107 Search Results for "Sankowski, Piotr"

Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 57

24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

ESA 2016, August 22-24, 2016, Aarhus, Denmark

Editors: Piotr Sankowski and Christos Zaroliagis

Document
RANDOM
Approximating the Number of Relevant Variables in a Parity Implies Proper Learning

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 317, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)

Abstract
Consider the model where we can access a parity function through random uniform labeled examples in the presence of random classification noise. In this paper, we show that approximating the number of relevant variables in the parity function is as hard as properly learning parities. More specifically, let γ:ℝ^+ → ℝ^+, where γ(x) ≥ x, be any strictly increasing function. In our first result, we show that from any polynomial-time algorithm that returns a γ-approximation, D (i.e., γ^{-1}(d(f)) ≤ D ≤ γ(d(f))), of the number of relevant variables d(f) for any parity f, we can, in polynomial time, construct a solution to the long-standing open problem of polynomial-time learning k(n)-sparse parities (parities with k(n) ≤ n relevant variables), where k(n) = ω_n(1). In our second result, we show that from any T(n)-time algorithm that, for any parity f, returns a γ-approximation of the number of relevant variables d(f) of f, we can, in polynomial time, construct a poly(Γ(n))T(Γ(n)²)-time algorithm that properly learns parities, where Γ(x) = γ(γ(x)). If T(Γ(n)²) = exp({o(n/log n)}), this would resolve another long-standing open problem of properly learning parities in the presence of random classification noise in time exp(o(n/log n)).

Cite as

Nader H. Bshouty and George Haddad. Approximating the Number of Relevant Variables in a Parity Implies Proper Learning. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 317, pp. 38:1-38:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{bshouty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.38,
title =	{{Approximating the Number of Relevant Variables in a Parity Implies Proper Learning}},
booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2024)},
pages =	{38:1--38:15},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-348-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{317},
editor =	{Kumar, Amit and Ron-Zewi, Noga},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.38},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-210316},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2024.38},
annote =	{Keywords: PAC Learning, Random Classification Noise, Uniform Distribution, Parity, Sparcity Approximation}
}```
Document
Left-Linear Rewriting in Adhesive Categories

Authors: Paolo Baldan, Davide Castelnovo, Andrea Corradini, and Fabio Gadducci

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 311, 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)

Abstract
When can two sequential steps performed by a computing device be considered (causally) independent? This is a relevant question for concurrent and distributed systems, since independence means that they could be executed in any order, and potentially in parallel. Equivalences identifying rewriting sequences which differ only for independent steps are at the core of the theory of concurrency of many formalisms. We investigate the issue in the context of the double pushout approach to rewriting in the general setting of adhesive categories. While a consolidated theory exists for linear rules, which can consume, preserve and generate entities, this paper focuses on left-linear rules which may also "merge" parts of the state. This is an apparently minimal, yet technically hard enhancement, since a standard characterisation of independence that - in the linear case - allows one to derive a number of properties, essential in the development of a theory of concurrency, no longer holds. The paper performs an in-depth study of the notion of independence for left-linear rules: it introduces a novel characterisation of independence, identifies well-behaved classes of left-linear rewriting systems, and provides some fundamental results including a Church-Rosser property and the existence of canonical equivalence proofs for concurrent computations. These results properly extends the class of formalisms that can be modelled in the adhesive framework.

Cite as

Paolo Baldan, Davide Castelnovo, Andrea Corradini, and Fabio Gadducci. Left-Linear Rewriting in Adhesive Categories. In 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 311, pp. 11:1-11:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{baldan_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.11,
author =	{Baldan, Paolo and Castelnovo, Davide and Corradini, Andrea and Gadducci, Fabio},
title =	{{Left-Linear Rewriting in Adhesive Categories}},
booktitle =	{35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)},
pages =	{11:1--11:24},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-339-3},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{311},
editor =	{Majumdar, Rupak and Silva, Alexandra},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.11},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207835},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.11},
annote =	{Keywords: Adhesive categories, double-pushout rewriting, left-linear rules, switch equivalence, local Church-Rosser property}
}```
Document
Fully-Adaptive Dynamic Connectivity of Square Intersection Graphs

Authors: Ivor van der Hoog, André Nusser, Eva Rotenberg, and Frank Staals

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

Abstract
A classical problem in computational geometry and graph algorithms is: given a dynamic set 𝒮 of geometric shapes in the plane, efficiently maintain the connectivity of the intersection graph of 𝒮. Previous papers studied the setting where, before the updates, the data structure receives some parameter P. Then, updates could insert and delete disks as long as at all times the disks have a diameter that lies in a fixed range [1/P, 1]. As a consequence of that prerequisite, the aspect ratio ψ (i.e. the ratio between the largest and smallest diameter) of the disks would at all times satisfy ψ ≤ P. The state-of-the-art for storing disks in a dynamic connectivity data structure is a data structure that uses O(Pn) space and that has amortized O(P log⁴ n) expected amortized update time. Connectivity queries between disks are supported in O(log n / log log n) time. In the dynamic setting, one wishes for a more flexible data structure in which disks of any diameter may arrive and leave, independent of their diameter, changing the aspect ratio freely. Ideally, the aspect ratio should merely be part of the analysis. We restrict our attention to axis-aligned squares, and study fully-dynamic square intersection graph connectivity. Our result is fully-adaptive to the aspect ratio, spending time proportional to the current aspect ratio ψ, as opposed to some previously given maximum P. Our focus on squares allows us to simplify and streamline the connectivity pipeline from previous work. When n is the number of squares and ψ is the aspect ratio after insertion (or before deletion), our data structure answers connectivity queries in O(log n / log log n) time. We can update connectivity information in O(ψ log⁴ n + log⁶ n) amortized time. We also improve space usage from O(P ⋅ n log n) to O(n log³ n log ψ) - while generalizing to a fully-adaptive aspect ratio - which yields a space usage that is near-linear in n for any polynomially bounded ψ.

Cite as

Ivor van der Hoog, André Nusser, Eva Rotenberg, and Frank Staals. Fully-Adaptive Dynamic Connectivity of Square Intersection Graphs. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 63:1-63:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{vanderhoog_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.63,
author =	{van der Hoog, Ivor and Nusser, Andr\'{e} and Rotenberg, Eva and Staals, Frank},
title =	{{Fully-Adaptive Dynamic Connectivity of Square Intersection Graphs}},
booktitle =	{49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)},
pages =	{63:1--63:17},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-335-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{306},
editor =	{Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.63},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-206197},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.63},
annote =	{Keywords: Computational geometry, planar geometry, data structures, geometric intersection graphs, fully-dynamic algorithms}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement

Authors: Li Chen and Mingquan Ye

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
The multicommodity flow problem is a classic problem in network flow and combinatorial optimization, with applications in transportation, communication, logistics, and supply chain management, etc. Existing algorithms often focus on low-accuracy approximate solutions, while high-accuracy algorithms typically rely on general linear program solvers. In this paper, we present efficient high-accuracy algorithms for a broad family of multicommodity flow problems on undirected graphs, demonstrating improved running times compared to general linear program solvers. Our main result shows that we can solve the 𝓁_{q, p}-norm multicommodity flow problem to a (1 + ε) approximation in time O_{q, p}(m^{1+o(1)} k² log(1/ε)), where k is the number of commodities, and O_{q, p}(⋅) hides constants depending only on q or p. As q and p approach to 1 and ∞ respectively, 𝓁_{q, p}-norm flow tends to maximum concurrent flow. We introduce the first iterative refinement framework for 𝓁_{q, p}-norm minimization problems, which reduces the problem to solving a series of decomposable residual problems. In the case of k-commodity flow, each residual problem can be decomposed into k single commodity convex flow problems, each of which can be solved in almost-linear time. As many classical variants of multicommodity flows were shown to be complete for linear programs in the high-accuracy regime [Ding-Kyng-Zhang, ICALP'22], our result provides new directions for studying more efficient high-accuracy multicommodity flow algorithms.

Cite as

Li Chen and Mingquan Ye. High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 45:1-45:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45,
author =	{Chen, Li and Ye, Mingquan},
title =	{{High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{45:1--45:19},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201887},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45},
annote =	{Keywords: High-accuracy multicommodity flow, Iterative refinement framework, Convex flow solver}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness

Authors: Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
It is known for many algorithmic problems that if a tree decomposition of width t is given in the input, then the problem can be solved with exponential dependence on t. A line of research initiated by Lokshtanov, Marx, and Saurabh [SODA 2011] produced lower bounds showing that in many cases known algorithms already achieve the best possible exponential dependence on t, assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). The main message of this paper is showing that the same lower bounds can already be obtained in a much more restricted setting: informally, a graph consisting of a block of t vertices connected to components of constant size already has the same hardness as a general tree decomposition of width t. Formally, a (σ,δ)-hub is a set Q of vertices such that every component of Q has size at most σ and is adjacent to at most δ vertices of Q. We explore if the known tight lower bounds parameterized by the width of the given tree decomposition remain valid if we parameterize by the size of the given hub. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that Independent Set (equivalently Vertex Cover) cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the SETH. This matches the earlier tight lower bounds parameterized by width of the tree decomposition. Similar tight bounds are obtained for Odd Cycle Transversal, Max Cut, q-Coloring, and edge/vertex deletions versions of q-Coloring. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that △-Partition cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p ⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the Set Cover Conjecture (SCC). In fact, we prove that this statement is equivalent to the SCC, thus it is unlikely that this could be proved assuming the SETH. - For Dominating Set, we can prove a non-tight lower bound ruling out (2-ε)^p ⋅ n^𝒪(1) algorithms, assuming either the SETH or the SCC, but this does not match the 3^p⋅ n^{𝒪(1)} upper bound. Thus our results reveal that, for many problems, the research on lower bounds on the dependence on tree width was never really about tree decompositions, but the real source of hardness comes from a much simpler structure. Additionally, we study if the same lower bounds can be obtained if σ and δ are fixed universal constants (not depending on ε). We show that lower bounds of this form are possible for Max Cut and the edge-deletion version of q-Coloring, under the Max 3-Sat Hypothesis (M3SH). However, no such lower bounds are possible for Independent Set, Odd Cycle Transversal, and the vertex-deletion version of q-Coloring: better than brute force algorithms are possible for every fixed (σ,δ).

Cite as

Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski. Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 34:1-34:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{canesmer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34,
author =	{Can Esmer, Bar{\i}\c{s} and Focke, Jacob and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
title =	{{Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{34:1--34:17},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201772},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Tight Bounds, Hub, Treewidth, Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis, Vertex Coloring, Vertex Deletion, Edge Deletion, Triangle Packing, Triangle Partition, Set Cover Hypothesis, Dominating Set}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Decremental Matching in General Weighted Graphs

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
In this paper, we consider the problem of maintaining a (1-ε)-approximate maximum weight matching in a dynamic graph G, while the adversary makes changes to the edges of the graph. In the fully dynamic setting, where both edge insertions and deletions are allowed, Gupta and Peng [Manoj Gupta and Richard Peng, 2013] gave an algorithm for this problem with an update time of Õ_ε(√m). We study a natural relaxation of this problem, namely the decremental model, where the adversary is only allowed to delete edges. For the unweighted version of this problem in general (possibly, non-bipartite) graphs, [Sepehr Assadi et al., 2022] gave a decremental algorithm with update time O_ε(poly(log n)). However, beating Õ_ε(√m) update time remained an open problem for the weighted version in general graphs. In this paper, we bridge the gap between unweighted and weighted general graphs for the decremental setting. We give a O_ε(poly(log n)) update time algorithm that maintains a (1-ε) approximate maximum weight matching under adversarial deletions. Like the decremental algorithm of [Sepehr Assadi et al., 2022], our algorithm is randomized, but works against an adaptive adversary. It also matches the time bound for the unweighted version upto dependencies on ε and a log R factor, where R is the ratio between the maximum and minimum edge weight in G.

Cite as

Aditi Dudeja. Decremental Matching in General Weighted Graphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 59:1-59:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{dudeja:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.59,
author =	{Dudeja, Aditi},
title =	{{Decremental Matching in General Weighted Graphs}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{59:1--59:20},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.59},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202020},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.59},
annote =	{Keywords: Weighted Matching, Dynamic Algorithms, Adaptive Adversary}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Minimizing Tardy Processing Time on a Single Machine in Near-Linear Time

Authors: Nick Fischer and Leo Wennmann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
In this work we revisit the elementary scheduling problem 1||∑ p_j U_j. The goal is to select, among n jobs with processing times and due dates, a subset of jobs with maximum total processing time that can be scheduled in sequence without violating their due dates. This problem is NP-hard, but a classical algorithm by Lawler and Moore from the 60s solves this problem in pseudo-polynomial time O(nP), where P is the total processing time of all jobs. With the aim to develop best-possible pseudo-polynomial-time algorithms, a recent wave of results has improved Lawler and Moore’s algorithm for 1||∑ p_j U_j: First to time Õ(P^{7/4}) [Bringmann, Fischer, Hermelin, Shabtay, Wellnitz; ICALP'20], then to time Õ(P^{5/3}) [Klein, Polak, Rohwedder; SODA'23], and finally to time Õ(P^{7/5}) [Schieber, Sitaraman; WADS'23]. It remained an exciting open question whether these works can be improved further. In this work we develop an algorithm in near-linear time Õ(P) for the 1||∑ p_j U_j problem. This running time not only significantly improves upon the previous results, but also matches conditional lower bounds based on the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis or the Set Cover Hypothesis and is therefore likely optimal (up to subpolynomial factors). Our new algorithm also extends to the case of m machines in time Õ(P^m). In contrast to the previous improvements, we take a different, more direct approach inspired by the recent reductions from Modular Subset Sum to dynamic string problems. We thereby arrive at a satisfyingly simple algorithm.

Cite as

Nick Fischer and Leo Wennmann. Minimizing Tardy Processing Time on a Single Machine in Near-Linear Time. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 64:1-64:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{fischer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.64,
author =	{Fischer, Nick and Wennmann, Leo},
title =	{{Minimizing Tardy Processing Time on a Single Machine in Near-Linear Time}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{64:1--64:15},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.64},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202079},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.64},
annote =	{Keywords: Scheduling, Fine-Grained Complexity, Dynamic Strings}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fully Dynamic Strongly Connected Components in Planar Digraphs

Authors: Adam Karczmarz and Marcin Smulewicz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
In this paper we consider maintaining strongly connected components (SCCs) of a directed planar graph subject to edge insertions and deletions. We show a data structure maintaining an implicit representation of the SCCs within Õ(n^{6/7}) worst-case time per update. The data structure supports, in O(log²{n}) time, reporting vertices of any specified SCC (with constant overhead per reported vertex) and aggregating vertex information (e.g., computing the maximum label) over all the vertices of that SCC. Furthermore, it can maintain global information about the structure of SCCs, such as the number of SCCs, or the size of the largest SCC. To the best of our knowledge, no fully dynamic SCCs data structures with sublinear update time have been previously known for any major subclass of digraphs. Our result should be contrasted with the n^{1-o(1)} amortized update time lower bound conditional on SETH, which holds even for dynamically maintaining whether a general digraph has more than two SCCs.

Cite as

Adam Karczmarz and Marcin Smulewicz. Fully Dynamic Strongly Connected Components in Planar Digraphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 95:1-95:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{karczmarz_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.95,
author =	{Karczmarz, Adam and Smulewicz, Marcin},
title =	{{Fully Dynamic Strongly Connected Components in Planar Digraphs}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{95:1--95:20},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.95},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202388},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.95},
annote =	{Keywords: dynamic strongly connected components, dynamic strong connectivity, dynamic reachability, planar graphs}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Dynamic PageRank: Algorithms and Lower Bounds

Authors: Rajesh Jayaram, Jakub Łącki, Slobodan Mitrović, Krzysztof Onak, and Piotr Sankowski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
We consider the PageRank problem in the dynamic setting, where the goal is to explicitly maintain an approximate PageRank vector π ∈ ℝⁿ for a graph under a sequence of edge insertions and deletions. Our main result is a complete characterization of the complexity of dynamic PageRank maintenance for both multiplicative and additive (L₁) approximations. First, we establish matching lower and upper bounds for maintaining additive approximate PageRank in both incremental and decremental settings. In particular, we demonstrate that in the worst-case (1/α)^{Θ(log log n)} update time is necessary and sufficient for this problem, where α is the desired additive approximation. On the other hand, we demonstrate that the commonly employed ForwardPush approach performs substantially worse than this optimal runtime. Specifically, we show that ForwardPush requires Ω(n^{1-δ}) time per update on average, for any δ > 0, even in the incremental setting. For multiplicative approximations, however, we demonstrate that the situation is significantly more challenging. Specifically, we prove that any algorithm that explicitly maintains a constant factor multiplicative approximation of the PageRank vector of a directed graph must have amortized update time Ω(n^{1-δ}), for any δ > 0, even in the incremental setting, thereby resolving a 13-year old open question of Bahmani et al. (VLDB 2010). This sharply contrasts with the undirected setting, where we show that poly log n update time is feasible, even in the fully dynamic setting under oblivious adversary.

Cite as

Rajesh Jayaram, Jakub Łącki, Slobodan Mitrović, Krzysztof Onak, and Piotr Sankowski. Dynamic PageRank: Algorithms and Lower Bounds. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 90:1-90:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{jayaram_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.90,
author =	{Jayaram, Rajesh and {\L}\k{a}cki, Jakub and Mitrovi\'{c}, Slobodan and Onak, Krzysztof and Sankowski, Piotr},
title =	{{Dynamic PageRank: Algorithms and Lower Bounds}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{90:1--90:19},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.90},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202336},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.90},
annote =	{Keywords: PageRank, dynamic algorithms, graph algorithms}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
An O(loglog n)-Approximation for Submodular Facility Location

Authors: Fateme Abbasi, Marek Adamczyk, Miguel Bosch-Calvo, Jarosław Byrka, Fabrizio Grandoni, Krzysztof Sornat, and Antoine Tinguely

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
In the Submodular Facility Location problem (SFL) we are given a collection of n clients and m facilities in a metric space. A feasible solution consists of an assignment of each client to some facility. For each client, one has to pay the distance to the associated facility. Furthermore, for each facility f to which we assign the subset of clients S^f, one has to pay the opening cost g(S^f), where g() is a monotone submodular function with g(emptyset)=0. SFL is APX-hard since it includes the classical (metric uncapacitated) Facility Location problem (with uniform facility costs) as a special case. Svitkina and Tardos [SODA'06] gave the current-best O(log n) approximation algorithm for SFL. The same authors pose the open problem whether SFL admits a constant approximation and provide such an approximation for a very restricted special case of the problem. We make some progress towards the solution of the above open problem by presenting an O(loglog n) approximation. Our approach is rather flexible and can be easily extended to generalizations and variants of SFL. In more detail, we achieve the same approximation factor for the natural generalizations of SFL where the opening cost of each facility f is of the form p_f + g(S^f) or w_f * g(S^f), where p_f, w_f >= 0 are input values. We also obtain an improved approximation algorithm for the related Universal Stochastic Facility Location problem. In this problem one is given a classical (metric) facility location instance and has to a priori assign each client to some facility. Then a subset of active clients is sampled from some given distribution, and one has to pay (a posteriori) only the connection and opening costs induced by the active clients. The expected opening cost of each facility f can be modelled with a submodular function of the set of clients assigned to f.

Cite as

Fateme Abbasi, Marek Adamczyk, Miguel Bosch-Calvo, Jarosław Byrka, Fabrizio Grandoni, Krzysztof Sornat, and Antoine Tinguely. An O(loglog n)-Approximation for Submodular Facility Location. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 5:1-5:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{abbasi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.5,
author =	{Abbasi, Fateme and Adamczyk, Marek and Bosch-Calvo, Miguel and Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Grandoni, Fabrizio and Sornat, Krzysztof and Tinguely, Antoine},
title =	{{An O(loglog n)-Approximation for Submodular Facility Location}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{5:1--5:20},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.5},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201488},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.5},
annote =	{Keywords: approximation algorithms, facility location, submodular facility location, universal stochastic facility location}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Detecting Disjoint Shortest Paths in Linear Time and More

Authors: Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, and Nicole Wein

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
In the k-Disjoint Shortest Paths (k-DSP) problem, we are given a graph G (with positive edge weights) on n nodes and m edges with specified source vertices s_1, … , s_k, and target vertices t_1, … , t_k, and are tasked with determining if G contains vertex-disjoint (s_i,t_i)-shortest paths. For any constant k, it is known that k-DSP can be solved in polynomial time over undirected graphs and directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). However, the exact time complexity of k-DSP remains mysterious, with large gaps between the fastest known algorithms and best conditional lower bounds. In this paper, we obtain faster algorithms for important cases of k-DSP, and present better conditional lower bounds for k-DSP and its variants. Previous work solved 2-DSP over weighted undirected graphs in O(n⁷) time, and weighted DAGs in O(mn) time. For the main result of this paper, we present optimal linear time algorithms for solving 2-DSP on weighted undirected graphs and DAGs. Our linear time algorithms are algebraic however, and so only solve the detection rather than search version of 2-DSP (we show how to solve the search version in O(mn) time, which is faster than the previous best runtime in weighted undirected graphs, but only matches the previous best runtime for DAGs). We also obtain a faster algorithm for k-Edge Disjoint Shortest Paths (k-EDSP) in DAGs, the variant of k-DSP where one seeks edge-disjoint instead of vertex-disjoint paths between sources and their corresponding targets. Algorithms for k-EDSP on DAGs from previous work take Ω(m^k) time. We show that k-EDSP can be solved over DAGs in O(mn^{k-1}) time, matching the fastest known runtime for solving k-DSP over DAGs. Previous work established conditional lower bounds for solving k-DSP and its variants via reductions from detecting cliques in graphs. Prior work implied that k-Clique can be reduced to 2k-DSP in DAGs and undirected graphs with O((kn)²) nodes. We improve this reduction, by showing how to reduce from k-Clique to k-DSP in DAGs and undirected graphs with O((kn)²) nodes (halving the number of paths needed in the reduced instance). A variant of k-DSP is the k-Disjoint Paths (k-DP) problem, where the solution paths no longer need to be shortest paths. Previous work reduced from k-Clique to p-DP in DAGs with O(kn) nodes, for p = k + k(k-1)/2. We improve this by showing a reduction from k-Clique to p-DP, for p = k + ⌊k²/4⌋. Under the k-Clique Hypothesis from fine-grained complexity, our results establish better conditional lower bounds for k-DSP for all k ≥ 4, and better conditional lower bounds for p-DP for all p ≤ 4031. Notably, our work gives the first nontrivial conditional lower bounds 4-DP in DAGs and 4-DSP in undirected graphs and DAGs. Before our work, nontrivial conditional lower bounds were only known for k-DP and k-DSP on such graphs when k ≥ 6.

Cite as

Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, and Nicole Wein. Detecting Disjoint Shortest Paths in Linear Time and More. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 9:1-9:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.9,
author =	{Akmal, Shyan and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia and Wein, Nicole},
title =	{{Detecting Disjoint Shortest Paths in Linear Time and More}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{9:1--9:17},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.9},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201529},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.9},
annote =	{Keywords: disjoint shortest paths, algebraic graph algorithms, disjoint paths, fine-grained complexity, clique}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
The Bit Complexity of Dynamic Algebraic Formulas and Their Determinants

Authors: Emile Anand, Jan van den Brand, Mehrdad Ghadiri, and Daniel J. Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
Many iterative algorithms in computer science require repeated computation of some algebraic expression whose input varies slightly from one iteration to the next. Although efficient data structures have been proposed for maintaining the solution of such algebraic expressions under low-rank updates, most of these results are only analyzed under exact arithmetic (real-RAM model and finite fields) which may not accurately reflect the more limited complexity guarantees of real computers. In this paper, we analyze the stability and bit complexity of such data structures for expressions that involve the inversion, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of matrices under the word-RAM model. We show that the bit complexity only increases linearly in the number of matrix operations in the expression. In addition, we consider the bit complexity of maintaining the determinant of a matrix expression. We show that the required bit complexity depends on the logarithm of the condition number of matrices instead of the logarithm of their determinant. Finally, we discuss rank maintenance and its connections to determinant maintenance. Our results have wide applications ranging from computational geometry (e.g., computing the volume of a polytope) to optimization (e.g., solving linear programs using the simplex algorithm).

Cite as

Emile Anand, Jan van den Brand, Mehrdad Ghadiri, and Daniel J. Zhang. The Bit Complexity of Dynamic Algebraic Formulas and Their Determinants. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 10:1-10:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{anand_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.10,
author =	{Anand, Emile and van den Brand, Jan and Ghadiri, Mehrdad and Zhang, Daniel J.},
title =	{{The Bit Complexity of Dynamic Algebraic Formulas and Their Determinants}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{10:1--10:20},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.10},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201538},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.10},
annote =	{Keywords: Data Structures, Online Algorithms, Bit Complexity}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
List Update with Delays or Time Windows

Authors: Yossi Azar, Shahar Lewkowicz, and Danny Vainstein

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Abstract
We address the problem of List Update, which is considered one of the fundamental problems in online algorithms and competitive analysis. In this context, we are presented with a list of elements and receive requests for these elements over time. Our objective is to fulfill these requests, incurring a cost proportional to their position in the list. Additionally, we can swap any two consecutive elements at a cost of 1. The renowned "Move to Front" algorithm, introduced by Sleator and Tarjan, immediately moves any requested element to the front of the list. They demonstrated that this algorithm achieves a competitive ratio of 2. While this bound is impressive, the actual cost of the algorithm’s solution can be excessively high. For example, if we request the last half of the list, the resulting solution cost becomes quadratic in the list’s length. To address this issue, we consider a more generalized problem called List Update with Time Windows. In this variant, each request arrives with a specific deadline by which it must be served, rather than being served immediately. Moreover, we allow the algorithm to process multiple requests simultaneously, accessing the corresponding elements in a single pass. The cost incurred in this case is determined by the position of the furthest element accessed, leading to a significant reduction in the total solution cost. We introduce this problem to explore lower solution costs, but it necessitates the development of new algorithms. For instance, Move-to-Front fails when handling the simple scenario of requesting the last half of the list with overlapping time windows. In our work, we present a natural O(1) competitive algorithm for this problem. While the algorithm itself is intuitive, its analysis is intricate, requiring the use of a novel potential function. Additionally, we delve into a more general problem called List Update with Delays, where the fixed deadlines are replaced with arbitrary delay functions. In this case, the cost includes not only the access and swapping costs, but also penalties for the delays incurred until the requests are served. This problem encompasses a special case known as the prize collecting version, where a request may go unserved up to a given deadline, resulting in a specified penalty. For this more comprehensive problem, we establish an O(1) competitive algorithm. However, the algorithm for the delay version is more complex, and its analysis involves significantly more intricate considerations.

Cite as

Yossi Azar, Shahar Lewkowicz, and Danny Vainstein. List Update with Delays or Time Windows. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 15:1-15:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

```@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.15,
author =	{Azar, Yossi and Lewkowicz, Shahar and Vainstein, Danny},
title =	{{List Update with Delays or Time Windows}},
booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
pages =	{15:1--15:20},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2024},
volume =	{297},
editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.15},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201583},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.15},
annote =	{Keywords: Online, List Update, Delay, Time Window, Deadline}
}```
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fully Dynamic Shortest Paths and Reachability in Sparse Digraphs

Authors: Adam Karczmarz and Piotr Sankowski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Abstract
We study the exact fully dynamic shortest paths problem. For real-weighted directed graphs, we show a deterministic fully dynamic data structure with Õ(mn^{4/5}) worst-case update time processing arbitrary s,t-distance queries in Õ(n^{4/5}) time. This constitutes the first non-trivial update/query tradeoff for this problem in the regime of sparse weighted directed graphs. Moreover, we give a Monte Carlo randomized fully dynamic reachability data structure processing single-edge updates in Õ(n√m) worst-case time and queries in O(√m) time. For sparse digraphs, such a tradeoff has only been previously described with amortized update time [Roditty and Zwick, SIAM J. Comp. 2008].

Cite as

Adam Karczmarz and Piotr Sankowski. Fully Dynamic Shortest Paths and Reachability in Sparse Digraphs. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 84:1-84:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

```@InProceedings{karczmarz_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.84,
author =	{Karczmarz, Adam and Sankowski, Piotr},
title =	{{Fully Dynamic Shortest Paths and Reachability in Sparse Digraphs}},
booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
pages =	{84:1--84:20},
series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
ISSN =	{1868-8969},
year =	{2023},
volume =	{261},
editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.84},
URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181363},
doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.84},
annote =	{Keywords: dynamic shortest paths, dynamic reachability, dynamic transitive closure}
}```
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