22 Search Results for "Haeupler, Bernhard"


Document
Information Dissemination via Broadcasts in the Presence of Adversarial Noise

Authors: Klim Efremenko, Gillat Kol, Dmitry Paramonov, Ran Raz, and Raghuvansh R. Saxena

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We initiate the study of error correcting codes over the multi-party adversarial broadcast channel. Specifically, we consider the classic information dissemination problem where n parties, each holding an input bit, wish to know each other’s input. For this, they communicate in rounds, where, in each round, one designated party sends a bit to all other parties over a channel governed by an adversary that may corrupt a constant fraction of the received communication. We mention that the dissemination problem was studied in the stochastic noise model since the 80’s. While stochastic noise in multi-party channels has received quite a bit of attention, the case of adversarial noise has largely been avoided, as such channels cannot handle more than a 1/n-fraction of errors. Indeed, this many errors allow an adversary to completely corrupt the incoming or outgoing communication for one of the parties and fail the protocol. Curiously, we show that by eliminating these "trivial" attacks, one can get a simple protocol resilient to a constant fraction of errors. Thus, a model that rules out such attacks is both necessary and sufficient to get a resilient protocol. The main shortcoming of our dissemination protocol is its length: it requires Θ(n²) communication rounds whereas n rounds suffice in the absence of noise. Our main result is a matching lower bound of Ω(n²) on the length of any dissemination protocol in our model. Our proof first "gets rid" of the channel noise by converting it to a form of "input noise", showing that a noisy dissemination protocol implies a (noiseless) protocol for a version of the direct sum gap-majority problem. We conclude the proof with a tight lower bound for the latter problem, which may be of independent interest.

Cite as

Klim Efremenko, Gillat Kol, Dmitry Paramonov, Ran Raz, and Raghuvansh R. Saxena. Information Dissemination via Broadcasts in the Presence of Adversarial Noise. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 19:1-19:33, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{efremenko_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.19,
  author =	{Efremenko, Klim and Kol, Gillat and Paramonov, Dmitry and Raz, Ran and Saxena, Raghuvansh R.},
  title =	{{Information Dissemination via Broadcasts in the Presence of Adversarial Noise}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:33},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204159},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Radio Networks, Interactive Coding, Error Correcting Codes}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Path-Reporting Distance Oracles with Logarithmic Stretch and Linear Size

Authors: Shiri Chechik and Tianyi Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Given an undirected graph G = (V, E, 𝐰) on n vertices with positive edge weights, a distance oracle is a space-efficient data structure that answers pairwise distance queries in fast runtime. The quality of a distance oracle is measured by three parameters: space, query time, and stretch. In a landmark paper by [Thorup and Zwick, 2001], they showed that for any integer parameter k ≥ 1, there exists a distance oracle with size O(kn^{1+1/k}), O(k) query time, and (2k-1)-stretch error on the approximate distances. After that, there has been a line of subsequent improvements which culminated in the optimal trade-off of O(n^{1+1/k}) space, O(1) query time, and (2k-1)-stretch [Chechik, 2015]. However, these line of constructions did not require that the distance oracle is capable of printing an actual path besides an approximate distance estimate, and there has been a performance gap between path-reporting distance oracles and ones that are not path-reporting. It is known that the earliest construction by [Thorup and Zwick, 2001] is path-reporting, but the parameters are worse by a factor of k. In a later construction by [Wulff-Nilsen, 2013], the query time was improved from O(k) to O(log k). Better trade-offs were discovered in [Elkin and Pettie, 2015] where the authors broke the O(kn^{1+1/k}) space barrier and achieved O(n^{1+1/k}log k) space with O(log k) query time, but their stretch was blown up to a polynomial O(k^{log_{4/3}7}); they also gave an alternative choice of O(n^{1+1/k}) space which is optimal, and O(k)-stretch which is also optimal up to a constant factor, but their query time rose exponentially to O(n^ε). In a recent work [Elkin and Shabat, 2023], the authors obtained significant improvements of O(n^{1+1/k}log k) space, O(k)-stretch, and O(log log k) query time, or O(n^{1+1/k}) space, O(klog k)-stretch, and O(log log k) query time. All the above constructions of path-reporting distance oracles share a common barrier; that is, they could not achieve optimal space O(n^{1+1/k}) and stretch O(k) simultaneously within logarithmic query time; for example, in the natural regime where k = ⌈log n⌉, previous distance oracles had to pay an extra factor of log log n either in the space or stretch. As our result, we bypass this barrier by a new construction of path-reporting distance oracles with O(n^{1+1/k}) space and O(k)-stretch and O(log log k) query time.

Cite as

Shiri Chechik and Tianyi Zhang. Path-Reporting Distance Oracles with Logarithmic Stretch and Linear Size. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 42:1-42:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chechik_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.42,
  author =	{Chechik, Shiri and Zhang, Tianyi},
  title =	{{Path-Reporting Distance Oracles with Logarithmic Stretch and Linear Size}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{42:1--42:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.42},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201859},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.42},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph algorithms, shortest paths, distance oracles}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement

Authors: Li Chen and Mingquan Ye

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The multicommodity flow problem is a classic problem in network flow and combinatorial optimization, with applications in transportation, communication, logistics, and supply chain management, etc. Existing algorithms often focus on low-accuracy approximate solutions, while high-accuracy algorithms typically rely on general linear program solvers. In this paper, we present efficient high-accuracy algorithms for a broad family of multicommodity flow problems on undirected graphs, demonstrating improved running times compared to general linear program solvers. Our main result shows that we can solve the 𝓁_{q, p}-norm multicommodity flow problem to a (1 + ε) approximation in time O_{q, p}(m^{1+o(1)} k² log(1/ε)), where k is the number of commodities, and O_{q, p}(⋅) hides constants depending only on q or p. As q and p approach to 1 and ∞ respectively, 𝓁_{q, p}-norm flow tends to maximum concurrent flow. We introduce the first iterative refinement framework for 𝓁_{q, p}-norm minimization problems, which reduces the problem to solving a series of decomposable residual problems. In the case of k-commodity flow, each residual problem can be decomposed into k single commodity convex flow problems, each of which can be solved in almost-linear time. As many classical variants of multicommodity flows were shown to be complete for linear programs in the high-accuracy regime [Ding-Kyng-Zhang, ICALP'22], our result provides new directions for studying more efficient high-accuracy multicommodity flow algorithms.

Cite as

Li Chen and Mingquan Ye. High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 45:1-45:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45,
  author =	{Chen, Li and Ye, Mingquan},
  title =	{{High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{45:1--45:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201887},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45},
  annote =	{Keywords: High-accuracy multicommodity flow, Iterative refinement framework, Convex flow solver}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Optimal Electrical Oblivious Routing on Expanders

Authors: Cella Florescu, Rasmus Kyng, Maximilian Probst Gutenberg, and Sushant Sachdeva

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the question of whether the electrical flow routing is a good oblivious routing scheme on an m-edge graph G = (V, E) that is a Φ-expander, i.e. where |∂ S| ≥ Φ ⋅ vol(S) for every S ⊆ V, vol(S) ≤ vol(V)/2. Beyond its simplicity and structural importance, this question is well-motivated by the current state-of-the-art of fast algorithms for 𝓁_∞ oblivious routings that reduce to the expander-case which is in turn solved by electrical flow routing. Our main result proves that the electrical routing is an O(Φ^{-1} log m)-competitive oblivious routing in the 𝓁₁- and 𝓁_∞-norms. We further observe that the oblivious routing is O(log² m)-competitive in the 𝓁₂-norm and, in fact, O(log m)-competitive if 𝓁₂-localization is O(log m) which is widely believed. Using these three upper bounds, we can smoothly interpolate to obtain upper bounds for every p ∈ [2, ∞] and q given by 1/p + 1/q = 1. Assuming 𝓁₂-localization in O(log m), we obtain that in 𝓁_p and 𝓁_q, the electrical oblivious routing is O(Φ^{-(1-2/p)}log m) competitive. Using the currently known result for 𝓁₂-localization, this ratio deteriorates by at most a sublogarithmic factor for every p, q ≠ 2. We complement our upper bounds with lower bounds that show that the electrical routing for any such p and q is Ω(Φ^{-(1-2/p)} log m)-competitive. This renders our results in 𝓁₁ and 𝓁_∞ unconditionally tight up to constants, and the result in any 𝓁_p- and 𝓁_q-norm to be tight in case of 𝓁₂-localization in O(log m).

Cite as

Cella Florescu, Rasmus Kyng, Maximilian Probst Gutenberg, and Sushant Sachdeva. Optimal Electrical Oblivious Routing on Expanders. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 65:1-65:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{florescu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.65,
  author =	{Florescu, Cella and Kyng, Rasmus and Gutenberg, Maximilian Probst and Sachdeva, Sushant},
  title =	{{Optimal Electrical Oblivious Routing on Expanders}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{65:1--65:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.65},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202083},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.65},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expanders, Oblivious routing for 𝓁\underlinep, Electrical flow routing}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fully Dynamic Strongly Connected Components in Planar Digraphs

Authors: Adam Karczmarz and Marcin Smulewicz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In this paper we consider maintaining strongly connected components (SCCs) of a directed planar graph subject to edge insertions and deletions. We show a data structure maintaining an implicit representation of the SCCs within Õ(n^{6/7}) worst-case time per update. The data structure supports, in O(log²{n}) time, reporting vertices of any specified SCC (with constant overhead per reported vertex) and aggregating vertex information (e.g., computing the maximum label) over all the vertices of that SCC. Furthermore, it can maintain global information about the structure of SCCs, such as the number of SCCs, or the size of the largest SCC. To the best of our knowledge, no fully dynamic SCCs data structures with sublinear update time have been previously known for any major subclass of digraphs. Our result should be contrasted with the n^{1-o(1)} amortized update time lower bound conditional on SETH, which holds even for dynamically maintaining whether a general digraph has more than two SCCs.

Cite as

Adam Karczmarz and Marcin Smulewicz. Fully Dynamic Strongly Connected Components in Planar Digraphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 95:1-95:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{karczmarz_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.95,
  author =	{Karczmarz, Adam and Smulewicz, Marcin},
  title =	{{Fully Dynamic Strongly Connected Components in Planar Digraphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{95:1--95:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.95},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202388},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.95},
  annote =	{Keywords: dynamic strongly connected components, dynamic strong connectivity, dynamic reachability, planar graphs}
}
Document
A Simple Boosting Framework for Transshipment

Authors: Goran Zuzic

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
Transshipment is an important generalization of both the shortest path problem and the optimal transport problem. The task asks to route a demand using a flow of minimum cost over (uncapacitated) edges. Transshipment has recently received extensive attention in theoretical computer science as it is the centerpiece of all modern theoretical breakthroughs in parallel and distributed (approximate) shortest-path computation, a classic and well-studied problem. The key advantage of transshipment over shortest paths is the so-called boosting property: one can often boost a crude approximate solution to a (near-optimal) (1+ε)-approximate solution. However, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited: it is not clear which approximators can be boosted. Moreover, all current boosting frameworks are built with a specific type of approximator in mind and are relatively complicated. The main takeaway of our paper is conceptual: any black-box oracle that computes an approximate dual solution can be boosted to an (1+ε)-approximator. This decouples and simplifies all known near-optimal (1+ε)-approximate transshipment and shortest paths results: they all (implicitly) construct approximate dual solutions and boost them. We provide a very simple analysis based on the multiplicative weights framework. Furthermore, to keep the paper completely self-contained, we provide a new (and arguably much simpler) analysis of multiplicative weights that leverages well-known optimization tools to bypass the ad-hoc calculations used in the standard analyses.

Cite as

Goran Zuzic. A Simple Boosting Framework for Transshipment. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 104:1-104:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{zuzic:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.104,
  author =	{Zuzic, Goran},
  title =	{{A Simple Boosting Framework for Transshipment}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{104:1--104:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.104},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187570},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.104},
  annote =	{Keywords: mixed continuous-discrete optimization, boosting, multiplicative weights, theoretical computer science, shortest path, parallel algorithms}
}
Document
Almost Universally Optimal Distributed Laplacian Solvers via Low-Congestion Shortcuts

Authors: Ioannis Anagnostides, Christoph Lenzen, Bernhard Haeupler, Goran Zuzic, and Themis Gouleakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)


Abstract
In this paper, we refine the (almost) existentially optimal distributed Laplacian solver recently developed by Forster, Goranci, Liu, Peng, Sun, and Ye (FOCS `21) into an (almost) universally optimal distributed Laplacian solver. Specifically, when the topology is known (i.e., the Supported-CONGEST model), we show that any Laplacian system on an n-node graph with shortcut quality SQ(G) can be solved after n^{o(1)} SQ(G) log(1/ε) rounds, where ε is the required accuracy. This almost matches our lower bound that guarantees that any correct algorithm on G requires Ω̃(SQ(G)) rounds, even for a crude solution with ε ≤ 1/2. Several important implications hold in the unknown-topology (i.e., standard CONGEST) case: for excluded-minor graphs we get an almost universally optimal algorithm that terminates in D ⋅ n^{o(1)} log(1/ε) rounds, where D is the hop-diameter of the network; as well as n^{o(1)} log (1/ε)-round algorithms for the case of SQ(G) ≤ n^{o(1)}, which holds for most networks of interest. Conditioned on improvements in state-of-the-art constructions of low-congestion shortcuts, the CONGEST results will match the Supported-CONGEST ones. Moreover, following a recent line of work in distributed algorithms, we consider a hybrid communication model which enhances CONGEST with limited global power in the form of the node-capacitated clique (NCC) model. In this model, we show the existence of a Laplacian solver with round complexity n^{o(1)} log(1/ε). The unifying thread of these results, and our main technical contribution, is the study of a novel ρ-congested generalization of the standard part-wise aggregation problem. We develop near-optimal algorithms for this primitive in the Supported-CONGEST model, almost-optimal algorithms in (standard) CONGEST (with the additional overhead due to standard barriers), as well as a simple algorithm for bounded-treewidth graphs with a quadratic dependence on the congestion ρ. This primitive can be readily used to accelerate the Laplacian solver of Forster, Goranci, Liu, Peng, Sun, and Ye, and we believe it will find further independent applications in the future.

Cite as

Ioannis Anagnostides, Christoph Lenzen, Bernhard Haeupler, Goran Zuzic, and Themis Gouleakis. Almost Universally Optimal Distributed Laplacian Solvers via Low-Congestion Shortcuts. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 6:1-6:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{anagnostides_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.6,
  author =	{Anagnostides, Ioannis and Lenzen, Christoph and Haeupler, Bernhard and Zuzic, Goran and Gouleakis, Themis},
  title =	{{Almost Universally Optimal Distributed Laplacian Solvers via Low-Congestion Shortcuts}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-255-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{246},
  editor =	{Scheideler, Christian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171978},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed algorithms, Laplacian solvers, low-congestion shortcuts}
}
Document
Adaptive-Adversary-Robust Algorithms via Small Copy Tree Embeddings

Authors: Bernhard Haepler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and Goran Zuzic

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)


Abstract
Embeddings of graphs into distributions of trees that preserve distances in expectation are a cornerstone of many optimization algorithms. Unfortunately, online or dynamic algorithms which use these embeddings seem inherently randomized and ill-suited against adaptive adversaries. In this paper we provide a new tree embedding which addresses these issues by deterministically embedding a graph into a single tree containing O(log n) copies of each vertex while preserving the connectivity structure of every subgraph and O(log² n)-approximating the cost of every subgraph. Using this embedding we obtain the first deterministic bicriteria approximation algorithm for the online covering Steiner problem as well as the first poly-log approximations for demand-robust Steiner forest, group Steiner tree and group Steiner forest.

Cite as

Bernhard Haepler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and Goran Zuzic. Adaptive-Adversary-Robust Algorithms via Small Copy Tree Embeddings. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 63:1-63:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{haepler_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.63,
  author =	{Haepler, Bernhard and Hershkowitz, D. Ellis and Zuzic, Goran},
  title =	{{Adaptive-Adversary-Robust Algorithms via Small Copy Tree Embeddings}},
  booktitle =	{30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)},
  pages =	{63:1--63:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-247-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{244},
  editor =	{Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.63},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-170016},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.63},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tree metrics, metric embeddings, approximation algorithms, group Steiner forest, group Steiner tree, demand-robust algorithms, online algorithms, deterministic algorithms}
}
Document
Invited Talk
The Quest for Universally-Optimal Distributed Algorithms (Invited Talk)

Authors: Bernhard Haeupler

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)


Abstract
Many distributed optimization algorithms achieve an existentially-optimal round complexity (of (Õ(√n + D)), i.e., there exists some pathological worst-case topology on which no algorithm can be faster. However, most networks of interest allow for exponentially faster algorithms. This motivates two questions: - What network topology parameters determine the complexity of distributed optimization? - Are there universally-optimal algorithms that are as fast as possible on every single topology? This talk provides an overview over the freshly-completed 6-year program that resolves these 25-year-old open problems for a wide class of global network optimization problems including MST, (1+ε)-min cut, various approximate shortest path problems, sub-graph connectivity, etc. We provide several equivalent graph parameters that are tight universal lower bounds for the above problems, fully characterizing their inherent complexity. We also give the first universally-optimal algorithms approximately achieving this complexity on every topology. The quest for universally-optimal distributed algorithms required novel techniques that also answer fundamental (open) questions in seemingly unrelated fields, such as, network information theory, approximation algorithms, (oblivious) packet routing, (algorithmic & topological) graph theory, and metric embeddings. Generally, the problems addressed in these fields explicitly or implicitly ask to jointly optimize 𝓁_∞ & 𝓁₁ parameters such as congestion & dilation, communication rate & delay, capacities & diameters of subnetworks, or the makespan of packet routings. In particular, results obtained on the way include the following firsts: (Congestion+Dilation)-Competitive Oblivious Routing, Network Coding Gaps for Completion-Times, Hop-Constrained Expanders & Expander Decompositions, Bi-Criteria (Online / Demand-Robust) Approximation Algorithms for many Diameter-Constrained Network Design Problems (e.g., (Group) Steiner Tree/Forest), Makespan-Competitive (Compact and Distributed) Routing Tables, and (Probabilistic) Tree Embeddings for Hop-Constrained Distances. (Joint work with M. Ghaffari, G. Zuzic, D.E. Hershkowitz, D. Wajc, J. Li, H. Raecke, T. Izumi)

Cite as

Bernhard Haeupler. The Quest for Universally-Optimal Distributed Algorithms (Invited Talk). In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, p. 1:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{haeupler:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.1,
  author =	{Haeupler, Bernhard},
  title =	{{The Quest for Universally-Optimal Distributed Algorithms}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-210-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{209},
  editor =	{Gilbert, Seth},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148030},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed algorithms}
}
Document
Deterministic Distributed Algorithms and Lower Bounds in the Hybrid Model

Authors: Ioannis Anagnostides and Themis Gouleakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)


Abstract
The HYBRID model was recently introduced by Augustine et al. [John Augustine et al., 2020] in order to characterize from an algorithmic standpoint the capabilities of networks which combine multiple communication modes. Concretely, it is assumed that the standard LOCAL model of distributed computing is enhanced with the feature of all-to-all communication, but with very limited bandwidth, captured by the node-capacitated clique (NCC). In this work we provide several new insights on the power of hybrid networks for fundamental problems in distributed algorithms. First, we present a deterministic algorithm which solves any problem on a sparse n-node graph in 𝒪̃(√n) rounds of HYBRID, where the notation 𝒪̃(⋅) suppresses polylogarithmic factors of n. We combine this primitive with several sparsification techniques to obtain efficient distributed algorithms for general graphs. Most notably, for the all-pairs shortest paths problem we give deterministic (1 + ε)- and log n/log log n-approximate algorithms for unweighted and weighted graphs respectively with round complexity 𝒪̃(√n) in HYBRID, closely matching the performance of the state of the art randomized algorithm of Kuhn and Schneider [Kuhn and Schneider, 2020]. Moreover, we make a connection with the Ghaffari-Haeupler framework of low-congestion shortcuts [Mohsen Ghaffari and Bernhard Haeupler, 2016], leading - among others - to a (1 + ε)-approximate algorithm for Min-Cut after 𝒪(polylog (n)) rounds, with high probability, even if we restrict local edges to transfer 𝒪(log n) bits per round. Finally, we prove via a reduction from the set disjointness problem that Ω̃(n^{1/3}) rounds are required to determine the radius of an unweighted graph, as well as a (3/2 - ε)-approximation for weighted graphs. As a byproduct, we show an Ω̃(n) round-complexity lower bound for computing a (4/3 - ε)-approximation of the radius in the broadcast variant of the congested clique, even for unweighted graphs.

Cite as

Ioannis Anagnostides and Themis Gouleakis. Deterministic Distributed Algorithms and Lower Bounds in the Hybrid Model. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 5:1-5:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{anagnostides_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.5,
  author =	{Anagnostides, Ioannis and Gouleakis, Themis},
  title =	{{Deterministic Distributed Algorithms and Lower Bounds in the Hybrid Model}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-210-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{209},
  editor =	{Gilbert, Seth},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148077},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Computing, Hybrid Model, Sparse Graphs, Deterministic Algorithms, All-Pairs Shortest Paths, Minimum Cut, Radius}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Near-Optimal Schedules for Simultaneous Multicasts

Authors: Bernhard Haeupler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and David Wajc

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)


Abstract
We study the store-and-forward packet routing problem for simultaneous multicasts, in which multiple packets have to be forwarded along given trees as fast as possible. This is a natural generalization of the seminal work of Leighton, Maggs and Rao, which solved this problem for unicasts, i.e. the case where all trees are paths. They showed the existence of asymptotically optimal O(C + D)-length schedules, where the congestion C is the maximum number of packets sent over an edge and the dilation D is the maximum depth of a tree. This improves over the trivial O(CD) length schedules. We prove a lower bound for multicasts, which shows that there do not always exist schedules of non-trivial length, o(CD). On the positive side, we construct O(C+D+log² n)-length schedules in any n-node network. These schedules are near-optimal, since our lower bound shows that this length cannot be improved to O(C+D) + o(log n).

Cite as

Bernhard Haeupler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and David Wajc. Near-Optimal Schedules for Simultaneous Multicasts. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 78:1-78:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{haeupler_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.78,
  author =	{Haeupler, Bernhard and Hershkowitz, D. Ellis and Wajc, David},
  title =	{{Near-Optimal Schedules for Simultaneous Multicasts}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)},
  pages =	{78:1--78:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-195-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{198},
  editor =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.78},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141471},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.78},
  annote =	{Keywords: Packet routing, multicast, scheduling algorithms}
}
Document
Computation-Aware Data Aggregation

Authors: Bernhard Haeupler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, Anson Kahng, and Ariel D. Procaccia

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
Data aggregation is a fundamental primitive in distributed computing wherein a network computes a function of every nodes' input. However, while compute time is non-negligible in modern systems, standard models of distributed computing do not take compute time into account. Rather, most distributed models of computation only explicitly consider communication time. In this paper, we introduce a model of distributed computation that considers both computation and communication so as to give a theoretical treatment of data aggregation. We study both the structure of and how to compute the fastest data aggregation schedule in this model. As our first result, we give a polynomial-time algorithm that computes the optimal schedule when the input network is a complete graph. Moreover, since one may want to aggregate data over a pre-existing network, we also study data aggregation scheduling on arbitrary graphs. We demonstrate that this problem on arbitrary graphs is hard to approximate within a multiplicative 1.5 factor. Finally, we give an O(log n ⋅ log(OPT/t_m))-approximation algorithm for this problem on arbitrary graphs, where n is the number of nodes and OPT is the length of the optimal schedule.

Cite as

Bernhard Haeupler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, Anson Kahng, and Ariel D. Procaccia. Computation-Aware Data Aggregation. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 65:1-65:38, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{haeupler_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.65,
  author =	{Haeupler, Bernhard and Hershkowitz, D. Ellis and Kahng, Anson and Procaccia, Ariel D.},
  title =	{{Computation-Aware Data Aggregation}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{65:1--65:38},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.65},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117506},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.65},
  annote =	{Keywords: Data aggregation, distributed algorithm scheduling, approximation algorithms}
}
Document
Erasure Correction for Noisy Radio Networks

Authors: Keren Censor-Hillel, Bernhard Haeupler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and Goran Zuzic

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)


Abstract
The radio network model is a well-studied model of wireless, multi-hop networks. However, radio networks make the strong assumption that messages are delivered deterministically. The recently introduced noisy radio network model relaxes this assumption by dropping messages independently at random. In this work we quantify the relative computational power of noisy radio networks and classic radio networks. In particular, given a non-adaptive protocol for a fixed radio network we show how to reliably simulate this protocol if noise is introduced with a multiplicative cost of poly(log Delta, log log n) rounds where n is the number nodes in the network and Delta is the max degree. Moreover, we demonstrate that, even if the simulated protocol is not non-adaptive, it can be simulated with a multiplicative O(Delta log ^2 Delta) cost in the number of rounds. Lastly, we argue that simulations with a multiplicative overhead of o(log Delta) are unlikely to exist by proving that an Omega(log Delta) multiplicative round overhead is necessary under certain natural assumptions.

Cite as

Keren Censor-Hillel, Bernhard Haeupler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and Goran Zuzic. Erasure Correction for Noisy Radio Networks. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 10:1-10:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.10,
  author =	{Censor-Hillel, Keren and Haeupler, Bernhard and Hershkowitz, D. Ellis and Zuzic, Goran},
  title =	{{Erasure Correction for Noisy Radio Networks}},
  booktitle =	{33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-126-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{146},
  editor =	{Suomela, Jukka},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113170},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: radio networks, erasure correction, noisy radio networks, protocol simulation, distributed computing models}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Block Edit Errors with Transpositions: Deterministic Document Exchange Protocols and Almost Optimal Binary Codes

Authors: Kuan Cheng, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, and Ke Wu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
Document exchange and error correcting codes are two fundamental problems regarding communications. In the first problem, Alice and Bob each holds a string, and the goal is for Alice to send a short sketch to Bob, so that Bob can recover Alice’s string. In the second problem, Alice sends a message with some redundant information to Bob through a channel that can add adversarial errors, and the goal is for Bob to correctly recover the message despite the errors. In both problems, an upper bound is placed on the number of errors between the two strings or that the channel can add, and a major goal is to minimize the size of the sketch or the redundant information. In this paper we focus on deterministic document exchange protocols and binary error correcting codes. Both problems have been studied extensively. In the case of Hamming errors (i.e., bit substitutions) and bit erasures, we have explicit constructions with asymptotically optimal parameters. However, other error types are still rather poorly understood. In a recent work [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018], the authors constructed explicit deterministic document exchange protocols and binary error correcting codes for edit errors with almost optimal parameters. Unfortunately, the constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018] do not work for other common errors such as block transpositions. In this paper, we generalize the constructions in [Kuan Cheng et al., 2018] to handle a much larger class of errors. These include bursts of insertions and deletions, as well as block transpositions. Specifically, we consider document exchange and error correcting codes where the total number of block insertions, block deletions, and block transpositions is at most k <= alpha n/log n for some constant 0<alpha<1. In addition, the total number of bits inserted and deleted by the first two kinds of operations is at most t <= beta n for some constant 0<beta<1, where n is the length of Alice’s string or message. We construct explicit, deterministic document exchange protocols with sketch size O((k log n +t) log^2 n/{k log n + t}) and explicit binary error correcting code with O(k log n log log log n+t) redundant bits. As a comparison, the information-theoretic optimum for both problems is Theta(k log n+t). As far as we know, previously there are no known explicit deterministic document exchange protocols in this case, and the best known binary code needs Omega(n) redundant bits even to correct just one block transposition [L. J. Schulman and D. Zuckerman, 1999].

Cite as

Kuan Cheng, Zhengzhong Jin, Xin Li, and Ke Wu. Block Edit Errors with Transpositions: Deterministic Document Exchange Protocols and Almost Optimal Binary Codes. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 37:1-37:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37,
  author =	{Cheng, Kuan and Jin, Zhengzhong and Li, Xin and Wu, Ke},
  title =	{{Block Edit Errors with Transpositions: Deterministic Document Exchange Protocols and Almost Optimal Binary Codes}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{37:1--37:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106137},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.37},
  annote =	{Keywords: Deterministic document exchange, error correcting code, block edit error}
}
Document
Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management
Optimal Strategies for Patrolling Fences

Authors: Bernhard Haeupler, Fabian Kuhn, Anders Martinsson, Kalina Petrova, and Pascal Pfister

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
A classical multi-agent fence patrolling problem asks: What is the maximum length L of a line fence that k agents with maximum speeds v_1,..., v_k can patrol if each point on the line needs to be visited at least once every unit of time. It is easy to see that L = alpha sum_{i=1}^k v_i for some efficiency alpha in [1/2,1). After a series of works [Czyzowicz et al., 2011; Dumitrescu et al., 2014; Kawamura and Kobayashi, 2015; Kawamura and Soejima, 2015] giving better and better efficiencies, it was conjectured by Kawamura and Soejima [Kawamura and Soejima, 2015] that the best possible efficiency approaches 2/3. No upper bounds on the efficiency below 1 were known. We prove the first such upper bounds and tightly bound the optimal efficiency in terms of the minimum speed ratio s = {v_{max}}/{v_{min}} and the number of agents k. Our bounds of alpha <= 1/{1 + 1/s} and alpha <= 1 - 1/(sqrt{k)+1} imply that in order to achieve efficiency 1 - epsilon, at least k >= Omega(epsilon^{-2}) agents with a speed ratio of s >= Omega(epsilon^{-1}) are necessary. Guided by our upper bounds, we construct a scheme whose efficiency approaches 1, disproving the conjecture stated above. Our scheme asymptotically matches our upper bounds in terms of the maximal speed difference and the number of agents used. A variation of the fence patrolling problem considers a circular fence instead and asks for its circumference to be maximized. We consider the unidirectional case of this variation, where all agents are only allowed to move in one direction, say clockwise. At first, a strategy yielding L = max_{r in [k]} r * v_r where v_1 >= v_2 >= ... >= v_k was conjectured to be optimal by Czyzowicz et al. [Czyzowicz et al., 2011] This was proven not to be the case by giving constructions for only specific numbers of agents with marginal improvements of L. We give a general construction that yields L = 1/{33 log_e log_2(k)} sum_{i=1}^k v_i for any set of agents, which in particular for the case 1, 1/2, ..., 1/k diverges as k - > infty, thus resolving a conjecture by Kawamura and Soejima [Kawamura and Soejima, 2015] affirmatively.

Cite as

Bernhard Haeupler, Fabian Kuhn, Anders Martinsson, Kalina Petrova, and Pascal Pfister. Optimal Strategies for Patrolling Fences. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 144:1-144:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{haeupler_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.144,
  author =	{Haeupler, Bernhard and Kuhn, Fabian and Martinsson, Anders and Petrova, Kalina and Pfister, Pascal},
  title =	{{Optimal Strategies for Patrolling Fences}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{144:1--144:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.144},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107202},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.144},
  annote =	{Keywords: multi-agent systems, patrolling algorithms}
}
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