40 Search Results for "Har-Peled, Sariel"


Document
Algorithms for Gradual Polyline Simplification

Authors: Nick Krumbholz, Stefan Funke, Peter Schäfer, and Sabine Storandt

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
Displaying line data is important in many visualization applications, and especially in the context of interactive geographical and cartographic visualization. When rendering linear features as roads, rivers or movement data on zoomable maps, the challenge is to display the data in an appropriate level of detail. A too detailed representation results in slow rendering and cluttered maps, while a too coarse representation might miss important data aspects. In this paper, we propose the gradual line simplification (GLS) problem, which aims to compute a fine-grained succession of consistent simplifications of a given input polyline with certain quality guarantees. The core concept of gradual simplification is to iteratively remove points from the polyline to obtain increasingly coarser representations. We devise two objective functions to guide this simplification process and present dynamic programs that compute the optimal solutions in 𝒪(n³) for an input line with n points. For practical application to large inputs, we also devise significantly faster greedy algorithms that provide constant factor guarantees for both problem variants at once. In an extensive experimental study on real-world data, we demonstrate that our algorithms are capable of producing simplification sequences of high quality within milliseconds on polylines consisting of over half a million points.

Cite as

Nick Krumbholz, Stefan Funke, Peter Schäfer, and Sabine Storandt. Algorithms for Gradual Polyline Simplification. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 19:1-19:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{krumbholz_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.19,
  author =	{Krumbholz, Nick and Funke, Stefan and Sch\"{a}fer, Peter and Storandt, Sabine},
  title =	{{Algorithms for Gradual Polyline Simplification}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203847},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Polyline simplification, Progressive simplification, Fr\'{e}chet distance}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Parameterized Approximation For Robust Clustering in Discrete Geometric Spaces

Authors: Fateme Abbasi, Sandip Banerjee, Jarosław Byrka, Parinya Chalermsook, Ameet Gadekar, Kamyar Khodamoradi, Dániel Marx, Roohani Sharma, and Joachim Spoerhase

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We consider the well-studied Robust (k,z)-Clustering problem, which generalizes the classic k-Median, k-Means, and k-Center problems and arises in the domains of robust optimization [Anthony, Goyal, Gupta, Nagarajan, Math. Oper. Res. 2010] and in algorithmic fairness [Abbasi, Bhaskara, Venkatasubramanian, 2021 & Ghadiri, Samadi, Vempala, 2022]. Given a constant z ≥ 1, the input to Robust (k,z)-Clustering is a set P of n points in a metric space (M,δ), a weight function w: P → ℝ_{≥ 0} and a positive integer k. Further, each point belongs to one (or more) of the m many different groups S_1,S_2,…,S_m ⊆ P. Our goal is to find a set X of k centers such that max_{i ∈ [m]} ∑_{p ∈ S_i} w(p) δ(p,X)^z is minimized. Complementing recent work on this problem, we give a comprehensive understanding of the parameterized approximability of the problem in geometric spaces where the parameter is the number k of centers. We prove the following results: [(i)] 1) For a universal constant η₀ > 0.0006, we devise a 3^z(1-η₀)-factor FPT approximation algorithm for Robust (k,z)-Clustering in discrete high-dimensional Euclidean spaces where the set of potential centers is finite. This shows that the lower bound of 3^z for general metrics [Goyal, Jaiswal, Inf. Proc. Letters, 2023] no longer holds when the metric has geometric structure. 2) We show that Robust (k,z)-Clustering in discrete Euclidean spaces is (√{3/2}- o(1))-hard to approximate for FPT algorithms, even if we consider the special case k-Center in logarithmic dimensions. This rules out a (1+ε)-approximation algorithm running in time f(k,ε)poly(m,n) (also called efficient parameterized approximation scheme or EPAS), giving a striking contrast with the recent EPAS for the continuous setting where centers can be placed anywhere in the space [Abbasi et al., FOCS'23]. 3) However, we obtain an EPAS for Robust (k,z)-Clustering in discrete Euclidean spaces when the dimension is sublogarithmic (for the discrete problem, earlier work [Abbasi et al., FOCS'23] provides an EPAS only in dimension o(log log n)). Our EPAS works also for metrics of sub-logarithmic doubling dimension.

Cite as

Fateme Abbasi, Sandip Banerjee, Jarosław Byrka, Parinya Chalermsook, Ameet Gadekar, Kamyar Khodamoradi, Dániel Marx, Roohani Sharma, and Joachim Spoerhase. Parameterized Approximation For Robust Clustering in Discrete Geometric Spaces. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 6:1-6:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{abbasi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.6,
  author =	{Abbasi, Fateme and Banerjee, Sandip and Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Chalermsook, Parinya and Gadekar, Ameet and Khodamoradi, Kamyar and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sharma, Roohani and Spoerhase, Joachim},
  title =	{{Parameterized Approximation For Robust Clustering in Discrete Geometric Spaces}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201494},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Clustering, approximation algorithms, parameterized complexity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects

Authors: Pritam Acharya, Sujoy Bhore, Aaryan Gupta, Arindam Khan, Bratin Mondal, and Andreas Wiese

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We study the geometric knapsack problem in which we are given a set of d-dimensional objects (each with associated profits) and the goal is to find the maximum profit subset that can be packed non-overlappingly into a given d-dimensional (unit hypercube) knapsack. Even if d = 2 and all input objects are disks, this problem is known to be NP-hard [Demaine, Fekete, Lang, 2010]. In this paper, we give polynomial time (1+ε)-approximation algorithms for the following types of input objects in any constant dimension d: - disks and hyperspheres, - a class of fat convex polygons that generalizes regular k-gons for k ≥ 5 (formally, polygons with a constant number of edges, whose lengths are in a bounded range, and in which each angle is strictly larger than π/2), - arbitrary fat convex objects that are sufficiently small compared to the knapsack. We remark that in our PTAS for disks and hyperspheres, we output the computed set of objects, but for a O_ε(1) of them we determine their coordinates only up to an exponentially small error. However, it is not clear whether there always exists a (1+ε)-approximate solution that uses only rational coordinates for the disks' centers. We leave this as an open problem which is related to well-studied geometric questions in the realm of circle packing.

Cite as

Pritam Acharya, Sujoy Bhore, Aaryan Gupta, Arindam Khan, Bratin Mondal, and Andreas Wiese. Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 8:1-8:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{acharya_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8,
  author =	{Acharya, Pritam and Bhore, Sujoy and Gupta, Aaryan and Khan, Arindam and Mondal, Bratin and Wiese, Andreas},
  title =	{{Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201511},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Polygon Packing, Circle Packing, Sphere Packing, Geometric Knapsack, Resource Augmentation}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension

Authors: Artur Czumaj, Guichen Gao, Shaofeng H.-C. Jiang, Robert Krauthgamer, and Pavel Veselý

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We design new parallel algorithms for clustering in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces. These algorithms run in the Massively Parallel Computation (MPC) model, and are fully scalable, meaning that the local memory in each machine may be n^σ for arbitrarily small fixed σ > 0. Importantly, the local memory may be substantially smaller than the number of clusters k, yet all our algorithms are fast, i.e., run in O(1) rounds. We first devise a fast MPC algorithm for O(1)-approximation of uniform Facility Location. This is the first fully-scalable MPC algorithm that achieves O(1)-approximation for any clustering problem in general geometric setting; previous algorithms only provide poly(log n)-approximation or apply to restricted inputs, like low dimension or small number of clusters k; e.g. [Bhaskara and Wijewardena, ICML'18; Cohen-Addad et al., NeurIPS'21; Cohen-Addad et al., ICML'22]. We then build on this Facility Location result and devise a fast MPC algorithm that achieves O(1)-bicriteria approximation for k-Median and for k-Means, namely, it computes (1+ε)k clusters of cost within O(1/ε²)-factor of the optimum for k clusters. A primary technical tool that we introduce, and may be of independent interest, is a new MPC primitive for geometric aggregation, namely, computing for every data point a statistic of its approximate neighborhood, for statistics like range counting and nearest-neighbor search. Our implementation of this primitive works in high dimension, and is based on consistent hashing (aka sparse partition), a technique that was recently used for streaming algorithms [Czumaj et al., FOCS'22].

Cite as

Artur Czumaj, Guichen Gao, Shaofeng H.-C. Jiang, Robert Krauthgamer, and Pavel Veselý. Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 50:1-50:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{czumaj_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50,
  author =	{Czumaj, Artur and Gao, Guichen and Jiang, Shaofeng H.-C. and Krauthgamer, Robert and Vesel\'{y}, Pavel},
  title =	{{Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{50:1--50:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201938},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50},
  annote =	{Keywords: Massively parallel computing, high dimension, facility location, k-median, k-means}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Nearly Optimal Independence Oracle Algorithms for Edge Estimation in Hypergraphs

Authors: Holger Dell, John Lapinskas, and Kitty Meeks

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Consider a query model of computation in which an n-vertex k-hypergraph can be accessed only via its independence oracle or via its colourful independence oracle, and each oracle query may incur a cost depending on the size of the query. Several recent results (Dell and Lapinskas, STOC 2018; Dell, Lapinskas, and Meeks, SODA 2020) give efficient algorithms to approximately count the hypergraph’s edges in the colourful setting. These algorithms immediately imply fine-grained reductions from approximate counting to decision, with overhead only log^Θ(k) n over the running time n^α of the original decision algorithm, for many well-studied problems including k-Orthogonal Vectors, k-SUM, subgraph isomorphism problems including k-Clique and colourful-H, graph motifs, and k-variable first-order model checking. We explore the limits of what is achievable in this setting, obtaining unconditional lower bounds on the oracle cost of algorithms to approximately count the hypergraph’s edges in both the colourful and uncoloured settings. In both settings, we also obtain algorithms which essentially match these lower bounds; in the colourful setting, this requires significant changes to the algorithm of Dell, Lapinskas, and Meeks (SODA 2020) and reduces the total overhead to log^{Θ(k-α)}n. Our lower bound for the uncoloured setting shows that there is no fine-grained reduction from approximate counting to the corresponding uncoloured decision problem (except in the case α ≥ k-1): without an algorithm for the colourful decision problem, we cannot hope to avoid the much larger overhead of roughly n^{(k-α)²/4}. The uncoloured setting has previously been studied for the special case k = 2 (Peled, Ramamoorthy, Rashtchian, Sinha, ITCS 2018; Chen, Levi, and Waingarten, SODA 2020), and our work generalises the existing algorithms and lower bounds for this special case to k > 2 and to oracles with cost.

Cite as

Holger Dell, John Lapinskas, and Kitty Meeks. Nearly Optimal Independence Oracle Algorithms for Edge Estimation in Hypergraphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 54:1-54:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{dell_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.54,
  author =	{Dell, Holger and Lapinskas, John and Meeks, Kitty},
  title =	{{Nearly Optimal Independence Oracle Algorithms for Edge Estimation in Hypergraphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{54:1--54:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.54},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201977},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.54},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph oracles, Fine-grained complexity, Approximate counting, Hypergraphs}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Random Separating Hyperplane Theorem and Learning Polytopes

Authors: Chiranjib Bhattacharyya, Ravindran Kannan, and Amit Kumar

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The Separating Hyperplane theorem is a fundamental result in Convex Geometry with myriad applications. The theorem asserts that for a point a not in a closed convex set K, there is a hyperplane with K on one side and a strictly on the other side. Our first result, Random Separating Hyperplane Theorem (RSH), is a strengthening of this for polytopes. RSH asserts that if the distance between a and a polytope K with k vertices and unit diameter in ℜ^d is at least δ, where δ is a fixed constant in (0,1), then a randomly chosen hyperplane separates a and K with probability at least 1/poly(k) and margin at least Ω (δ/√d). RSH has algorithmic applications in learning polytopes. We consider a fundamental problem, denoted the "Hausdorff problem", of learning a unit diameter polytope K within Hausdorff distance δ, given an optimization oracle for K. Using RSH, we show that with polynomially many random queries to the optimization oracle, K can be approximated within error O(δ). To our knowledge, this is the first provable algorithm for the Hausdorff Problem in this setting. Building on this result, we show that if the vertices of K are well-separated, then an optimization oracle can be used to generate a list of points, each within distance O(δ) of K, with the property that the list contains a point close to each vertex of K. Further, we show how to prune this list to generate a (unique) approximation to each vertex of the polytope. We prove that in many latent variable settings, e.g., topic modeling, LDA, optimization oracles do exist provided we project to a suitable SVD subspace. Thus, our work yields the first efficient algorithm for finding approximations to the vertices of the latent polytope under the well-separatedness assumption. This assumption states that each vertex of K is far from the convex hull of the remaining vertices of K, and is much weaker than other assumptions behind algorithms in the literature which find vertices of the latent polytope.

Cite as

Chiranjib Bhattacharyya, Ravindran Kannan, and Amit Kumar. Random Separating Hyperplane Theorem and Learning Polytopes. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 25:1-25:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bhattacharyya_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.25,
  author =	{Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib and Kannan, Ravindran and Kumar, Amit},
  title =	{{Random Separating Hyperplane Theorem and Learning Polytopes}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201687},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: Separating Hyperplane Theorem, Learning Polytopes, Optimization Oracles}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths

Authors: Greg Bodwin, Chengyuan Deng, Jie Gao, Gary Hoppenworth, Jalaj Upadhyay, and Chen Wang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The hereditary discrepancy of a set system is a quantitative measure of the pseudorandom properties of the system. Roughly speaking, hereditary discrepancy measures how well one can 2-color the elements of the system so that each set contains approximately the same number of elements of each color. Hereditary discrepancy has numerous applications in computational geometry, communication complexity and derandomization. More recently, the hereditary discrepancy of the set system of shortest paths has found applications in differential privacy [Chen et al. SODA 23]. The contribution of this paper is to improve the upper and lower bounds on the hereditary discrepancy of set systems of unique shortest paths in graphs. In particular, we show that any system of unique shortest paths in an undirected weighted graph has hereditary discrepancy O(n^{1/4}), and we construct lower bound examples demonstrating that this bound is tight up to polylog n factors. Our lower bounds hold even for planar graphs and bipartite graphs, and improve a previous lower bound of Ω(n^{1/6}) obtained by applying the trace bound of Chazelle and Lvov [SoCG'00] to a classical point-line system of Erdős. As applications, we improve the lower bound on the additive error for differentially-private all pairs shortest distances from Ω(n^{1/6}) [Chen et al. SODA 23] to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), and we improve the lower bound on additive error for the differentially-private all sets range queries problem to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), which is tight up to polylog n factors [Deng et al. WADS 23].

Cite as

Greg Bodwin, Chengyuan Deng, Jie Gao, Gary Hoppenworth, Jalaj Upadhyay, and Chen Wang. The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 27:1-27:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bodwin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27,
  author =	{Bodwin, Greg and Deng, Chengyuan and Gao, Jie and Hoppenworth, Gary and Upadhyay, Jalaj and Wang, Chen},
  title =	{{The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201705},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Discrepancy, hereditary discrepancy, shortest paths, differential privacy}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch

Authors: Tsvi Kopelowitz, Ariel Korin, and Liam Roditty

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
For an undirected unweighted graph G = (V,E) with n vertices and m edges, let d(u,v) denote the distance from u ∈ V to v ∈ V in G. An (α,β)-stretch approximate distance oracle (ADO) for G is a data structure that given u,v ∈ V returns in constant (or near constant) time a value dˆ(u,v) such that d(u,v) ≤ dˆ(u,v) ≤ α⋅ d(u,v) + β, for some reals α > 1, β. Thorup and Zwick [Mikkel Thorup and Uri Zwick, 2005] showed that one cannot beat stretch 3 with subquadratic space (in terms of n) for general graphs. Pǎtraşcu and Roditty [Mihai Pǎtraşcu and Liam Roditty, 2010] showed that one can obtain stretch 2 using O(m^{1/3}n^{4/3}) space, and so if m is subquadratic in n then the space usage is also subquadratic. Moreover, Pǎtraşcu and Roditty [Mihai Pǎtraşcu and Liam Roditty, 2010] showed that one cannot beat stretch 2 with subquadratic space even for graphs where m = Õ(n), based on the set-intersection hypothesis. In this paper we explore the conditions for which an ADO can beat stretch 2 while using subquadratic space. In particular, we show that if the maximum degree in G is Δ_G ≤ O(n^{1/k-ε}) for some 0 < ε ≤ 1/k, then there exists an ADO for G that uses Õ(n^{2-(kε)/3) space and has a (2,1-k)-stretch. For k = 2 this result implies a subquadratic sub-2 stretch ADO for graphs with Δ_G ≤ O(n^{1/2-ε}). Moreover, we prove a conditional lower bound, based on the set intersection hypothesis, which states that for any positive integer k ≤ log n, obtaining a sub-(k+2)/k stretch for graphs with Δ_G = Θ(n^{1/k}) requires Ω̃(n²) space. Thus, for graphs with maximum degree Θ(n^{1/2}), obtaining a sub-2 stretch requires Ω̃(n²) space.

Cite as

Tsvi Kopelowitz, Ariel Korin, and Liam Roditty. On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 101:1-101:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{kopelowitz_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101,
  author =	{Kopelowitz, Tsvi and Korin, Ariel and Roditty, Liam},
  title =	{{On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{101:1--101:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202443},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph algorithms, Approximate distance oracle, data structures, shortest path}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Oracle-Augmented Prophet Inequalities

Authors: Sariel Har-Peled, Elfarouk Harb, and Vasilis Livanos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In the classical prophet inequality setting, a gambler is given a sequence of n random variables X₁, … , X_n, taken from known distributions, observes their values in adversarial order and selects one of them, immediately after it is being observed, aiming to select a value that is as high as possible. The classical prophet inequality shows a strategy that guarantees a value at least half of the value of an omniscience prophet that always picks the maximum, and this ratio is optimal. Here, we generalize the prophet inequality, allowing the gambler some additional information about the future that is otherwise privy only to the prophet. Specifically, at any point in the process, the gambler is allowed to query an oracle 𝒪. The oracle responds with a single bit answer: YES if the current realization is greater than the remaining realizations, and NO otherwise. We show that the oracle model with m oracle calls is equivalent to the Top-1-of-(m+1) model when the objective is maximizing the probability of selecting the maximum. This equivalence fails to hold when the objective is maximizing the competitive ratio, but we still show that any algorithm for the oracle model implies an equivalent competitive ratio for the Top-1-of-(m+1) model. We resolve the oracle model for any m, giving tight lower and upper bound on the best possible competitive ratio compared to an almighty adversary. As a consequence, we provide new results as well as improvements on known results for the Top-1-of-m model.

Cite as

Sariel Har-Peled, Elfarouk Harb, and Vasilis Livanos. Oracle-Augmented Prophet Inequalities. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 81:1-81:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{harpeled_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.81,
  author =	{Har-Peled, Sariel and Harb, Elfarouk and Livanos, Vasilis},
  title =	{{Oracle-Augmented Prophet Inequalities}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{81:1--81:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.81},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202245},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.81},
  annote =	{Keywords: prophet inequalities, predictions, top-1-of-k model}
}
Document
Near Optimal Locality Sensitive Orderings in Euclidean Space

Authors: Zhimeng Gao and Sariel Har-Peled

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 293, 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)


Abstract
For a parameter ε ∈ (0,1), a set of ε-locality-sensitive orderings (LSOs) has the property that for any two points, p,q ∈ [0,1)^d, there exist an order in the set such that all the points between p and q (in the order) are ε-close to either p or q. Since the original construction of LSOs can not be (significantly) improved, we present a construction of modified LSOs, that yields a smaller set, while preserving their usefulness. Specifically, the resulting set of LSOs has size M = O(ℰ^{d-1} log ℰ), where ℰ = 1/ε. This improves over previous work by a factor of ℰ, and is optimal up to a factor of log ℰ. As a consequence we get a flotilla of improved dynamic geometric algorithms, such as maintaining bichromatic closest pair, and spanners, among others. In particular, for geometric dynamic spanners the new result matches (up to the aforementioned log ℰ factor) the lower bound, Specifically, this is a near-optimal simple dynamic data-structure for maintaining spanners under insertions and deletions.

Cite as

Zhimeng Gao and Sariel Har-Peled. Near Optimal Locality Sensitive Orderings in Euclidean Space. In 40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 293, pp. 60:1-60:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{gao_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.60,
  author =	{Gao, Zhimeng and Har-Peled, Sariel},
  title =	{{Near Optimal Locality Sensitive Orderings in Euclidean Space}},
  booktitle =	{40th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2024)},
  pages =	{60:1--60:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-316-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{293},
  editor =	{Mulzer, Wolfgang and Phillips, Jeff M.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.60},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200053},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2024.60},
  annote =	{Keywords: Orderings, approximation}
}
Document
Local Spanners Revisited

Authors: Stav Ashur and Sariel Har-Peled

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 294, 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)


Abstract
For a set P ⊆ ℝ² of points and a family ℱ of regions, a local t-spanner of P is a sparse graph G over P, such that for any region r ∈ ℱ the subgraph restricted to r, denoted by G ∩ r, is a t-spanner for all the points of r ∩ P. We present algorithms for the construction of local spanners with respect to several families of regions such as homothets of a convex region. Unfortunately, the number of edges in the resulting graph depends logarithmically on the spread of the input point set. We prove that this dependency cannot be removed, thus settling an open problem raised by Abam and Borouny. We also show improved constructions (with no dependency on the spread) of local spanners for fat triangles, and regular k-gons. In particular, this improves over the known construction for axis-parallel squares. We also study notions of weaker local spanners where one is allowed to shrink the region a "bit". Surprisingly, we show a near linear-size construction of a weak spanner for axis-parallel rectangles, where the shrinkage is multiplicative. Any spanner is a weak local spanner if the shrinking is proportional to the diameter of the region.

Cite as

Stav Ashur and Sariel Har-Peled. Local Spanners Revisited. In 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 294, pp. 2:1-2:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{ashur_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.2,
  author =	{Ashur, Stav and Har-Peled, Sariel},
  title =	{{Local Spanners Revisited}},
  booktitle =	{19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-318-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{294},
  editor =	{Bodlaender, Hans L.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200420},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Geometric graphs, Fault-tolerant spanners}
}
Document
No-Dimensional Tverberg Partitions Revisited

Authors: Sariel Har-Peled and Eliot W. Robson

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 294, 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)


Abstract
Given a set P ⊂ ℝ^d of n points, with diameter Δ, and a parameter δ ∈ (0,1), it is known that there is a partition of P into sets P_1, …, P_t, each of size O(1/δ²), such that their convex hulls all intersect a common ball of radius δΔ. We prove that a random partition, with a simple alteration step, yields the desired partition, resulting in a (randomized) linear time algorithm (i.e., O(dn)). We also provide a deterministic algorithm with running time O(dn log n). Previous proofs were either existential (i.e., at least exponential time), or required much bigger sets. In addition, the algorithm and its proof of correctness are significantly simpler than previous work, and the constants are slightly better. We also include a number of applications and extensions using the same central ideas. For example, we provide a linear time algorithm for computing a "fuzzy" centerpoint, and prove a no-dimensional weak ε-net theorem with an improved constant.

Cite as

Sariel Har-Peled and Eliot W. Robson. No-Dimensional Tverberg Partitions Revisited. In 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 294, pp. 26:1-26:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{harpeled_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.26,
  author =	{Har-Peled, Sariel and Robson, Eliot W.},
  title =	{{No-Dimensional Tverberg Partitions Revisited}},
  booktitle =	{19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-318-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{294},
  editor =	{Bodlaender, Hans L.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200664},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: Points, partitions, convex hull, high dimension}
}
Document
Computing Instance-Optimal Kernels in Two Dimensions

Authors: Pankaj K. Agarwal and Sariel Har-Peled

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)


Abstract
Let P be a set of n points in ℝ². For a parameter ε ∈ (0,1), a subset C ⊆ P is an ε-kernel of P if the projection of the convex hull of C approximates that of P within (1-ε)-factor in every direction. The set C is a weak ε-kernel of P if its directional width approximates that of P in every direction. Let 𝗄_ε(P) (resp. 𝗄^𝗐_ε(P)) denote the minimum-size of an ε-kernel (resp. weak ε-kernel) of P. We present an O(n 𝗄_ε(P)log n)-time algorithm for computing an ε-kernel of P of size 𝗄_ε(P), and an O(n²log n)-time algorithm for computing a weak ε-kernel of P of size 𝗄^𝗐_ε(P). We also present a fast algorithm for the Hausdorff variant of this problem. In addition, we introduce the notion of ε-core, a convex polygon lying inside ch(P), prove that it is a good approximation of the optimal ε-kernel, present an efficient algorithm for computing it, and use it to compute an ε-kernel of small size.

Cite as

Pankaj K. Agarwal and Sariel Har-Peled. Computing Instance-Optimal Kernels in Two Dimensions. In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 4:1-4:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.4,
  author =	{Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Har-Peled, Sariel},
  title =	{{Computing Instance-Optimal Kernels in Two Dimensions}},
  booktitle =	{39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-273-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{258},
  editor =	{Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-178544},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Coreset, approximation, kernel}
}
Document
Media Exposition
Greedy Permutations and Finite Voronoi Diagrams (Media Exposition)

Authors: Oliver A. Chubet, Paul Macnichol, Parth Parikh, Donald R. Sheehy, and Siddharth S. Sheth

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 258, 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)


Abstract
We illustrate the computation of a greedy permutation using finite Voronoi diagrams. We describe the neighbor graph, which is a sparse graph data structure that facilitates efficient point location to insert a new Voronoi cell. This data structure is not dependent on a Euclidean metric space. The greedy permutation is computed in O(nlog Δ) time for low-dimensional data using this method [Sariel Har-Peled and Manor Mendel, 2006; Donald R. Sheehy, 2020].

Cite as

Oliver A. Chubet, Paul Macnichol, Parth Parikh, Donald R. Sheehy, and Siddharth S. Sheth. Greedy Permutations and Finite Voronoi Diagrams (Media Exposition). In 39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 258, pp. 64:1-64:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{chubet_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.64,
  author =	{Chubet, Oliver A. and Macnichol, Paul and Parikh, Parth and Sheehy, Donald R. and Sheth, Siddharth S.},
  title =	{{Greedy Permutations and Finite Voronoi Diagrams}},
  booktitle =	{39th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2023)},
  pages =	{64:1--64:5},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-273-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{258},
  editor =	{Chambers, Erin W. and Gudmundsson, Joachim},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.64},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179146},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2023.64},
  annote =	{Keywords: greedy permutation, Voronoi diagrams}
}
Document
Approximation Algorithms for Maximum Matchings in Geometric Intersection Graphs

Authors: Sariel Har-Peled and Everett Yang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)


Abstract
We present a (1-ε)-approximation algorithms for maximum cardinality matchings in disk intersection graphs - all with near linear running time. We also present an estimation algorithm that returns (1±ε)-approximation to the size of such matchings - this algorithm runs in linear time for unit disks, and O(n log n) for general disks (as long as the density is relatively small).

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Sariel Har-Peled and Everett Yang. Approximation Algorithms for Maximum Matchings in Geometric Intersection Graphs. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 47:1-47:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{harpeled_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.47,
  author =	{Har-Peled, Sariel and Yang, Everett},
  title =	{{Approximation Algorithms for Maximum Matchings in Geometric Intersection Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)},
  pages =	{47:1--47:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-227-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{224},
  editor =	{Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.47},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160555},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.47},
  annote =	{Keywords: Matchings, disk intersection graphs, approximation algorithms}
}
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