155 Search Results for "Farach-Colton, Martin"


Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 274

31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

ESA 2023, September 4-6, 2023, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Editors: Inge Li Gørtz, Martin Farach-Colton, Simon J. Puglisi, and Grzegorz Herman

Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 157

10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021)

FUN 2021, May 30 to June 1, 2021, Favignana Island, Sicily, Italy

Editors: Martin Farach-Colton, Giuseppe Prencipe, and Ryuhei Uehara

Document
From Big Data Theory to Big Data Practice (Dagstuhl Seminar 23071)

Authors: Martin Farach-Colton, Fabian Daniel Kuhn, Ronitt Rubinfeld, and Przemysław Uznański

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 13, Issue 2 (2023)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 23071 "From Big Data Theory to Big Data Practice". Some recent advances in the theory of algorithms for big data - sublinear/local algorithms, streaming algorithms and external memory algorithms - have translated into impressive improvements in practice, whereas others have remained stubbornly resistant to useful implementations. This seminar aimed to glean lessons for those aspect of these algorithms that have led to practical implementation to see if the lessons learned can both improve the implementations of other theoretical ideas and to help guide the next generation of theoretical advances.

Cite as

Martin Farach-Colton, Fabian Daniel Kuhn, Ronitt Rubinfeld, and Przemysław Uznański. From Big Data Theory to Big Data Practice (Dagstuhl Seminar 23071). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp. 33-46, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@Article{farachcolton_et_al:DagRep.13.2.33,
  author =	{Farach-Colton, Martin and Kuhn, Fabian Daniel and Rubinfeld, Ronitt and Uzna\'{n}ski, Przemys{\l}aw},
  title =	{{From Big Data Theory to Big Data Practice (Dagstuhl Seminar 23071)}},
  pages =	{33--46},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{13},
  number =	{2},
  editor =	{Farach-Colton, Martin and Kuhn, Fabian Daniel and Rubinfeld, Ronitt and Uzna\'{n}ski, Przemys{\l}aw},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.13.2.33},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-191809},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.13.2.33},
  annote =	{Keywords: external memory, local algorithms, sublinear algorithms}
}
Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 274, ESA 2023, Complete Volume

Authors: Inge Li Gørtz, Martin Farach-Colton, Simon J. Puglisi, and Grzegorz Herman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 274, ESA 2023, Complete Volume

Cite as

31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 1-1700, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@Proceedings{gortz_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 274, ESA 2023, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{1--1700},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186529},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023},
  annote =	{Keywords: LIPIcs, Volume 274, ESA 2023, Complete Volume}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Authors: Inge Li Gørtz, Martin Farach-Colton, Simon J. Puglisi, and Grzegorz Herman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Cite as

31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 0:i-0:xxii, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{gortz_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.0,
  author =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xxii},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186535},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}
}
Document
Invited Talk
On Hashing by (Random) Equations (Invited Talk)

Authors: Martin Dietzfelbinger

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
The talk will consider aspects of the following setup: Assume for each (key) x from a set 𝒰 (the universe) a vector a_x = (a_{x,0},… ,a_{x,{m-1}}) has been chosen. Given a list Z = (z_i)_{i ∈ [m]} of vectors in {0,1}^r we obtain a mapping φ_Z: 𝒰 → {0,1}^r, x ↦ ⟨a_x,Z⟩ := ⨁_{i ∈ [m]} a_{x,i} ⋅ z_i, where ⨁ is bitwise XOR. The simplest way for creating a data structure for calculating φ_Z is to store Z in an array Z[0..m-1] and answer a query for x by returning ⟨ a_x,Z⟩. The length m of the array should be (1+ε)n for some small ε, and calculating this inner product should be fast. In the focus of the talk is the case where for all or for most of the sets S ⊆ 𝒰 of a certain size n the vectors a_x, x ∈ S, are linearly independent. Choosing Z at random will lead to hash families of various degrees of independence. We will be mostly interested in the case where a_x, x ∈ 𝒰 are chosen independently at random from {0,1}^m, according to some distribution 𝒟. We wish to construct (static) retrieval data structures, which means that S ⊂ 𝒰 and some mapping f: S → {0,1}^r are given, and the task is to find Z such that the restriction of φ_Z to S is f. For creating such a data structure it is necessary to solve the linear system (a_x)_{x ∈ S} ⋅ Z = (f(x))_{x ∈ S} for Z. Two problems are central: Under what conditions on m and 𝒟 can we expect the vectors a_x, x ∈ S to be linearly independent, and how can we arrange things so that in this case the system can be solved fast, in particular in time close to linear (in n, assuming a reasonable machine model)? Solutions to these problems, some classical and others that have emerged only in recent years, will be discussed.

Cite as

Martin Dietzfelbinger. On Hashing by (Random) Equations (Invited Talk). In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, p. 1:1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{dietzfelbinger:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.1,
  author =	{Dietzfelbinger, Martin},
  title =	{{On Hashing by (Random) Equations}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186545},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Hashing, Retrieval, Linear equations, Randomness}
}
Document
On Diameter Approximation in Directed Graphs

Authors: Amir Abboud, Mina Dalirrooyfard, Ray Li, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Computing the diameter of a graph, i.e. the largest distance, is a fundamental problem that is central in fine-grained complexity. In undirected graphs, the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH) yields a lower bound on the time vs. approximation trade-off that is quite close to the upper bounds. In directed graphs, however, where only some of the upper bounds apply, much larger gaps remain. Since d(u,v) may not be the same as d(v,u), there are multiple ways to define the problem, the two most natural being the (one-way) diameter (max_(u,v) d(u,v)) and the roundtrip diameter (max_{u,v} d(u,v)+d(v,u)). In this paper we make progress on the outstanding open question for each of them. - We design the first algorithm for diameter in sparse directed graphs to achieve n^{1.5-ε} time with an approximation factor better than 2. The new upper bound trade-off makes the directed case appear more similar to the undirected case. Notably, this is the first algorithm for diameter in sparse graphs that benefits from fast matrix multiplication. - We design new hardness reductions separating roundtrip diameter from directed and undirected diameter. In particular, a 1.5-approximation in subquadratic time would refute the All-Nodes k-Cycle hypothesis, and any (2-ε)-approximation would imply a breakthrough algorithm for approximate 𝓁_∞-Closest-Pair. Notably, these are the first conditional lower bounds for diameter that are not based on SETH.

Cite as

Amir Abboud, Mina Dalirrooyfard, Ray Li, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. On Diameter Approximation in Directed Graphs. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 2:1-2:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{abboud_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.2,
  author =	{Abboud, Amir and Dalirrooyfard, Mina and Li, Ray and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia},
  title =	{{On Diameter Approximation in Directed Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186552},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Diameter, Directed Graphs, Approximation Algorithms, Fine-grained complexity}
}
Document
Can You Solve Closest String Faster Than Exhaustive Search?

Authors: Amir Abboud, Nick Fischer, Elazar Goldenberg, Karthik C. S., and Ron Safier

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
We study the fundamental problem of finding the best string to represent a given set, in the form of the Closest String problem: Given a set X ⊆ Σ^d of n strings, find the string x^* minimizing the radius of the smallest Hamming ball around x^* that encloses all the strings in X. In this paper, we investigate whether the Closest String problem admits algorithms that are faster than the trivial exhaustive search algorithm. We obtain the following results for the two natural versions of the problem: - In the continuous Closest String problem, the goal is to find the solution string x^* anywhere in Σ^d. For binary strings, the exhaustive search algorithm runs in time O(2^d poly(nd)) and we prove that it cannot be improved to time O(2^{(1-ε) d} poly(nd)), for any ε > 0, unless the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis fails. - In the discrete Closest String problem, x^* is required to be in the input set X. While this problem is clearly in polynomial time, its fine-grained complexity has been pinpointed to be quadratic time n^{2 ± o(1)} whenever the dimension is ω(log n) < d < n^o(1). We complement this known hardness result with new algorithms, proving essentially that whenever d falls out of this hard range, the discrete Closest String problem can be solved faster than exhaustive search. In the small-d regime, our algorithm is based on a novel application of the inclusion-exclusion principle. Interestingly, all of our results apply (and some are even stronger) to the natural dual of the Closest String problem, called the Remotest String problem, where the task is to find a string maximizing the Hamming distance to all the strings in X.

Cite as

Amir Abboud, Nick Fischer, Elazar Goldenberg, Karthik C. S., and Ron Safier. Can You Solve Closest String Faster Than Exhaustive Search?. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 3:1-3:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{abboud_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.3,
  author =	{Abboud, Amir and Fischer, Nick and Goldenberg, Elazar and Karthik C. S. and Safier, Ron},
  title =	{{Can You Solve Closest String Faster Than Exhaustive Search?}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186566},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Closest string, fine-grained complexity, SETH, inclusion-exclusion}
}
Document
What Else Can Voronoi Diagrams Do for Diameter in Planar Graphs?

Authors: Amir Abboud, Shay Mozes, and Oren Weimann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
The Voronoi diagrams technique, introduced by Cabello [SODA'17] to compute the diameter of planar graphs in subquadratic time, has revolutionized the field of distance computations in planar graphs. We present novel applications of this technique in static, fault-tolerant, and partially-dynamic undirected unweighted planar graphs, as well as some new limitations. - In the static case, we give n^{3+o(1)}/D² and Õ(n⋅D²) time algorithms for computing the diameter of a planar graph G with diameter D. These are faster than the state of the art Õ(n^{5/3}) [SODA'18] when D < n^{1/3} or D > n^{2/3}. - In the fault-tolerant setting, we give an n^{7/3+o(1)} time algorithm for computing the diameter of G⧵ {e} for every edge e in G (the replacement diameter problem). This should be compared with the naive Õ(n^{8/3}) time algorithm that runs the static algorithm for every edge. - In the incremental setting, where we wish to maintain the diameter while adding edges, we present an algorithm with total running time n^{7/3+o(1)}. This should be compared with the naive Õ(n^{8/3}) time algorithm that runs the static algorithm after every update. - We give a lower bound (conditioned on the SETH) ruling out an amortized O(n^{1-ε}) update time for maintaining the diameter in weighted planar graph. The lower bound holds even for incremental or decremental updates. Our upper bounds are obtained by novel uses and manipulations of Voronoi diagrams. These include maintaining the Voronoi diagram when edges of the graph are deleted, allowing the sites of the Voronoi diagram to lie on a BFS tree level (rather than on boundaries of r-division), and a new reduction from incremental diameter to incremental distance oracles that could be of interest beyond planar graphs. Our lower bound is the first lower bound for a dynamic planar graph problem that is conditioned on the SETH.

Cite as

Amir Abboud, Shay Mozes, and Oren Weimann. What Else Can Voronoi Diagrams Do for Diameter in Planar Graphs?. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 4:1-4:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{abboud_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.4,
  author =	{Abboud, Amir and Mozes, Shay and Weimann, Oren},
  title =	{{What Else Can Voronoi Diagrams Do for Diameter in Planar Graphs?}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186575},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Planar graphs, diameter, dynamic graphs, fault tolerance}
}
Document
Smooth Distance Approximation

Authors: Ahmed Abdelkader and David M. Mount

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Traditional problems in computational geometry involve aspects that are both discrete and continuous. One such example is nearest-neighbor searching, where the input is discrete, but the result depends on distances, which vary continuously. In many real-world applications of geometric data structures, it is assumed that query results are continuous, free of jump discontinuities. This is at odds with many modern data structures in computational geometry, which employ approximations to achieve efficiency, but these approximations often suffer from discontinuities. In this paper, we present a general method for transforming an approximate but discontinuous data structure into one that produces a smooth approximation, while matching the asymptotic space efficiencies of the original. We achieve this by adapting an approach called the partition-of-unity method, which smoothly blends multiple local approximations into a single smooth global approximation. We illustrate the use of this technique in a specific application of approximating the distance to the boundary of a convex polytope in ℝ^d from any point in its interior. We begin by developing a novel data structure that efficiently computes an absolute ε-approximation to this query in time O(log (1/ε)) using O(1/ε^{d/2}) storage space. Then, we proceed to apply the proposed partition-of-unity blending to guarantee the smoothness of the approximate distance field, establishing optimal asymptotic bounds on the norms of its gradient and Hessian.

Cite as

Ahmed Abdelkader and David M. Mount. Smooth Distance Approximation. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 5:1-5:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{abdelkader_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.5,
  author =	{Abdelkader, Ahmed and Mount, David M.},
  title =	{{Smooth Distance Approximation}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186589},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Approximation algorithms, convexity, continuity, partition of unity}
}
Document
Reconfiguration of Polygonal Subdivisions via Recombination

Authors: Hugo A. Akitaya, Andrei Gonczi, Diane L. Souvaine, Csaba D. Tóth, and Thomas Weighill

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Motivated by the problem of redistricting, we study area-preserving reconfigurations of connected subdivisions of a simple polygon. A connected subdivision of a polygon ℛ, called a district map, is a set of interior disjoint connected polygons called districts whose union equals ℛ. We consider the recombination as the reconfiguration move which takes a subdivision and produces another by merging two adjacent districts, and by splitting them into two connected polygons of the same area as the original districts. The complexity of a map is the number of vertices in the boundaries of its districts. Given two maps with k districts, with complexity O(n), and a perfect matching between districts of the same area in the two maps, we show constructively that (log n)^O(log k) recombination moves are sufficient to reconfigure one into the other. We also show that Ω(log n) recombination moves are sometimes necessary even when k = 3, thus providing a tight bound when k = 3.

Cite as

Hugo A. Akitaya, Andrei Gonczi, Diane L. Souvaine, Csaba D. Tóth, and Thomas Weighill. Reconfiguration of Polygonal Subdivisions via Recombination. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{a.akitaya_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.6,
  author =	{A. Akitaya, Hugo and Gonczi, Andrei and Souvaine, Diane L. and T\'{o}th, Csaba D. and Weighill, Thomas},
  title =	{{Reconfiguration of Polygonal Subdivisions via Recombination}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186598},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: configuration space, gerrymandering, polygonal subdivision, recombination}
}
Document
Faster Detours in Undirected Graphs

Authors: Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Ryan Williams, and Zixuan Xu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
The k-Detour problem is a basic path-finding problem: given a graph G on n vertices, with specified nodes s and t, and a positive integer k, the goal is to determine if G has an st-path of length exactly dist(s,t) + k, where dist(s,t) is the length of a shortest path from s to t. The k-Detour problem is NP-hard when k is part of the input, so researchers have sought efficient parameterized algorithms for this task, running in f(k)poly(n) time, for f(⋅) as slow-growing as possible. We present faster algorithms for k-Detour in undirected graphs, running in 1.853^k poly(n) randomized and 4.082^kpoly(n) deterministic time. The previous fastest algorithms for this problem took 2.746^k poly(n) randomized and 6.523^k poly(n) deterministic time [Bezáková-Curticapean-Dell-Fomin, ICALP 2017]. Our algorithms use the fact that detecting a path of a given length in an undirected graph is easier if we are promised that the path belongs to what we call a "bipartitioned" subgraph, where the nodes are split into two parts and the path must satisfy constraints on those parts. Previously, this idea was used to obtain the fastest known algorithm for finding paths of length k in undirected graphs [Björklund-Husfeldt-Kaski-Koivisto, JCSS 2017], intuitively by looking for paths of length k in randomly bipartitioned subgraphs. Our algorithms for k-Detour stem from a new application of this idea, which does not involve choosing the bipartitioned subgraphs randomly. Our work has direct implications for the k-Longest Detour problem, another related path-finding problem. In this problem, we are given the same input as in k-Detour, but are now tasked with determining if G has an st-path of length at least dist(s,t)+k. Our results for k-Detour imply that we can solve k-Longest Detour in 3.432^k poly(n) randomized and 16.661^k poly(n) deterministic time. The previous fastest algorithms for this problem took 7.539^k poly(n) randomized and 42.549^k poly(n) deterministic time [Fomin et al., STACS 2022].

Cite as

Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Ryan Williams, and Zixuan Xu. Faster Detours in Undirected Graphs. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 7:1-7:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.7,
  author =	{Akmal, Shyan and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia and Williams, Ryan and Xu, Zixuan},
  title =	{{Faster Detours in Undirected Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186601},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: path finding, detours, parameterized complexity, exact algorithms}
}
Document
A Local-To-Global Theorem for Congested Shortest Paths

Authors: Shyan Akmal and Nicole Wein

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Amiri and Wargalla proved the following local-to-global theorem about shortest paths in directed acyclic graphs (DAGs): if G is a weighted DAG with the property that for each subset S of 3 nodes there is a shortest path containing every node in S, then there exists a pair (s,t) of nodes such that there is a shortest st-path containing every node in G. We extend this theorem to general graphs. For undirected graphs, we prove that the same theorem holds (up to a difference in the constant 3). For directed graphs, we provide a counterexample to the theorem (for any constant). However, we prove a roundtrip analogue of the theorem which guarantees there exists a pair (s,t) of nodes such that every node in G is contained in the union of a shortest st-path and a shortest ts-path. The original local-to-global theorem for DAGs has an application to the k-Shortest Paths with Congestion c ((k,c)-SPC) problem. In this problem, we are given a weighted graph G, together with k node pairs (s_1,t_1),… ,(s_k,t_k), and a positive integer c ≤ k, and tasked with finding a collection of paths P_1,… , P_k such that each P_i is a shortest path from s_i to t_i, and every node in the graph is on at most c paths P_i, or reporting that no such collection of paths exists. When c = k, there are no congestion constraints, and the problem can be solved easily by running a shortest path algorithm for each pair (s_i,t_i) independently. At the other extreme, when c = 1, the (k,c)-SPC problem is equivalent to the k-Disjoint Shortest Paths (k-DSP) problem, where the collection of shortest paths must be node-disjoint. For fixed k, k-DSP is polynomial-time solvable on DAGs and undirected graphs. Amiri and Wargalla interpolated between these two extreme values of c, to obtain an algorithm for (k,c)-SPC on DAGs that runs in polynomial time when k-c is constant. In the same way, we prove that (k,c)-SPC can be solved in polynomial time on undirected graphs whenever k-c is constant. For directed graphs, because of our counterexample to the original theorem statement, our roundtrip local-to-global result does not imply such an algorithm (k,c)-SPC. Even without an algorithmic application, our proof for directed graphs may be of broader interest because it characterizes intriguing structural properties of shortest paths in directed graphs.

Cite as

Shyan Akmal and Nicole Wein. A Local-To-Global Theorem for Congested Shortest Paths. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 8:1-8:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.8,
  author =	{Akmal, Shyan and Wein, Nicole},
  title =	{{A Local-To-Global Theorem for Congested Shortest Paths}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186618},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: disjoint paths, shortest paths, congestion, parameterized complexity}
}
Document
Axis-Parallel Right Angle Crossing Graphs

Authors: Patrizio Angelini, Michael A. Bekos, Julia Katheder, Michael Kaufmann, Maximilian Pfister, and Torsten Ueckerdt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
A RAC graph is one admitting a RAC drawing, that is, a polyline drawing in which each crossing occurs at a right angle. Originally motivated by psychological studies on readability of graph layouts, RAC graphs form one of the most prominent graph classes in beyond planarity. In this work, we study a subclass of RAC graphs, called axis-parallel RAC (or apRAC, for short), that restricts the crossings to pairs of axis-parallel edge-segments. apRAC drawings combine the readability of planar drawings with the clarity of (non-planar) orthogonal drawings. We consider these graphs both with and without bends. Our contribution is as follows: (i) We study inclusion relationships between apRAC and traditional RAC graphs. (ii) We establish bounds on the edge density of apRAC graphs. (iii) We show that every graph with maximum degree 8 is 2-bend apRAC and give a linear time drawing algorithm. Some of our results on apRAC graphs also improve the state of the art for general RAC graphs. We conclude our work with a list of open questions and a discussion of a natural generalization of the apRAC model.

Cite as

Patrizio Angelini, Michael A. Bekos, Julia Katheder, Michael Kaufmann, Maximilian Pfister, and Torsten Ueckerdt. Axis-Parallel Right Angle Crossing Graphs. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 9:1-9:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{angelini_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.9,
  author =	{Angelini, Patrizio and Bekos, Michael A. and Katheder, Julia and Kaufmann, Michael and Pfister, Maximilian and Ueckerdt, Torsten},
  title =	{{Axis-Parallel Right Angle Crossing Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186623},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph drawing, RAC graphs, Graph drawing algorithms}
}
Document
(No) Quantum Space-Time Tradeoff for USTCON

Authors: Simon Apers, Stacey Jeffery, Galina Pass, and Michael Walter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Undirected st-connectivity is important both for its applications in network problems, and for its theoretical connections with logspace complexity. Classically, a long line of work led to a time-space tradeoff of T = Õ(n²/S) for any S such that S = Ω(log(n)) and S = O(n²/m). Surprisingly, we show that quantumly there is no nontrivial time-space tradeoff: there is a quantum algorithm that achieves both optimal time Õ(n) and space O(log(n)) simultaneously. This improves on previous results, which required either O(log(n)) space and Õ(n^{1.5}) time, or Õ(n) space and time. To complement this, we show that there is a nontrivial time-space tradeoff when given a lower bound on the spectral gap of a corresponding random walk.

Cite as

Simon Apers, Stacey Jeffery, Galina Pass, and Michael Walter. (No) Quantum Space-Time Tradeoff for USTCON. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 10:1-10:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{apers_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.10,
  author =	{Apers, Simon and Jeffery, Stacey and Pass, Galina and Walter, Michael},
  title =	{{(No) Quantum Space-Time Tradeoff for USTCON}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186636},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Undirected st-connectivity, quantum walks, time-space tradeoff}
}
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