7 Search Results for "Chen, Xue"


Document
Faster Treewidth-Based Approximations for Wiener Index

Authors: Giovanna Kobus Conrado, Amir Kafshdar Goharshady, Pavel Hudec, Pingjiang Li, and Harshit Jitendra Motwani

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
The Wiener index of a graph G is the sum of distances between all pairs of its vertices. It is a widely-used graph property in chemistry, initially introduced to examine the link between boiling points and structural properties of alkanes, which later found notable applications in drug design. Thus, computing or approximating the Wiener index of molecular graphs, i.e. graphs in which every vertex models an atom of a molecule and every edge models a bond, is of significant interest to the computational chemistry community. In this work, we build upon the observation that molecular graphs are sparse and tree-like and focus on developing efficient algorithms parameterized by treewidth to approximate the Wiener index. We present a new randomized approximation algorithm using a combination of tree decompositions and centroid decompositions. Our algorithm approximates the Wiener index within any desired multiplicative factor (1 ± ε) in time O(n ⋅ log n ⋅ k³ + √n ⋅ k/ε²), where n is the number of vertices of the graph and k is the treewidth. This time bound is almost-linear in n. Finally, we provide experimental results over standard benchmark molecules from PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, showcasing the applicability and scalability of our approach on real-world chemical graphs and comparing it with previous methods.

Cite as

Giovanna Kobus Conrado, Amir Kafshdar Goharshady, Pavel Hudec, Pingjiang Li, and Harshit Jitendra Motwani. Faster Treewidth-Based Approximations for Wiener Index. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 6:1-6:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{conrado_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.6,
  author =	{Conrado, Giovanna Kobus and Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar and Hudec, Pavel and Li, Pingjiang and Motwani, Harshit Jitendra},
  title =	{{Faster Treewidth-Based Approximations for Wiener Index}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203718},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Computational Chemistry, Treewidth, Wiener Index}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Problems in NP Can Admit Double-Exponential Lower Bounds When Parameterized by Treewidth or Vertex Cover

Authors: Florent Foucaud, Esther Galby, Liana Khazaliya, Shaohua Li, Fionn Mc Inerney, Roohani Sharma, and Prafullkumar Tale

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Treewidth serves as an important parameter that, when bounded, yields tractability for a wide class of problems. For example, graph problems expressible in Monadic Second Order (MSO) logic and Quantified SAT or, more generally, Quantified CSP, are fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by the treewidth {of the input’s (primal) graph} plus the length of the MSO-formula [Courcelle, Information & Computation 1990] and the quantifier rank [Chen, ECAI 2004], respectively. The algorithms generated by these (meta-)results have running times whose dependence on treewidth is a tower of exponents. A conditional lower bound by Fichte, Hecher, and Pfandler [LICS 2020] shows that, for Quantified SAT, the height of this tower is equal to the number of quantifier alternations. These types of lower bounds, which show that at least double-exponential factors in the running time are necessary, exhibit the extraordinary level of computational hardness for such problems, and are rare in the current literature: there are only a handful of such lower bounds (for treewidth and vertex cover parameterizations) and all of them are for problems that are #NP-complete, Σ₂^p-complete, Π₂^p-complete, or complete for even higher levels of the polynomial hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that it is not necessary to go higher up in the polynomial hierarchy to achieve double-exponential lower bounds: we derive double-exponential lower bounds in the treewidth (tw) and the vertex cover number (vc), for natural, important, and well-studied NP-complete graph problems. Specifically, we design a technique to obtain such lower bounds and show its versatility by applying it to three different problems: Metric Dimension, Strong Metric Dimension, and Geodetic Set. We prove that these problems do not admit 2^{2^o(tw)}⋅n^𝒪(1)-time algorithms, even on bounded diameter graphs, unless the ETH fails (here, n is the number of vertices in the graph). In fact, for Strong Metric Dimension, the double-exponential lower bound holds even for the vertex cover number. We further complement all our lower bounds with matching (and sometimes non-trivial) upper bounds. For the conditional lower bounds, we design and use a novel, yet simple technique based on Sperner families of sets. We believe that the amenability of our technique will lead to obtaining such lower bounds for many other problems in NP.

Cite as

Florent Foucaud, Esther Galby, Liana Khazaliya, Shaohua Li, Fionn Mc Inerney, Roohani Sharma, and Prafullkumar Tale. Problems in NP Can Admit Double-Exponential Lower Bounds When Parameterized by Treewidth or Vertex Cover. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 66:1-66:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{foucaud_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.66,
  author =	{Foucaud, Florent and Galby, Esther and Khazaliya, Liana and Li, Shaohua and Mc Inerney, Fionn and Sharma, Roohani and Tale, Prafullkumar},
  title =	{{Problems in NP Can Admit Double-Exponential Lower Bounds When Parameterized by Treewidth or Vertex Cover}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{66:1--66:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.66},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202091},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.66},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, ETH-based Lower Bounds, Double-Exponential Lower Bounds, Kernelization, Vertex Cover, Treewidth, Diameter, Metric Dimension, Strong Metric Dimension, Geodetic Sets}
}
Document
Effective Resistances in Non-Expander Graphs

Authors: Dongrun Cai, Xue Chen, and Pan Peng

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Effective resistances are ubiquitous in graph algorithms and network analysis. For an undirected graph G, its effective resistance R_G(s,t) between two vertices s and t is defined as the equivalent resistance between s and t if G is thought of as an electrical network with unit resistance on each edge. If we use L_G to denote the Laplacian matrix of G and L_G^† to denote its pseudo-inverse, we have R_G(s,t) = (𝟏_s-𝟏_t)^⊤ L^† (𝟏_s-𝟏_t) such that classical Laplacian solvers [Daniel A. Spielman and Shang{-}Hua Teng, 2014] provide almost-linear time algorithms to approximate R_G(s,t). In this work, we study sublinear time algorithms to approximate the effective resistance of an adjacent pair s and t. We consider the classical adjacency list model [Ron, 2019] for local algorithms. While recent works [Andoni et al., 2018; Peng et al., 2021; Li and Sachdeva, 2023] have provided sublinear time algorithms for expander graphs, we prove several lower bounds for general graphs of n vertices and m edges: 1) It needs Ω(n) queries to obtain 1.01-approximations of the effective resistance of an adjacent pair s and t, even for graphs of degree at most 3 except s and t. 2) For graphs of degree at most d and any parameter 𝓁, it needs Ω(m/𝓁) queries to obtain c ⋅ min{d,𝓁}-approximations where c > 0 is a universal constant. Moreover, we supplement the first lower bound by providing a sublinear time (1+ε)-approximation algorithm for graphs of degree 2 except the pair s and t. One of our technical ingredients is to bound the expansion of a graph in terms of the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of its Laplacian matrix after removing edges. We discover a new lower bound on the eigenvalues of perturbed graphs (resp. perturbed matrices) by incorporating the effective resistance of the removed edge (resp. the leverage scores of the removed rows), which may be of independent interest.

Cite as

Dongrun Cai, Xue Chen, and Pan Peng. Effective Resistances in Non-Expander Graphs. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{cai_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.29,
  author =	{Cai, Dongrun and Chen, Xue and Peng, Pan},
  title =	{{Effective Resistances in Non-Expander Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186823},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sublinear Time Algorithm, Effective Resistance, Leverage Scores, Matrix Perturbation}
}
Document
Improved Pseudorandom Generators for AC⁰ Circuits

Authors: Xin Lyu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
We give PRG for depth-d, size-m AC⁰ circuits with seed length O(log^{d-1}(m)log(m/ε)log log(m)). Our PRG improves on previous work [Luca Trevisan and Tongke Xue, 2013; Rocco A. Servedio and Li-Yang Tan, 2019; Zander Kelley, 2021] from various aspects. It has optimal dependence on 1/ε and is only one "log log(m)" away from the lower bound barrier. For the case of d = 2, the seed length tightly matches the best-known PRG for CNFs [Anindya De et al., 2010; Avishay Tal, 2017]. There are two technical ingredients behind our new result; both of them might be of independent interest. First, we use a partitioning-based approach to construct PRGs based on restriction lemmas for AC⁰. Previous works [Luca Trevisan and Tongke Xue, 2013; Rocco A. Servedio and Li-Yang Tan, 2019; Zander Kelley, 2021] usually built PRGs on the Ajtai-Wigderson framework [Miklós Ajtai and Avi Wigderson, 1989]. Compared with them, the partitioning approach avoids the extra "log(n)" factor that usually arises from the Ajtai-Wigderson framework, allowing us to get the almost-tight seed length. The partitioning approach is quite general, and we believe it can help design PRGs for classes beyond constant-depth circuits. Second, improving and extending [Luca Trevisan and Tongke Xue, 2013; Rocco A. Servedio and Li-Yang Tan, 2019; Zander Kelley, 2021], we prove a full derandomization of the powerful multi-switching lemma [Johan Håstad, 2014]. We show that one can use a short random seed to sample a restriction, such that a family of DNFs simultaneously simplifies under the restriction with high probability. This answers an open question in [Zander Kelley, 2021]. Previous derandomizations were either partial (that is, they pseudorandomly choose variables to restrict, and then fix those variables to truly-random bits) or had sub-optimal seed length. In our application, having a fully-derandomized switching lemma is crucial, and the randomness-efficiency of our derandomization allows us to get an almost-tight seed length.

Cite as

Xin Lyu. Improved Pseudorandom Generators for AC⁰ Circuits. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 34:1-34:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{lyu:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.34,
  author =	{Lyu, Xin},
  title =	{{Improved Pseudorandom Generators for AC⁰ Circuits}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165963},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: pseudorandom generators, derandomization, switching Lemmas, AC⁰}
}
Document
Improved Decoding of Expander Codes

Authors: Xue Chen, Kuan Cheng, Xin Li, and Minghui Ouyang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
We study the classical expander codes, introduced by Sipser and Spielman [M. Sipser and D. A. Spielman, 1996]. Given any constants 0 < α, ε < 1/2, and an arbitrary bipartite graph with N vertices on the left, M < N vertices on the right, and left degree D such that any left subset S of size at most α N has at least (1-ε)|S|D neighbors, we show that the corresponding linear code given by parity checks on the right has distance at least roughly {α N}/{2 ε}. This is strictly better than the best known previous result of 2(1-ε) α N [Madhu Sudan, 2000; Viderman, 2013] whenever ε < 1/2, and improves the previous result significantly when ε is small. Furthermore, we show that this distance is tight in general, thus providing a complete characterization of the distance of general expander codes. Next, we provide several efficient decoding algorithms, which vastly improve previous results in terms of the fraction of errors corrected, whenever ε < 1/4. Finally, we also give a bound on the list-decoding radius of general expander codes, which beats the classical Johnson bound in certain situations (e.g., when the graph is almost regular and the code has a high rate). Our techniques exploit novel combinatorial properties of bipartite expander graphs. In particular, we establish a new size-expansion tradeoff, which may be of independent interests.

Cite as

Xue Chen, Kuan Cheng, Xin Li, and Minghui Ouyang. Improved Decoding of Expander Codes. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 43:1-43:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43,
  author =	{Chen, Xue and Cheng, Kuan and Li, Xin and Ouyang, Minghui},
  title =	{{Improved Decoding of Expander Codes}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{43:1--43:3},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156394},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expander Code, Decoding}
}
Document
Dynamic Geometric Set Cover and Hitting Set

Authors: Pankaj K. Agarwal, Hsien-Chih Chang, Subhash Suri, Allen Xiao, and Jie Xue

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)


Abstract
We investigate dynamic versions of geometric set cover and hitting set where points and ranges may be inserted or deleted, and we want to efficiently maintain an (approximately) optimal solution for the current problem instance. While their static versions have been extensively studied in the past, surprisingly little is known about dynamic geometric set cover and hitting set. For instance, even for the most basic case of one-dimensional interval set cover and hitting set, no nontrivial results were known. The main contribution of our paper are two frameworks that lead to efficient data structures for dynamically maintaining set covers and hitting sets in ℝ¹ and ℝ². The first framework uses bootstrapping and gives a (1+ε)-approximate data structure for dynamic interval set cover in ℝ¹ with O(n^α/ε) amortized update time for any constant α > 0; in ℝ², this method gives O(1)-approximate data structures for unit-square (and quadrant) set cover and hitting set with O(n^(1/2+α)) amortized update time. The second framework uses local modification, and leads to a (1+ε)-approximate data structure for dynamic interval hitting set in ℝ¹ with Õ(1/ε) amortized update time; in ℝ², it gives O(1)-approximate data structures for unit-square (and quadrant) set cover and hitting set in the partially dynamic settings with Õ(1) amortized update time.

Cite as

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Hsien-Chih Chang, Subhash Suri, Allen Xiao, and Jie Xue. Dynamic Geometric Set Cover and Hitting Set. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 2:1-2:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.2,
  author =	{Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Chang, Hsien-Chih and Suri, Subhash and Xiao, Allen and Xue, Jie},
  title =	{{Dynamic Geometric Set Cover and Hitting Set}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-143-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{164},
  editor =	{Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121604},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Geometric set cover, Geometric hitting set, Dynamic data structures}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Estimating the Frequency of a Clustered Signal

Authors: Xue Chen and Eric Price

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
We consider the problem of locating a signal whose frequencies are "off grid" and clustered in a narrow band. Given noisy sample access to a function g(t) with Fourier spectrum in a narrow range [f_0 - Delta, f_0 + Delta], how accurately is it possible to identify f_0? We present generic conditions on g that allow for efficient, accurate estimates of the frequency. We then show bounds on these conditions for k-Fourier-sparse signals that imply recovery of f_0 to within Delta + O~(k^3) from samples on [-1, 1]. This improves upon the best previous bound of O(Delta + O~(k^5))^{1.5}. We also show that no algorithm can do better than Delta + O~(k^2). In the process we provide a new O~(k^3) bound on the ratio between the maximum and average value of continuous k-Fourier-sparse signals, which has independent application.

Cite as

Xue Chen and Eric Price. Estimating the Frequency of a Clustered Signal. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 36:1-36:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.36,
  author =	{Chen, Xue and Price, Eric},
  title =	{{Estimating the Frequency of a Clustered Signal}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{36:1--36:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.36},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106128},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.36},
  annote =	{Keywords: sublinear algorithms, Fourier transform}
}
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