26 Search Results for "Kothari, Robin"


Document
On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles

Authors: Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)


Abstract
We study how the choices made when designing an oracle affect the complexity of quantum property testing problems defined relative to this oracle. We encode a regular graph of even degree as an invertible function f, and present f in different oracle models. We first give a one-query QMA protocol to test if a graph encoded in f has a small disconnected subset. We then use representation theory to show that no classical witness can help a quantum verifier efficiently decide this problem relative to an in-place oracle. Perhaps surprisingly, a simple modification to the standard oracle prevents a quantum verifier from efficiently deciding this problem, even with access to an unbounded witness.

Cite as

Roozbeh Bassirian, Bill Fefferman, and Kunal Marwaha. On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 11:1-11:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{bassirian_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11,
  author =	{Bassirian, Roozbeh and Fefferman, Bill and Marwaha, Kunal},
  title =	{{On the Power of Nonstandard Quantum Oracles}},
  booktitle =	{18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-283-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{266},
  editor =	{Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183215},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum complexity, QCMA, expander graphs, representation theory}
}
Document
A Distribution Testing Oracle Separating QMA and QCMA

Authors: Anand Natarajan and Chinmay Nirkhe

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
It is a long-standing open question in quantum complexity theory whether the definition of non-deterministic quantum computation requires quantum witnesses (QMA) or if classical witnesses suffice (QCMA). We make progress on this question by constructing a randomized classical oracle separating the respective computational complexity classes. Previous separations [Aaronson and Kuperberg, 2007; Bill Fefferman and Shelby Kimmel, 2018] required a quantum unitary oracle. The separating problem is deciding whether a distribution supported on regular un-directed graphs either consists of multiple connected components (yes instances) or consists of one expanding connected component (no instances) where the graph is given in an adjacency-list format by the oracle. Therefore, the oracle is a distribution over n-bit boolean functions.

Cite as

Anand Natarajan and Chinmay Nirkhe. A Distribution Testing Oracle Separating QMA and QCMA. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 22:1-22:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{natarajan_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.22,
  author =	{Natarajan, Anand and Nirkhe, Chinmay},
  title =	{{A Distribution Testing Oracle Separating QMA and QCMA}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182928},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum non-determinism, complexity theory}
}
Document
Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates

Authors: Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 232, 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)


Abstract
In the classical RAM, we have the following useful property. If we have an algorithm that uses M memory cells throughout its execution, and in addition is sparse, in the sense that, at any point in time, only m out of M cells will be non-zero, then we may "compress" it into another algorithm which uses only m log M memory and runs in almost the same time. We may do so by simulating the memory using either a hash table, or a self-balancing tree. We show an analogous result for quantum algorithms equipped with quantum random-access gates. If we have a quantum algorithm that runs in time T and uses M qubits, such that the state of the memory, at any time step, is supported on computational-basis vectors of Hamming weight at most m, then it can be simulated by another algorithm which uses only O(m log M) memory, and runs in time Õ(T). We show how this theorem can be used, in a black-box way, to simplify the presentation in several papers. Broadly speaking, when there exists a need for a space-efficient history-independent quantum data-structure, it is often possible to construct a space-inefficient, yet sparse, quantum data structure, and then appeal to our main theorem. This results in simpler and shorter arguments.

Cite as

Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates. In 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 232, pp. 10:1-10:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10,
  author =	{Buhrman, Harry and Loff, Bruno and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian},
  title =	{{Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates}},
  booktitle =	{17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-237-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{232},
  editor =	{Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165177},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: complexity theory, data structures, algorithms, quantum walk}
}
Document
On Query-To-Communication Lifting for Adversary Bounds

Authors: Anurag Anshu, Shalev Ben-David, and Srijita Kundu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)


Abstract
We investigate query-to-communication lifting theorems for models related to the quantum adversary bounds. Our results are as follows: 1) We show that the classical adversary bound lifts to a lower bound on randomized communication complexity with a constant-sized gadget. We also show that the classical adversary bound is a strictly stronger lower bound technique than the previously-lifted measure known as critical block sensitivity, making our lifting theorem one of the strongest lifting theorems for randomized communication complexity using a constant-sized gadget. 2) Turning to quantum models, we show a connection between lifting theorems for quantum adversary bounds and secure 2-party quantum computation in a certain "honest-but-curious" model. Under the assumption that such secure 2-party computation is impossible, we show that a simplified version of the positive-weight adversary bound lifts to a quantum communication lower bound using a constant-sized gadget. We also give an unconditional lifting theorem which lower bounds bounded-round quantum communication protocols. 3) Finally, we give some new results in query complexity. We show that the classical adversary and the positive-weight quantum adversary are quadratically related. We also show that the positive-weight quantum adversary is never larger than the square of the approximate degree. Both relations hold even for partial functions.

Cite as

Anurag Anshu, Shalev Ben-David, and Srijita Kundu. On Query-To-Communication Lifting for Adversary Bounds. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 30:1-30:39, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{anshu_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.30,
  author =	{Anshu, Anurag and Ben-David, Shalev and Kundu, Srijita},
  title =	{{On Query-To-Communication Lifting for Adversary Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)},
  pages =	{30:1--30:39},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-193-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{200},
  editor =	{Kabanets, Valentine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.30},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143042},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.30},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum computing, query complexity, communication complexity, lifting theorems, adversary method}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Quantum Query Complexity with Matrix-Vector Products

Authors: Andrew M. Childs, Shih-Han Hung, and Tongyang Li

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)


Abstract
We study quantum algorithms that learn properties of a matrix using queries that return its action on an input vector. We show that for various problems, including computing the trace, determinant, or rank of a matrix or solving a linear system that it specifies, quantum computers do not provide an asymptotic speedup over classical computation. On the other hand, we show that for some problems, such as computing the parities of rows or columns or deciding if there are two identical rows or columns, quantum computers provide exponential speedup. We demonstrate this by showing equivalence between models that provide matrix-vector products, vector-matrix products, and vector-matrix-vector products, whereas the power of these models can vary significantly for classical computation.

Cite as

Andrew M. Childs, Shih-Han Hung, and Tongyang Li. Quantum Query Complexity with Matrix-Vector Products. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 55:1-55:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{childs_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.55,
  author =	{Childs, Andrew M. and Hung, Shih-Han and Li, Tongyang},
  title =	{{Quantum Query Complexity with Matrix-Vector Products}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)},
  pages =	{55:1--55:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-195-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{198},
  editor =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.55},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141242},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.55},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum algorithms, quantum query complexity, matrix-vector products}
}
Document
The Quantum Supremacy Tsirelson Inequality

Authors: William Kretschmer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
A leading proposal for verifying near-term quantum supremacy experiments on noisy random quantum circuits is linear cross-entropy benchmarking. For a quantum circuit C on n qubits and a sample z ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, the benchmark involves computing |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|², i.e. the probability of measuring z from the output distribution of C on the all zeros input. Under a strong conjecture about the classical hardness of estimating output probabilities of quantum circuits, no polynomial-time classical algorithm given C can output a string z such that |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² is substantially larger than 1/(2ⁿ) (Aaronson and Gunn, 2019). On the other hand, for a random quantum circuit C, sampling z from the output distribution of C achieves |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² ≈ 2/(2ⁿ) on average (Arute et al., 2019). In analogy with the Tsirelson inequality from quantum nonlocal correlations, we ask: can a polynomial-time quantum algorithm do substantially better than 2/(2ⁿ)? We study this question in the query (or black box) model, where the quantum algorithm is given oracle access to C. We show that, for any ε ≥ 1/poly(n), outputting a sample z such that |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² ≥ (2 + ε)/2ⁿ on average requires at least Ω((2^{n/4})/poly(n)) queries to C, but not more than O (2^{n/3}) queries to C, if C is either a Haar-random n-qubit unitary, or a canonical state preparation oracle for a Haar-random n-qubit state. We also show that when C samples from the Fourier distribution of a random Boolean function, the naive algorithm that samples from C is the optimal 1-query algorithm for maximizing |⟨z|C|0ⁿ⟩|² on average.

Cite as

William Kretschmer. The Quantum Supremacy Tsirelson Inequality. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 13:1-13:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{kretschmer:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.13,
  author =	{Kretschmer, William},
  title =	{{The Quantum Supremacy Tsirelson Inequality}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135524},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum supremacy, quantum query complexity, random circuit sampling}
}
Document
No Quantum Speedup over Gradient Descent for Non-Smooth Convex Optimization

Authors: Ankit Garg, Robin Kothari, Praneeth Netrapalli, and Suhail Sherif

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
We study the first-order convex optimization problem, where we have black-box access to a (not necessarily smooth) function f:ℝⁿ → ℝ and its (sub)gradient. Our goal is to find an ε-approximate minimum of f starting from a point that is distance at most R from the true minimum. If f is G-Lipschitz, then the classic gradient descent algorithm solves this problem with O((GR/ε)²) queries. Importantly, the number of queries is independent of the dimension n and gradient descent is optimal in this regard: No deterministic or randomized algorithm can achieve better complexity that is still independent of the dimension n. In this paper we reprove the randomized lower bound of Ω((GR/ε)²) using a simpler argument than previous lower bounds. We then show that although the function family used in the lower bound is hard for randomized algorithms, it can be solved using O(GR/ε) quantum queries. We then show an improved lower bound against quantum algorithms using a different set of instances and establish our main result that in general even quantum algorithms need Ω((GR/ε)²) queries to solve the problem. Hence there is no quantum speedup over gradient descent for black-box first-order convex optimization without further assumptions on the function family.

Cite as

Ankit Garg, Robin Kothari, Praneeth Netrapalli, and Suhail Sherif. No Quantum Speedup over Gradient Descent for Non-Smooth Convex Optimization. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 53:1-53:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{garg_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.53,
  author =	{Garg, Ankit and Kothari, Robin and Netrapalli, Praneeth and Sherif, Suhail},
  title =	{{No Quantum Speedup over Gradient Descent for Non-Smooth Convex Optimization}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{53:1--53:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.53},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135921},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.53},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum algorithms, Gradient descent, Convex optimization}
}
Document
Extended Abstract
Shrinkage Under Random Projections, and Cubic Formula Lower Bounds for AC0 (Extended Abstract)

Authors: Yuval Filmus, Or Meir, and Avishay Tal

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
Håstad showed that any De Morgan formula (composed of AND, OR and NOT gates) shrinks by a factor of O(p²) under a random restriction that leaves each variable alive independently with probability p [SICOMP, 1998]. Using this result, he gave an Ω̃(n³) formula size lower bound for the Andreev function, which, up to lower order improvements, remains the state-of-the-art lower bound for any explicit function. In this work, we extend the shrinkage result of Håstad to hold under a far wider family of random restrictions and their generalization - random projections. Based on our shrinkage results, we obtain an Ω̃(n³) formula size lower bound for an explicit function computed in AC⁰. This improves upon the best known formula size lower bounds for AC⁰, that were only quadratic prior to our work. In addition, we prove that the KRW conjecture [Karchmer et al., Computational Complexity 5(3/4), 1995] holds for inner functions for which the unweighted quantum adversary bound is tight. In particular, this holds for inner functions with a tight Khrapchenko bound. Our random projections are tailor-made to the function’s structure so that the function maintains structure even under projection - using such projections is necessary, as standard random restrictions simplify AC⁰ circuits. In contrast, we show that any De Morgan formula shrinks by a quadratic factor under our random projections, allowing us to prove the cubic lower bound. Our proof techniques build on the proof of Håstad for the simpler case of balanced formulas. This allows for a significantly simpler proof at the cost of slightly worse parameters. As such, when specialized to the case of p-random restrictions, our proof can be used as an exposition of Håstad’s result.

Cite as

Yuval Filmus, Or Meir, and Avishay Tal. Shrinkage Under Random Projections, and Cubic Formula Lower Bounds for AC0 (Extended Abstract). In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 89:1-89:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{filmus_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.89,
  author =	{Filmus, Yuval and Meir, Or and Tal, Avishay},
  title =	{{Shrinkage Under Random Projections, and Cubic Formula Lower Bounds for AC0}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{89:1--89:7},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.89},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136281},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.89},
  annote =	{Keywords: De Morgan formulas, KRW Conjecture, shrinkage, random restrictions, random projections, bounded depth circuits, constant depth circuits, formula complexity}
}
Document
RANDOM
When Is Amplification Necessary for Composition in Randomized Query Complexity?

Authors: Shalev Ben-David, Mika Göös, Robin Kothari, and Thomas Watson

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
Suppose we have randomized decision trees for an outer function f and an inner function g. The natural approach for obtaining a randomized decision tree for the composed function (f∘ gⁿ)(x¹,…,xⁿ) = f(g(x¹),…,g(xⁿ)) involves amplifying the success probability of the decision tree for g, so that a union bound can be used to bound the error probability over all the coordinates. The amplification introduces a logarithmic factor cost overhead. We study the question: When is this log factor necessary? We show that when the outer function is parity or majority, the log factor can be necessary, even for models that are more powerful than plain randomized decision trees. Our results are related to, but qualitatively strengthen in various ways, known results about decision trees with noisy inputs.

Cite as

Shalev Ben-David, Mika Göös, Robin Kothari, and Thomas Watson. When Is Amplification Necessary for Composition in Randomized Query Complexity?. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 28:1-28:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{bendavid_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.28,
  author =	{Ben-David, Shalev and G\"{o}\"{o}s, Mika and Kothari, Robin and Watson, Thomas},
  title =	{{When Is Amplification Necessary for Composition in Randomized Query Complexity?}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126316},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: Amplification, composition, query complexity}
}
Document
Quantum Lower Bounds for Approximate Counting via Laurent Polynomials

Authors: Scott Aaronson, Robin Kothari, William Kretschmer, and Justin Thaler

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)


Abstract
We study quantum algorithms that are given access to trusted and untrusted quantum witnesses. We establish strong limitations of such algorithms, via new techniques based on Laurent polynomials (i.e., polynomials with positive and negative integer exponents). Specifically, we resolve the complexity of approximate counting, the problem of multiplicatively estimating the size of a nonempty set S ⊆ [N], in two natural generalizations of quantum query complexity. Our first result holds in the standard Quantum Merlin - Arthur (QMA) setting, in which a quantum algorithm receives an untrusted quantum witness. We show that, if the algorithm makes T quantum queries to S, and also receives an (untrusted) m-qubit quantum witness, then either m = Ω(|S|) or T = Ω(√{N/|S|}). This is optimal, matching the straightforward protocols where the witness is either empty, or specifies all the elements of S. As a corollary, this resolves the open problem of giving an oracle separation between SBP, the complexity class that captures approximate counting, and QMA. In our second result, we ask what if, in addition to a membership oracle for S, a quantum algorithm is also given "QSamples" - i.e., copies of the state |S⟩ = 1/√|S| ∑_{i ∈ S} |i⟩ - or even access to a unitary transformation that enables QSampling? We show that, even then, the algorithm needs either Θ(√{N/|S|}) queries or else Θ(min{|S|^{1/3},√{N/|S|}}) QSamples or accesses to the unitary. Our lower bounds in both settings make essential use of Laurent polynomials, but in different ways.

Cite as

Scott Aaronson, Robin Kothari, William Kretschmer, and Justin Thaler. Quantum Lower Bounds for Approximate Counting via Laurent Polynomials. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 7:1-7:47, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7,
  author =	{Aaronson, Scott and Kothari, Robin and Kretschmer, William and Thaler, Justin},
  title =	{{Quantum Lower Bounds for Approximate Counting via Laurent Polynomials}},
  booktitle =	{35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:47},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-156-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{169},
  editor =	{Saraf, Shubhangi},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125593},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Approximate counting, Laurent polynomials, QSampling, query complexity}
}
Document
Improved Approximate Degree Bounds for k-Distinctness

Authors: Nikhil S. Mande, Justin Thaler, and Shuchen Zhu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 158, 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)


Abstract
An open problem that is widely regarded as one of the most important in quantum query complexity is to resolve the quantum query complexity of the k-distinctness function on inputs of size N. While the case of k=2 (also called Element Distinctness) is well-understood, there is a polynomial gap between the known upper and lower bounds for all constants k>2. Specifically, the best known upper bound is O (N^{(3/4)-1/(2^{k+2}-4)}) (Belovs, FOCS 2012), while the best known lower bound for k≥ 2 is Ω̃(N^{2/3} + N^{(3/4)-1/(2k)}) (Aaronson and Shi, J. ACM 2004; Bun, Kothari, and Thaler, STOC 2018). For any constant k ≥ 4, we improve the lower bound to Ω̃(N^{(3/4)-1/(4k)}). This yields, for example, the first proof that 4-distinctness is strictly harder than Element Distinctness. Our lower bound applies more generally to approximate degree. As a secondary result, we give a simple construction of an approximating polynomial of degree Õ(N^{3/4}) that applies whenever k ≤ polylog(N).

Cite as

Nikhil S. Mande, Justin Thaler, and Shuchen Zhu. Improved Approximate Degree Bounds for k-Distinctness. In 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 158, pp. 2:1-2:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{mande_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2020.2,
  author =	{Mande, Nikhil S. and Thaler, Justin and Zhu, Shuchen},
  title =	{{Improved Approximate Degree Bounds for k-Distinctness}},
  booktitle =	{15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-146-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{158},
  editor =	{Flammia, Steven T.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120613},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum Query Complexity, Approximate Degree, Dual Polynomials, k-distinctness}
}
Document
Quantum Coupon Collector

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam, Aleksandrs Belovs, Andrew M. Childs, Robin Kothari, Ansis Rosmanis, and Ronald de Wolf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 158, 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)


Abstract
We study how efficiently a k-element set S⊆[n] can be learned from a uniform superposition |S> of its elements. One can think of |S>=∑_{i∈S}|i>/√|S| as the quantum version of a uniformly random sample over S, as in the classical analysis of the "coupon collector problem." We show that if k is close to n, then we can learn S using asymptotically fewer quantum samples than random samples. In particular, if there are n-k=O(1) missing elements then O(k) copies of |S> suffice, in contrast to the Θ(k log k) random samples needed by a classical coupon collector. On the other hand, if n-k=Ω(k), then Ω(k log k) quantum samples are necessary. More generally, we give tight bounds on the number of quantum samples needed for every k and n, and we give efficient quantum learning algorithms. We also give tight bounds in the model where we can additionally reflect through |S>. Finally, we relate coupon collection to a known example separating proper and improper PAC learning that turns out to show no separation in the quantum case.

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Aleksandrs Belovs, Andrew M. Childs, Robin Kothari, Ansis Rosmanis, and Ronald de Wolf. Quantum Coupon Collector. In 15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 158, pp. 10:1-10:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2020.10,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Belovs, Aleksandrs and Childs, Andrew M. and Kothari, Robin and Rosmanis, Ansis and de Wolf, Ronald},
  title =	{{Quantum Coupon Collector}},
  booktitle =	{15th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2020)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-146-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{158},
  editor =	{Flammia, Steven T.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-120692},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2020.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum algorithms, Adversary method, Coupon collector, Quantum learning theory}
}
Document
Span Programs and Quantum Space Complexity

Authors: Stacey Jeffery

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
While quantum computers hold the promise of significant computational speedups, the limited size of early quantum machines motivates the study of space-bounded quantum computation. We relate the quantum space complexity of computing a function f with one-sided error to the logarithm of its span program size, a classical quantity that is well-studied in attempts to prove formula size lower bounds. In the more natural bounded error model, we show that the amount of space needed for a unitary quantum algorithm to compute f with bounded (two-sided) error is lower bounded by the logarithm of its approximate span program size. Approximate span programs were introduced in the field of quantum algorithms but not studied classically. However, the approximate span program size of a function is a natural generalization of its span program size. While no non-trivial lower bound is known on the span program size (or approximate span program size) of any concrete function, a number of lower bounds are known on the monotone span program size. We show that the approximate monotone span program size of f is a lower bound on the space needed by quantum algorithms of a particular form, called monotone phase estimation algorithms, to compute f. We then give the first non-trivial lower bound on the approximate span program size of an explicit function.

Cite as

Stacey Jeffery. Span Programs and Quantum Space Complexity. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 4:1-4:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{jeffery:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.4,
  author =	{Jeffery, Stacey},
  title =	{{Span Programs and Quantum Space Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:37},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-116896},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum space complexity, span programs}
}
Document
RANDOM
The Large-Error Approximate Degree of AC^0

Authors: Mark Bun and Justin Thaler

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)


Abstract
We prove two new results about the inability of low-degree polynomials to uniformly approximate constant-depth circuits, even to slightly-better-than-trivial error. First, we prove a tight Omega~(n^{1/2}) lower bound on the threshold degree of the SURJECTIVITY function on n variables. This matches the best known threshold degree bound for any AC^0 function, previously exhibited by a much more complicated circuit of larger depth (Sherstov, FOCS 2015). Our result also extends to a 2^{Omega~(n^{1/2})} lower bound on the sign-rank of an AC^0 function, improving on the previous best bound of 2^{Omega(n^{2/5})} (Bun and Thaler, ICALP 2016). Second, for any delta>0, we exhibit a function f : {-1,1}^n -> {-1,1} that is computed by a circuit of depth O(1/delta) and is hard to approximate by polynomials in the following sense: f cannot be uniformly approximated to error epsilon=1-2^{-Omega(n^{1-delta})}, even by polynomials of degree n^{1-delta}. Our recent prior work (Bun and Thaler, FOCS 2017) proved a similar lower bound, but which held only for error epsilon=1/3. Our result implies 2^{Omega(n^{1-delta})} lower bounds on the complexity of AC^0 under a variety of basic measures such as discrepancy, margin complexity, and threshold weight. This nearly matches the trivial upper bound of 2^{O(n)} that holds for every function. The previous best lower bound on AC^0 for these measures was 2^{Omega(n^{1/2})} (Sherstov, FOCS 2015). Additional applications in learning theory, communication complexity, and cryptography are described.

Cite as

Mark Bun and Justin Thaler. The Large-Error Approximate Degree of AC^0. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 55:1-55:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bun_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.55,
  author =	{Bun, Mark and Thaler, Justin},
  title =	{{The Large-Error Approximate Degree of AC^0}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)},
  pages =	{55:1--55:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-125-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{145},
  editor =	{Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.55},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112709},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.55},
  annote =	{Keywords: approximate degree, discrepancy, margin complexity, polynomial approximations, secret sharing, threshold circuits}
}
Document
RANDOM
Approximate Degree, Secret Sharing, and Concentration Phenomena

Authors: Andrej Bogdanov, Nikhil S. Mande, Justin Thaler, and Christopher Williamson

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)


Abstract
The epsilon-approximate degree deg~_epsilon(f) of a Boolean function f is the least degree of a real-valued polynomial that approximates f pointwise to within epsilon. A sound and complete certificate for approximate degree being at least k is a pair of probability distributions, also known as a dual polynomial, that are perfectly k-wise indistinguishable, but are distinguishable by f with advantage 1 - epsilon. Our contributions are: - We give a simple, explicit new construction of a dual polynomial for the AND function on n bits, certifying that its epsilon-approximate degree is Omega (sqrt{n log 1/epsilon}). This construction is the first to extend to the notion of weighted degree, and yields the first explicit certificate that the 1/3-approximate degree of any (possibly unbalanced) read-once DNF is Omega(sqrt{n}). It draws a novel connection between the approximate degree of AND and anti-concentration of the Binomial distribution. - We show that any pair of symmetric distributions on n-bit strings that are perfectly k-wise indistinguishable are also statistically K-wise indistinguishable with at most K^{3/2} * exp (-Omega (k^2/K)) error for all k < K <= n/64. This bound is essentially tight, and implies that any symmetric function f is a reconstruction function with constant advantage for a ramp secret sharing scheme that is secure against size-K coalitions with statistical error K^{3/2} * exp (-Omega (deg~_{1/3}(f)^2/K)) for all values of K up to n/64 simultaneously. Previous secret sharing schemes required that K be determined in advance, and only worked for f=AND. Our analysis draws another new connection between approximate degree and concentration phenomena. As a corollary of this result, we show that for any d <= n/64, any degree d polynomial approximating a symmetric function f to error 1/3 must have coefficients of l_1-norm at least K^{-3/2} * exp ({Omega (deg~_{1/3}(f)^2/d)}). We also show this bound is essentially tight for any d > deg~_{1/3}(f). These upper and lower bounds were also previously only known in the case f=AND.

Cite as

Andrej Bogdanov, Nikhil S. Mande, Justin Thaler, and Christopher Williamson. Approximate Degree, Secret Sharing, and Concentration Phenomena. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 71:1-71:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bogdanov_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.71,
  author =	{Bogdanov, Andrej and Mande, Nikhil S. and Thaler, Justin and Williamson, Christopher},
  title =	{{Approximate Degree, Secret Sharing, and Concentration Phenomena}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)},
  pages =	{71:1--71:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-125-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{145},
  editor =	{Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.71},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112869},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.71},
  annote =	{Keywords: approximate degree, dual polynomial, pseudorandomness, polynomial approximation, secret sharing}
}
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