18 Search Results for "Cheng, Yu"


Document
Targeted Branching for the Maximum Independent Set Problem Using Graph Neural Networks

Authors: Kenneth Langedal, Demian Hespe, and Peter Sanders

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
Identifying a maximum independent set is a fundamental NP-hard problem. This problem has several real-world applications and requires finding the largest possible set of vertices not adjacent to each other in an undirected graph. Over the past few years, branch-and-bound and branch-and-reduce algorithms have emerged as some of the most effective methods for solving the problem exactly. Specifically, the branch-and-reduce approach, which combines branch-and-bound principles with reduction rules, has proven particularly successful in tackling previously unmanageable real-world instances. This progress was largely made possible by the development of more effective reduction rules. Nevertheless, other key components that can impact the efficiency of these algorithms have not received the same level of interest. Among these is the branching strategy, which determines which vertex to branch on next. Until recently, the most widely used strategy was to choose the vertex of the highest degree. In this work, we present a graph neural network approach for selecting the next branching vertex. The intricate nature of current branch-and-bound solvers makes supervised and reinforcement learning difficult. Therefore, we use a population-based genetic algorithm to evolve the model’s parameters instead. Our proposed approach results in a speedup on 73% of the benchmark instances with a median speedup of 24%.

Cite as

Kenneth Langedal, Demian Hespe, and Peter Sanders. Targeted Branching for the Maximum Independent Set Problem Using Graph Neural Networks. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 20:1-20:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{langedal_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.20,
  author =	{Langedal, Kenneth and Hespe, Demian and Sanders, Peter},
  title =	{{Targeted Branching for the Maximum Independent Set Problem Using Graph Neural Networks}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203853},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graphs, Independent Set, Vertex Cover, Graph Neural Networks, Branch-and-Reduce}
}
Document
JuMP2start: Time-Aware Stop-Start Technology for a Software-Defined Vehicle System

Authors: Anam Farrukh and Richard West

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 298, 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)


Abstract
Software-defined vehicle (SDV) systems replace traditional ECU architectures with software tasks running on centralized multicore processors in automotive-grade PCs. However, PC boot delays to cold-start an integrated vehicle management system (VMS) are problematic for time-critical functions, which must process sensor and actuator data within specific time bounds. To tackle this challenge, we present JuMP2start: a time-aware multicore stop-start approach for SDVs. JuMP2start leverages PC-class suspend-to-RAM techniques to capture a system snapshot when the vehicle is stopped. Upon restart, critical services are resumed-from-RAM within order of milliseconds compared to normal cold-start times. This work showcases how JuMP2start manages global suspension and resumption mechanisms for a state-of-the-art dual-domain vehicle management system comprising real-time OS (RTOS) and Linux SMP guests. JuMP2start models automotive tasks as continuable or restartable to ensure timing- and safety-critical function pipelines are reactively resumed with low latency, while discarding stale task state. Experiments with the VMS show that critical CAN traffic processing resumes within 500 milliseconds of waking the RTOS guest, and reaches steady-state throughput in under 7ms.

Cite as

Anam Farrukh and Richard West. JuMP2start: Time-Aware Stop-Start Technology for a Software-Defined Vehicle System. In 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 298, pp. 1:1-1:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{farrukh_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.1,
  author =	{Farrukh, Anam and West, Richard},
  title =	{{JuMP2start: Time-Aware Stop-Start Technology for a Software-Defined Vehicle System}},
  booktitle =	{36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-324-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{298},
  editor =	{Pellizzoni, Rodolfo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203046},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Time-aware stop-start, Real-time power management, Suspend-to-RAM, Partitioning hypervisor, Vehicle management system, Vehicle-OS, Software-defined vehicles (SDV)}
}
Document
The Omnivisor: A Real-Time Static Partitioning Hypervisor Extension for Heterogeneous Core Virtualization over MPSoCs

Authors: Daniele Ottaviano, Francesco Ciraolo, Renato Mancuso, and Marcello Cinque

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 298, 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)


Abstract
Following the needs of industrial applications, virtualization has emerged as one of the most effective approaches for the consolidation of mixed-criticality systems while meeting tight constraints in terms of space, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C). In embedded platforms with homogeneous processors, a wealth of works have proposed designs and techniques to enforce spatio-temporal isolation by leveraging well-understood virtualization support. Unfortunately, achieving the same goal on heterogeneous MultiProcessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs) has been largely overlooked. Modern hypervisors are designed to operate exclusively on main cores, with little or no consideration given to other co-processors within the system, such as small microcontroller-level CPUs or soft-cores deployed on programmable logic (FPGA). Typically, hypervisors consider co-processors as I/O devices allocated to virtual machines that run on primary cores, yielding full control and responsibility over them. Nevertheless, inadequate management of these resources can lead to spatio-temporal isolation issues within the system. In this paper, we propose the Omnivisor model as a paradigm for the holistic management of heterogeneous platforms. The model generalizes the features of real-time static partitioning hypervisors to enable the execution of virtual machines on processors with different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) within the same MPSoC. Moreover, the Omnivisor ensures temporal and spatial isolation between virtual machines by integrating and leveraging a variety of hardware and software protection mechanisms. The presented approach not only expands the scope of virtualization in MPSoCs but also enhances the overall system reliability and real-time performance for mixed-criticality applications. A full open-source reference implementation of the Omnivisor based on the Jailhouse hypervisor is provided, targeting ARM real-time processing units and RISC-V soft-cores on FPGA. Experimental results on real hardware show the benefits of the solution, including enabling the seamless launch of virtual machines on different ISAs and extending spatial/temporal isolation to heterogenous cores with enhanced regulation policies.

Cite as

Daniele Ottaviano, Francesco Ciraolo, Renato Mancuso, and Marcello Cinque. The Omnivisor: A Real-Time Static Partitioning Hypervisor Extension for Heterogeneous Core Virtualization over MPSoCs. In 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 298, pp. 7:1-7:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{ottaviano_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.7,
  author =	{Ottaviano, Daniele and Ciraolo, Francesco and Mancuso, Renato and Cinque, Marcello},
  title =	{{The Omnivisor: A Real-Time Static Partitioning Hypervisor Extension for Heterogeneous Core Virtualization over MPSoCs}},
  booktitle =	{36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-324-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{298},
  editor =	{Pellizzoni, Rodolfo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203107},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Mixed-Criticality, Embedded Virtualization, Real-Time Systems, MPSoCs}
}
Document
DeepTrust^RT: Confidential Deep Neural Inference Meets Real-Time!

Authors: Mohammad Fakhruddin Babar and Monowar Hasan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 298, 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)


Abstract
Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are becoming common in "learning-enabled" time-critical applications such as autonomous driving and robotics. One approach to protect DNN inference from adversarial actions and preserve model privacy/confidentiality is to execute them within trusted enclaves available in modern processors. However, running DNN inference inside limited-capacity enclaves while ensuring timing guarantees is challenging due to (a) large size of DNN workloads and (b) extra switching between "normal" and "trusted" execution modes. This paper introduces new time-aware scheduling schemes - DeepTrust^RT - to securely execute deep neural inferences for learning-enabled real-time systems. We first propose a variant of EDF (called DeepTrust^RT-LW) that slices each DNN layer and runs them sequentially in the enclave. However, due to extra context switch overheads of individual layer slices, we further introduce a novel layer fusion technique (named DeepTrust^RT-FUSION). Our proposed scheme provides hard real-time guarantees by fusing multiple layers of DNN workload from multiple tasks; thus allowing them to fit and run concurrently within the enclaves while maintaining real-time guarantees. We implemented and tested DeepTrust^RT ideas on the Raspberry Pi platform running OP-TEE+DarkNet-TZ DNN APIs and three DNN workloads (AlexNet-squeezed, Tiny Darknet, YOLOv3-tiny). Compared to the layer-wise partitioning approach (DeepTrust^RT-LW), DeepTrust^RT-FUSION can schedule up to 3x more tasksets and reduce context switches by up to 11.12x. We further demonstrate the efficacy of DeepTrust^RT using a flight controller (ArduPilot) case study and find that DeepTrust^RT-FUSION retains real-time guarantees where DeepTrust^RT-LW becomes unschedulable.

Cite as

Mohammad Fakhruddin Babar and Monowar Hasan. DeepTrust^RT: Confidential Deep Neural Inference Meets Real-Time!. In 36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 298, pp. 13:1-13:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{babar_et_al:LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.13,
  author =	{Babar, Mohammad Fakhruddin and Hasan, Monowar},
  title =	{{DeepTrust^RT: Confidential Deep Neural Inference Meets Real-Time!}},
  booktitle =	{36th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2024)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-324-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{298},
  editor =	{Pellizzoni, Rodolfo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203161},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2024.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: DNN, TrustZone, Real-Time Systems}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We consider the problem of learning low-degree quantum objects up to ε-error in 𝓁₂-distance. We show the following results: (i) unknown n-qubit degree-d (in the Pauli basis) quantum channels and unitaries can be learned using O(1/ε^d) queries (which is independent of n), (ii) polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] arising from d-query quantum algorithms can be learned from O((1/ε)^d ⋅ log n) many random examples (x,p(x)) (which implies learnability even for d = O(log n)), and (iii) degree-d polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] can be learned through O(1/ε^d) queries to a quantum unitary U_p that block-encodes p. Our main technical contributions are new Bohnenblust-Hille inequalities for quantum channels and completely bounded polynomials.

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos. Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 13:1-13:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Dutt, Arkopal and Escudero Guti\'{e}rrez, Francisco and Palazuelos, Carlos},
  title =	{{Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201563},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tomography}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Bayesian Calibrated Click-Through Auctions

Authors: Junjie Chen, Minming Li, Haifeng Xu, and Song Zuo

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We study information design in click-through auctions, in which the bidders/advertisers bid for winning an opportunity to show their ads but only pay for realized clicks. The payment may or may not happen, and its probability is called the click-through rate (CTR). This auction format is widely used in the industry of online advertising. Bidders have private values, whereas the seller has private information about each bidder’s CTRs. We are interested in the seller’s problem of partially revealing CTR information to maximize revenue. Information design in click-through auctions turns out to be intriguingly different from almost all previous studies in this space since any revealed information about CTRs will never affect bidders' bidding behaviors - they will always bid their true value per click - but only affect the auction’s allocation and payment rule. In some sense, this makes information design effectively a constrained mechanism design problem. Our first result is an FPTAS to compute an approximately optimal mechanism under a constant number of bidders. The design of this algorithm leverages Bayesian bidder values which help to "smooth" the seller’s revenue function and lead to better tractability. The design of this FPTAS is complex and primarily algorithmic. Our second main result pursues the design of "simple" mechanisms that are approximately optimal yet more practical. We primarily focus on the two-bidder situation, which is already notoriously challenging as demonstrated in recent works. When bidders' CTR distribution is symmetric, we develop a simple prior-free signaling scheme, whose construction relies on a parameter termed optimal signal ratio. The constructed scheme provably obtains a good approximation as long as the maximum and minimum of bidders' value density functions do not differ much.

Cite as

Junjie Chen, Minming Li, Haifeng Xu, and Song Zuo. Bayesian Calibrated Click-Through Auctions. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 44:1-44:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.44,
  author =	{Chen, Junjie and Li, Minming and Xu, Haifeng and Zuo, Song},
  title =	{{Bayesian Calibrated Click-Through Auctions}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{44:1--44:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.44},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201878},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.44},
  annote =	{Keywords: information design, ad auctions, online advertising, mechanism design}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Non-Linear Paging

Authors: Ilan Doron-Arad and Joseph (Seffi) Naor

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We formulate and study non-linear paging - a broad model of online paging where the size of subsets of pages is determined by a monotone non-linear set function of the pages. This model captures the well-studied classic weighted paging and generalized paging problems, and also submodular and supermodular paging, studied here for the first time, that have a range of applications from virtual memory to machine learning. Unlike classic paging, the cache threshold parameter k does not yield good competitive ratios for non-linear paging. Instead, we introduce a novel parameter 𝓁 that generalizes the notion of cache size to the non-linear setting. We obtain a tight deterministic 𝓁-competitive algorithm for general non-linear paging and a o(log²𝓁)-competitive lower bound for randomized algorithms. Our algorithm is based on a new generic LP for the problem that captures both submodular and supermodular paging, in contrast to LPs used for submodular cover settings. We finally focus on the supermodular paging problem, which is a variant of online set cover and online submodular cover, where sets are repeatedly requested to be removed from the cover. We obtain polylogarithmic lower and upper bounds and an offline approximation algorithm.

Cite as

Ilan Doron-Arad and Joseph (Seffi) Naor. Non-Linear Paging. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 57:1-57:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{doronarad_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.57,
  author =	{Doron-Arad, Ilan and Naor, Joseph (Seffi)},
  title =	{{Non-Linear Paging}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{57:1--57:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.57},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202000},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.57},
  annote =	{Keywords: paging, competitive analysis, non-linear paging, submodular and supermodular functions}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Cut Sparsification and Succinct Representation of Submodular Hypergraphs

Authors: Yotam Kenneth and Robert Krauthgamer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In cut sparsification, all cuts of a hypergraph H = (V,E,w) are approximated within 1±ε factor by a small hypergraph H'. This widely applied method was generalized recently to a setting where the cost of cutting each hyperedge e is provided by a splitting function g_e: 2^e → ℝ_+. This generalization is called a submodular hypergraph when the functions {g_e}_{e ∈ E} are submodular, and it arises in machine learning, combinatorial optimization, and algorithmic game theory. Previous work studied the setting where H' is a reweighted sub-hypergraph of H, and measured the size of H' by the number of hyperedges in it. In this setting, we present two results: (i) all submodular hypergraphs admit sparsifiers of size polynomial in n = |V| and ε^{-1}; (ii) we propose a new parameter, called spread, and use it to obtain smaller sparsifiers in some cases. We also show that for a natural family of splitting functions, relaxing the requirement that H' be a reweighted sub-hypergraph of H yields a substantially smaller encoding of the cuts of H (almost a factor n in the number of bits). This is in contrast to graphs, where the most succinct representation is attained by reweighted subgraphs. A new tool in our construction of succinct representation is the notion of deformation, where a splitting function g_e is decomposed into a sum of functions of small description, and we provide upper and lower bounds for deformation of common splitting functions.

Cite as

Yotam Kenneth and Robert Krauthgamer. Cut Sparsification and Succinct Representation of Submodular Hypergraphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 97:1-97:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{kenneth_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.97,
  author =	{Kenneth, Yotam and Krauthgamer, Robert},
  title =	{{Cut Sparsification and Succinct Representation of Submodular Hypergraphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{97:1--97:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.97},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202406},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.97},
  annote =	{Keywords: Cut Sparsification, Submodular Hypergraphs, Succinct Representation}
}
Document
On Min-Max Graph Balancing with Strict Negative Correlation Constraints

Authors: Ting-Yu Kuo, Yu-Han Chen, Andrea Frosini, Sun-Yuan Hsieh, Shi-Chun Tsai, and Mong-Jen Kao

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)


Abstract
We consider the min-max graph balancing problem with strict negative correlation (SNC) constraints. The graph balancing problem arises as an equivalent formulation of the classic unrelated machine scheduling problem, where we are given a hypergraph G = (V,E) with vertex-dependent edge weight function p: E×V ↦ ℤ^{≥0} that represents the processing time of the edges (jobs). The SNC constraints, which are given as edge subsets C_1,C_2,…,C_k, require that the edges in the same subset cannot be assigned to the same vertex at the same time. Under these constraints, the goal is to compute an edge orientation (assignment) that minimizes the maximum workload of the vertices. In this paper, we conduct a general study on the approximability of this problem. First, we show that, in the presence of SNC constraints, the case with max_{e ∈ E} |e| = max_i |C_i| = 2 is the only case for which approximation solutions can be obtained. Further generalization on either direction, e.g., max_{e ∈ E} |e| or max_i |C_i|, will directly make computing a feasible solution an NP-complete problem to solve. Then, we present a 2-approximation algorithm for the case with max_{e ∈ E} |e| = max_i |C_i| = 2, based on a set of structural simplifications and a tailored assignment LP for this problem. We note that our approach is general and can be applied to similar settings, e.g., scheduling with SNC constraints to minimize the weighted completion time, to obtain similar approximation guarantees. Further cases are discussed to describe the landscape of the approximability of this prbolem. For the case with |V| ≤ 2, which is already known to be NP-hard, we present a fully-polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS). On the other hand, we show that the problem is at least as hard as vertex cover to approximate when |V| ≥ 3.

Cite as

Ting-Yu Kuo, Yu-Han Chen, Andrea Frosini, Sun-Yuan Hsieh, Shi-Chun Tsai, and Mong-Jen Kao. On Min-Max Graph Balancing with Strict Negative Correlation Constraints. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 50:1-50:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{kuo_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.50,
  author =	{Kuo, Ting-Yu and Chen, Yu-Han and Frosini, Andrea and Hsieh, Sun-Yuan and Tsai, Shi-Chun and Kao, Mong-Jen},
  title =	{{On Min-Max Graph Balancing with Strict Negative Correlation Constraints}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)},
  pages =	{50:1--50:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-289-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{283},
  editor =	{Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.50},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193524},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.50},
  annote =	{Keywords: Unrelated Scheduling, Graph Balancing, Strict Correlation Constraints}
}
Document
On Relaxed Locally Decodable Codes for Hamming and Insertion-Deletion Errors

Authors: Alexander R. Block, Jeremiah Blocki, Kuan Cheng, Elena Grigorescu, Xin Li, Yu Zheng, and Minshen Zhu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
Locally Decodable Codes (LDCs) are error-correcting codes C:Σⁿ → Σ^m, encoding messages in Σⁿ to codewords in Σ^m, with super-fast decoding algorithms. They are important mathematical objects in many areas of theoretical computer science, yet the best constructions so far have codeword length m that is super-polynomial in n, for codes with constant query complexity and constant alphabet size. In a very surprising result, Ben-Sasson, Goldreich, Harsha, Sudan, and Vadhan (SICOMP 2006) show how to construct a relaxed version of LDCs (RLDCs) with constant query complexity and almost linear codeword length over the binary alphabet, and used them to obtain significantly-improved constructions of Probabilistically Checkable Proofs. In this work, we study RLDCs in the standard Hamming-error setting, and introduce their variants in the insertion and deletion (Insdel) error setting. Standard LDCs for Insdel errors were first studied by Ostrovsky and Paskin-Cherniavsky (Information Theoretic Security, 2015), and are further motivated by recent advances in DNA random access bio-technologies. Our first result is an exponential lower bound on the length of Hamming RLDCs making 2 queries (even adaptively), over the binary alphabet. This answers a question explicitly raised by Gur and Lachish (SICOMP 2021) and is the first exponential lower bound for RLDCs. Combined with the results of Ben-Sasson et al., our result exhibits a "phase-transition"-type behavior on the codeword length for some constant-query complexity. We achieve these lower bounds via a transformation of RLDCs to standard Hamming LDCs, using a careful analysis of restrictions of message bits that fix codeword bits. We further define two variants of RLDCs in the Insdel-error setting, a weak and a strong version. On the one hand, we construct weak Insdel RLDCs with almost linear codeword length and constant query complexity, matching the parameters of the Hamming variants. On the other hand, we prove exponential lower bounds for strong Insdel RLDCs. These results demonstrate that, while these variants are equivalent in the Hamming setting, they are significantly different in the insdel setting. Our results also prove a strict separation between Hamming RLDCs and Insdel RLDCs.

Cite as

Alexander R. Block, Jeremiah Blocki, Kuan Cheng, Elena Grigorescu, Xin Li, Yu Zheng, and Minshen Zhu. On Relaxed Locally Decodable Codes for Hamming and Insertion-Deletion Errors. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 14:1-14:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{block_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.14,
  author =	{Block, Alexander R. and Blocki, Jeremiah and Cheng, Kuan and Grigorescu, Elena and Li, Xin and Zheng, Yu and Zhu, Minshen},
  title =	{{On Relaxed Locally Decodable Codes for Hamming and Insertion-Deletion Errors}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182847},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Relaxed Locally Decodable Codes, Hamming Errors, Insdel Errors, Lower Bounds}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Linear Insertion Deletion Codes in the High-Noise and High-Rate Regimes

Authors: Kuan Cheng, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, Zhide Wei, and Yu Zheng

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
This work continues the study of linear error correcting codes against adversarial insertion deletion errors (insdel errors). Previously, the work of Cheng, Guruswami, Haeupler, and Li [Kuan Cheng et al., 2021] showed the existence of asymptotically good linear insdel codes that can correct arbitrarily close to 1 fraction of errors over some constant size alphabet, or achieve rate arbitrarily close to 1/2 even over the binary alphabet. As shown in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2021], these bounds are also the best possible. However, known explicit constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2021], and subsequent improved constructions by Con, Shpilka, and Tamo [Con et al., 2022] all fall short of meeting these bounds. Over any constant size alphabet, they can only achieve rate < 1/8 or correct < 1/4 fraction of errors; over the binary alphabet, they can only achieve rate < 1/1216 or correct < 1/54 fraction of errors. Apparently, previous techniques face inherent barriers to achieve rate better than 1/4 or correct more than 1/2 fraction of errors. In this work we give new constructions of such codes that meet these bounds, namely, asymptotically good linear insdel codes that can correct arbitrarily close to 1 fraction of errors over some constant size alphabet, and binary asymptotically good linear insdel codes that can achieve rate arbitrarily close to 1/2. All our constructions are efficiently encodable and decodable. Our constructions are based on a novel approach of code concatenation, which embeds the index information implicitly into codewords. This significantly differs from previous techniques and may be of independent interest. Finally, we also prove the existence of linear concatenated insdel codes with parameters that match random linear codes, and propose a conjecture about linear insdel codes.

Cite as

Kuan Cheng, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, Zhide Wei, and Yu Zheng. Linear Insertion Deletion Codes in the High-Noise and High-Rate Regimes. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 41:1-41:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.41,
  author =	{Cheng, Kuan and Jin, Zhengzhong and Li, Xin and Wei, Zhide and Zheng, Yu},
  title =	{{Linear Insertion Deletion Codes in the High-Noise and High-Rate Regimes}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{41:1--41:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.41},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180931},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.41},
  annote =	{Keywords: Error correcting code, Edit distance, Pseudorandomness, Derandomization}
}
Document
Lower Bounds and Improved Algorithms for Asymmetric Streaming Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence

Authors: Xin Li and Yu Zheng

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)


Abstract
In this paper, we study edit distance (ED) and longest common subsequence (LCS) in the asymmetric streaming model, introduced by Saks and Seshadhri [Saks and Seshadhri, 2013]. As an intermediate model between the random access model and the streaming model, this model allows one to have streaming access to one string and random access to the other string. Meanwhile, ED and LCS are both fundamental problems that are often studied on large strings, thus the (asymmetric) streaming model is ideal for studying these problems. Our first main contribution is a systematic study of space lower bounds for ED and LCS in the asymmetric streaming model. Previously, there are no explicitly stated results in this context, although some lower bounds about LCS can be inferred from the lower bounds for longest increasing subsequence (LIS) in [Sun and Woodruff, 2007; Gál and Gopalan, 2010; Ergun and Jowhari, 2008]. Yet these bounds only work for large alphabet size. In this paper, we develop several new techniques to handle ED in general and LCS for small alphabet size, thus establishing strong lower bounds for both problems. In particular, our lower bound for ED provides an exponential separation between edit distance and Hamming distance in the asymmetric streaming model. Our lower bounds also extend to LIS and longest non-decreasing subsequence (LNS) in the standard streaming model. Together with previous results, our bounds provide an almost complete picture for these two problems. As our second main contribution, we give improved algorithms for ED and LCS in the asymmetric streaming model. For ED, we improve the space complexity of the constant factor approximation algorithms in [Farhadi et al., 2020; Cheng et al., 2020] from Õ({n^δ}/δ) to O({d^δ}/δ polylog(n)), where n is the length of each string and d is the edit distance between the two strings. For LCS, we give the first 1/2+ε approximation algorithm with space n^δ for any constant δ > 0, over a binary alphabet. Our work leaves a plethora of intriguing open questions, including establishing lower bounds and designing algorithms for a natural generalization of LIS and LNS, which we call longest non-decreasing subsequence with threshold (LNST).

Cite as

Xin Li and Yu Zheng. Lower Bounds and Improved Algorithms for Asymmetric Streaming Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 27:1-27:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.27,
  author =	{Li, Xin and Zheng, Yu},
  title =	{{Lower Bounds and Improved Algorithms for Asymmetric Streaming Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence}},
  booktitle =	{41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-215-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{213},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155381},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Asymmetric Streaming Model, Edit Distance, Longest Common Subsequence, Space Lower Bound}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Sparsification of Directed Graphs via Cut Balance

Authors: Ruoxu Cen, Yu Cheng, Debmalya Panigrahi, and Kevin Sun

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)


Abstract
In this paper, we consider the problem of designing cut sparsifiers and sketches for directed graphs. To bypass known lower bounds, we allow the sparsifier/sketch to depend on the balance of the input graph, which smoothly interpolates between undirected and directed graphs. We give nearly matching upper and lower bounds for both for-all (cf. Benczúr and Karger, STOC 1996) and for-each (Andoni et al., ITCS 2016) cut sparsifiers/sketches as a function of cut balance, defined the maximum ratio of the cut value in the two directions of a directed graph (Ene et al., STOC 2016). We also show an interesting application of digraph sparsification via cut balance by using it to give a very short proof of a celebrated maximum flow result of Karger and Levine (STOC 2002).

Cite as

Ruoxu Cen, Yu Cheng, Debmalya Panigrahi, and Kevin Sun. Sparsification of Directed Graphs via Cut Balance. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 45:1-45:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{cen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.45,
  author =	{Cen, Ruoxu and Cheng, Yu and Panigrahi, Debmalya and Sun, Kevin},
  title =	{{Sparsification of Directed Graphs via Cut Balance}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)},
  pages =	{45:1--45:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-195-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{198},
  editor =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.45},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141143},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.45},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph sparsification, directed graphs, cut sketches, space complexity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Streaming and Small Space Approximation Algorithms for Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence

Authors: Kuan Cheng, Alireza Farhadi, MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, Aviad Rubinstein, Saeed Seddighin, and Yu Zheng

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)


Abstract
The edit distance (ED) and longest common subsequence (LCS) are two fundamental problems which quantify how similar two strings are to one another. In this paper, we first consider these problems in the asymmetric streaming model introduced by Andoni, Krauthgamer and Onak [Andoni et al., 2010] (FOCS'10) and Saks and Seshadhri [Saks and Seshadhri, 2013] (SODA'13). In this model we have random access to one string and streaming access the other one. Our main contribution is a constant factor approximation algorithm for ED with memory Õ(n^δ) for any constant δ > 0. In addition to this, we present an upper bound of Õ _ε(√n) on the memory needed to approximate ED or LCS within a factor 1±ε. All our algorithms are deterministic and run in polynomial time in a single pass. We further study small-space approximation algorithms for ED, LCS, and longest increasing sequence (LIS) in the non-streaming setting. Here, we design algorithms that achieve 1 ± ε approximation for all three problems, where ε > 0 can be any constant and even slightly sub-constant. Our algorithms only use poly-logarithmic space while maintaining a polynomial running time. This significantly improves previous results in terms of space complexity, where all known results need to use space at least Ω(√n). Our algorithms make novel use of triangle inequality and carefully designed recursions to save space, which can be of independent interest.

Cite as

Kuan Cheng, Alireza Farhadi, MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, Aviad Rubinstein, Saeed Seddighin, and Yu Zheng. Streaming and Small Space Approximation Algorithms for Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 54:1-54:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.54,
  author =	{Cheng, Kuan and Farhadi, Alireza and Hajiaghayi, MohammadTaghi and Jin, Zhengzhong and Li, Xin and Rubinstein, Aviad and Seddighin, Saeed and Zheng, Yu},
  title =	{{Streaming and Small Space Approximation Algorithms for Edit Distance and Longest Common Subsequence}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)},
  pages =	{54:1--54:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-195-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{198},
  editor =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.54},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141236},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.54},
  annote =	{Keywords: Edit Distance, Longest Common Subsequence, Longest Increasing Subsequence, Space Efficient Algorithm, Approximation Algorithm}
}
Document
On Deterministic Linearizable Set Agreement Objects

Authors: Felipe de Azevedo Piovezan, Vassos Hadzilacos, and Sam Toueg

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 153, 23rd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2019)


Abstract
A recent work showed that, for all n and k, there is a linearizable (n,k)-set agreement object O_L that is equivalent to the (n,k)-set agreement task [David Yu Cheng Chan et al., 2017]: given O_L, it is possible to solve the (n,k)-set agreement task, and given any algorithm that solves the (n,k)-set agreement task (and registers), it is possible to implement O_L. This linearizable object O_L, however, is not deterministic. It turns out that there is also a deterministic (n,k)-set agreement object O_D that is equivalent to the (n,k)-set agreement task, but this deterministic object O_D is not linearizable. This raises the question whether there exists a deterministic and linearizable (n,k)-set agreement object that is equivalent to the (n,k)-set agreement task. Here we show that in general the answer is no: specifically, we prove that for all n ≥ 4, every deterministic linearizable (n,2)-set agreement object is strictly stronger than the (n,2)-set agreement task. We prove this by showing that, for all n ≥ 4, every deterministic and linearizable (n,2)-set agreement object (together with registers) can be used to solve 2-consensus, whereas it is known that the (n,2)-set agreement task cannot do so. For a natural subset of (n,2)-set agreement objects, we prove that this result holds even for n = 3.

Cite as

Felipe de Azevedo Piovezan, Vassos Hadzilacos, and Sam Toueg. On Deterministic Linearizable Set Agreement Objects. In 23rd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 153, pp. 16:1-16:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{deazevedopiovezan_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2019.16,
  author =	{de Azevedo Piovezan, Felipe and Hadzilacos, Vassos and Toueg, Sam},
  title =	{{On Deterministic Linearizable Set Agreement Objects}},
  booktitle =	{23rd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2019)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-133-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{153},
  editor =	{Felber, Pascal and Friedman, Roy and Gilbert, Seth and Miller, Avery},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2019.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-118026},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2019.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Asynchronous shared-memory systems, consensus, set agreement, deterministic objects}
}
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