁿ, and noncommutative spaces (matrix algebras). We present here a new way to relate functions on the hypergrid (or products of cyclic groups) to their harmonic extensions over the polytorus. We show the supremum of a function f over products of the cyclic group {exp(2π i k/K)}_{k = 1}^K controls the supremum of f over the entire polytorus ({z ∈ ℂ:|z| = 1}ⁿ), with multiplicative constant C depending on K and deg(f) only. This Remez-type inequality appears to be the first such estimate that is dimension-free (i.e., C does not depend on n). This dimension-free Remez-type inequality removes the main technical barrier to giving 𝒪(log n) sample complexity, polytime algorithms for learning low-degree polynomials on the hypergrid and low-degree observables on level-K qudit systems. In particular, our dimension-free Remez inequality implies new Bohnenblust-Hille-type estimates which are central to the learning algorithms and appear unobtainable via standard techniques. Thus we extend to new spaces a recent line of work [Eskenazis and Ivanisvili, 2022; Huang et al., 2022; Volberg and Zhang, 2023] that gave similarly efficient methods for learning low-degree polynomials on the hypercube and observables on qubits. An additional product of these efforts is a new class of distributions over which arbitrary quantum observables are well-approximated by their low-degree truncations - a phenomenon that greatly extends the reach of low-degree learning in quantum science [Huang et al., 2022].

Cite as

Ohad Klein, Joseph Slote, Alexander Volberg, and Haonan Zhang. Quantum and Classical Low-Degree Learning via a Dimension-Free Remez Inequality. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 69:1-69:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{klein_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.69,
  author =	{Klein, Ohad and Slote, Joseph and Volberg, Alexander and Zhang, Haonan},
  title =	{{Quantum and Classical Low-Degree Learning via a Dimension-Free Remez Inequality}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{69:1--69:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.69},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195977},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.69},
  annote =	{Keywords: Analysis of Boolean Functions, Remez Inequality, Bohnenblust-Hille Inequality, Statistical Learning Theory, Qudits}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Faithful Graph Drawing (Invited Talk)

Authors: Seok-Hee Hong

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)


Abstract
Graph drawing aims to compute good geometric representations of graphs in two or three dimensions. It has wide applications in network visualisation, such as social networks and biological networks, arising from many other disciplines. This talk will review fundamental theoretical results as well as recent advances in graph drawing, including symmetric graph drawing, generalisation of the Tutte’s barycenter theorem, Steinitz’s theorem, and Fáry’s theorem, and the so-called beyond planar graphs such as k-planar graphs. I will conclude my talk with recent progress in visualization of big complex graphs, including sublinear-time graph drawing algorithms and faithful graph drawing.

Cite as

Seok-Hee Hong. Faithful Graph Drawing (Invited Talk). In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, p. 2:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{hong:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.2,
  author =	{Hong, Seok-Hee},
  title =	{{Faithful Graph Drawing}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-289-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{283},
  editor =	{Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193044},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph drawing, Planar graphs, Beyond planar graphs, Tutte’s barycenter theorem, Steinitz’s theorem, F\'{a}ry’s theorem, Sublinear-time graph drawing algorithm, Faithful graph drawing, Symmetric graph drawing}
}
Document
Computing a Subtrajectory Cluster from c-Packed Trajectories

Authors: Joachim Gudmundsson, Zijin Huang, André van Renssen, and Sampson Wong

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)


Abstract
We present a near-linear time approximation algorithm for the subtrajectory cluster problem of c-packed trajectories. Given a trajectory T of complexity n, an approximation factor ε, and a desired distance d, the problem involves finding m subtrajectories of T such that their pair-wise Fréchet distance is at most (1 + ε)d. At least one subtrajectory must be of length l or longer. A trajectory T is c-packed if the intersection of T and any ball B with radius r is at most c⋅r in length. Previous results by Gudmundsson and Wong [Gudmundsson and Wong, 2022] established an Ω(n³) lower bound unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis fails, and they presented an O(n³ log² n) time algorithm. We circumvent this conditional lower bound by studying subtrajectory cluster on c-packed trajectories, resulting in an algorithm with an O((c² n/ε²)log(c/ε)log(n/ε)) time complexity.

Cite as

Joachim Gudmundsson, Zijin Huang, André van Renssen, and Sampson Wong. Computing a Subtrajectory Cluster from c-Packed Trajectories. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 34:1-34:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{gudmundsson_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.34,
  author =	{Gudmundsson, Joachim and Huang, Zijin and van Renssen, Andr\'{e} and Wong, Sampson},
  title =	{{Computing a Subtrajectory Cluster from c-Packed Trajectories}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-289-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{283},
  editor =	{Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193364},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Subtrajectory cluster, c-packed trajectories, Computational geometry}
}
Document
Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts

Authors: Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
For a given (possibly directed) graph G, a hopset (a.k.a. shortcut set) is a (small) set of edges whose addition reduces the graph diameter while preserving desired properties from the given graph G, such as, reachability and shortest-path distances. The key objective is in optimizing the tradeoff between the achieved diameter and the size of the shortcut set (possibly also, the distance distortion). Despite the centrality of these objects and their thorough study over the years, there are still significant gaps between the known upper and lower bound results. A common property shared by almost all known shortcut lower bounds is that they hold for the seemingly simpler task of reducing the diameter of the given graph, D_G, by a constant additive term, in fact, even by just one! We denote such restricted structures by (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets. In this paper we show that this relaxation can be leveraged to narrow the current gaps, and in certain cases to also bypass the known lower bound results, when restricting to sparse graphs (with O(n) edges): - {Hopsets for Directed Weighted Sparse Graphs.} For every n-vertex directed and weighted sparse graph G with D_G ≥ n^{1/4}, one can compute an exact (D_G-1)-diameter hopset of linear size. Combining this with known lower bound results for dense graphs, we get a separation between dense and sparse graphs, hence shortcutting sparse graphs is provably easier. For reachability hopsets, we can provide (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets of linear size, for sparse DAGs, already for D_G ≥ n^{1/5}. This should be compared with the diameter bound of Õ(n^{1/3}) [Kogan and Parter, SODA 2022], and the lower bound of D_G = n^{1/6} by [Huang and Pettie, {SIAM} J. Discret. Math. 2018]. - {Additive Hopsets for Undirected and Unweighted Graphs.} We show a construction of +24 additive (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets with linear number of edges for D_G ≥ n^{1/12} for sparse graphs. This bypasses the current lower bound of D_G = n^{1/6} obtained for exact (D_G-1)-diameter hopset by [HP'18]. For general graphs, the bound becomes D_G ≥ n^{1/6} which matches the lower bound of exact (D_G-1) hopsets implied by [HP'18]. We also provide new additive D-diameter hopsets with linear size, for any given diameter D. Altogether, we show that the current lower bounds can be bypassed by restricting to sparse graphs (with O(n) edges). Moreover, the gaps are narrowed significantly for any graph by allowing for a constant additive stretch.

Cite as

Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter. Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 73:1-73:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{kogan_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73,
  author =	{Kogan, Shimon and Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{73:1--73:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187264},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73},
  annote =	{Keywords: Directed Shortcuts, Hopsets, Emulators}
}
Document
Parameterized Matroid-Constrained Maximum Coverage

Authors: François Sellier

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
In this paper, we introduce the concept of Density-Balanced Subset in a matroid, in which independent sets can be sampled so as to guarantee that (i) each element has the same probability to be sampled, and (ii) those events are negatively correlated. These Density-Balanced Subsets are subsets in the ground set of a matroid in which the traditional notion of uniform random sampling can be extended. We then provide an application of this concept to the Matroid-Constrained Maximum Coverage problem. In this problem, given a matroid ℳ = (V, ℐ) of rank k on a ground set V and a coverage function f on V, the goal is to find an independent set S ∈ ℐ maximizing f(S). This problem is an important special case of the much-studied submodular function maximization problem subject to a matroid constraint; this is also a generalization of the maximum k-cover problem in a graph. In this paper, assuming that the coverage function has a bounded frequency μ (i.e., any element of the underlying universe of the coverage function appears in at most μ sets), we design a procedure, parameterized by some integer ρ, to extract in polynomial time an approximate kernel of size ρ ⋅ k that is guaranteed to contain a 1 - (μ - 1)/ρ approximation of the optimal solution. This procedure can then be used to get a Fixed-Parameter Tractable Approximation Scheme (FPT-AS) providing a 1 - ε approximation in time (μ/ε)^O(k) ⋅ |V|^O(1). This generalizes and improves the results of [Manurangsi, 2019] and [Huang and Sellier, 2022], providing the first FPT-AS working on an arbitrary matroid. Moreover, as the kernel has a very simple characterization, it can be constructed in the streaming setting.

Cite as

François Sellier. Parameterized Matroid-Constrained Maximum Coverage. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 94:1-94:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{sellier:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.94,
  author =	{Sellier, Fran\c{c}ois},
  title =	{{Parameterized Matroid-Constrained Maximum Coverage}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{94:1--94:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.94},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187475},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.94},
  annote =	{Keywords: Matroids, approximate kernel, maximum coverage}
}
Document
The Covering Canadian Traveller Problem Revisited

Authors: Niklas Hahn and Michalis Xefteris

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)


Abstract
In this paper, we consider the k-Covering Canadian Traveller Problem (k-CCTP), which can be seen as a variant of the Travelling Salesperson Problem. The goal of k-CCTP is finding the shortest tour for a traveller to visit a set of locations in a given graph and return to the origin. Crucially, unknown to the traveller, up to k edges of the graph are blocked and the traveller only discovers blocked edges online at one of their respective endpoints. The currently best known upper bound for k-CCTP is O(√k) which was shown in [Huang and Liao, ISAAC '12]. We improve this polynomial bound to a logarithmic one by presenting a deterministic O(log k)-competitive algorithm that runs in polynomial time. Further, we demonstrate the tightness of our analysis by giving a lower bound instance for our algorithm.

Cite as

Niklas Hahn and Michalis Xefteris. The Covering Canadian Traveller Problem Revisited. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 53:1-53:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{hahn_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.53,
  author =	{Hahn, Niklas and Xefteris, Michalis},
  title =	{{The Covering Canadian Traveller Problem Revisited}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)},
  pages =	{53:1--53:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-292-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{272},
  editor =	{Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.53},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185876},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.53},
  annote =	{Keywords: Online Algorithm, Canadian Traveller Problem, Travelling Salesperson Problem, Graph Exploration}
}
Document
Combining Cubic Dynamical Solvers with Make/Break Heuristics to Solve SAT

Authors: Anshujit Sharma, Matthew Burns, and Michael C. Huang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 271, 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)


Abstract
Dynamical solvers for combinatorial optimization are usually based on 2superscript{nd} degree polynomial interactions, such as the Ising model. These exhibit high success for problems that map naturally to their formulation. However, SAT requires higher degree of interactions. As such, these quadratic dynamical solvers (QDS) have shown poor solution quality due to excessive auxiliary variables and the resulting increase in search-space complexity. Thus recently, a series of cubic dynamical solver (CDS) models have been proposed for SAT and other problems. We show that such problem-agnostic CDS models still perform poorly on moderate to large problems, thus motivating the need to utilize SAT-specific heuristics. With this insight, our contributions can be summarized into three points. First, we demonstrate that existing make-only heuristics perform poorly on scale-free, industrial-like problems when integrated into CDS. This motivates us to utilize break counts as well. Second, we derive a relationship between make/break and the CDS formulation to efficiently recover break counts. Finally, we utilize this relationship to propose a new make/break heuristic and combine it with a state-of-the-art CDS which is projected to solve SAT problems several orders of magnitude faster than existing software solvers.

Cite as

Anshujit Sharma, Matthew Burns, and Michael C. Huang. Combining Cubic Dynamical Solvers with Make/Break Heuristics to Solve SAT. In 26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 271, pp. 25:1-25:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{sharma_et_al:LIPIcs.SAT.2023.25,
  author =	{Sharma, Anshujit and Burns, Matthew and Huang, Michael C.},
  title =	{{Combining Cubic Dynamical Solvers with Make/Break Heuristics to Solve SAT}},
  booktitle =	{26th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing (SAT 2023)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-286-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{271},
  editor =	{Mahajan, Meena and Slivovsky, Friedrich},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-184871},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SAT.2023.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: Satisfiability, Ising machines, Stochastic Heuristics, Natural Computation}
}
Document
On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles

Authors: Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)


Abstract
We study how the choices made when designing an oracle affect the complexity of quantum property testing problems defined relative to this oracle. We encode a regular graph of even degree as an invertible function f, and present f in different oracle models. We first give a one-query QMA protocol to test if a graph encoded in f has a small disconnected subset. We then use representation theory to show that no classical witness can help a quantum verifier efficiently decide this problem relative to an in-place oracle. Perhaps surprisingly, a simple modification to the standard oracle prevents a quantum verifier from efficiently deciding this problem, even with access to an unbounded witness.

Cite as

Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha. On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 11:1-11:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bassirian_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11,
  author =	{Bassirian, Roozbeh and Fefferman, Bill and Marwaha, Kunal},
  title =	{{On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles}},
  booktitle =	{18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-283-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{266},
  editor =	{Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183215},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum complexity, QCMA, expander graphs, representation theory}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Approximate Nearest Neighbor for Polygonal Curves Under Fréchet Distance

Authors: Siu-Wing Cheng and Haoqiang Huang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
We propose κ-approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) data structures for n polygonal curves under the Fréchet distance in ℝ^d, where κ ∈ {1+ε,3+ε} and d ≥ 2. We assume that every input curve has at most m vertices, every query curve has at most k vertices, k ≪ m, and k is given for preprocessing. The query times are Õ(k(mn)^{0.5+ε}/ε^d+ k(d/ε)^O(dk)) for (1+ε)-ANN and Õ(k(mn)^{0.5+ε}/ε^d) for (3+ε)-ANN. The space and expected preprocessing time are Õ(k(mnd^d/ε^d)^O(k+1/ε²)) in both cases. In two and three dimensions, we improve the query times to O(1/ε)^O(k) ⋅ Õ(k) for (1+ε)-ANN and Õ(k) for (3+ε)-ANN. The space and expected preprocessing time improve to O(mn/ε)^O(k) ⋅ Õ(k) in both cases. For ease of presentation, we treat factors in our bounds that depend purely on d as O(1). The hidden polylog factors in the big-Õ notation have powers dependent on d.

Cite as

Siu-Wing Cheng and Haoqiang Huang. Approximate Nearest Neighbor for Polygonal Curves Under Fréchet Distance. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 40:1-40:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.40,
  author =	{Cheng, Siu-Wing and Huang, Haoqiang},
  title =	{{Approximate Nearest Neighbor for Polygonal Curves Under Fr\'{e}chet Distance}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{40:1--40:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.40},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180929},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.40},
  annote =	{Keywords: Polygonal curves, Fr\'{e}chet distance, approximate nearest neighbor}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
An EPTAS for Budgeted Matching and Budgeted Matroid Intersection via Representative Sets

Authors: Ilan Doron-Arad, Ariel Kulik, and Hadas Shachnai

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
We study the budgeted versions of the well known matching and matroid intersection problems. While both problems admit a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) [Berger et al. (Math. Programming, 2011), Chekuri, Vondrák and Zenklusen (SODA 2011)], it has been an intriguing open question whether these problems admit a fully PTAS (FPTAS), or even an efficient PTAS (EPTAS). In this paper we answer the second part of this question affirmatively, by presenting an EPTAS for budgeted matching and budgeted matroid intersection. A main component of our scheme is a construction of representative sets for desired solutions, whose cardinality depends only on ε, the accuracy parameter. Thus, enumerating over solutions within a representative set leads to an EPTAS. This crucially distinguishes our algorithms from previous approaches, which rely on exhaustive enumeration over the solution set.

Cite as

Ilan Doron-Arad, Ariel Kulik, and Hadas Shachnai. An EPTAS for Budgeted Matching and Budgeted Matroid Intersection via Representative Sets. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 49:1-49:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{doronarad_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.49,
  author =	{Doron-Arad, Ilan and Kulik, Ariel and Shachnai, Hadas},
  title =	{{An EPTAS for Budgeted Matching and Budgeted Matroid Intersection via Representative Sets}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{49:1--49:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.49},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181018},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.49},
  annote =	{Keywords: budgeted matching, budgeted matroid intersection, efficient polynomial-time approximation scheme}
}
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