38 Search Results for "Krauthgamer, Robert"


Document
Engineering Weighted Connectivity Augmentation Algorithms

Authors: Marcelo Fonseca Faraj, Ernestine Großmann, Felix Joos, Thomas Möller, and Christian Schulz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
Increasing the connectivity of a graph is a pivotal challenge in robust network design. The weighted connectivity augmentation problem is a common version of the problem that takes link costs into consideration. The problem is then to find a minimum cost subset of a given set of weighted links that increases the connectivity of a graph by one when the links are added to the edge set of the input instance. In this work, we give a first implementation of recently discovered better-than-2 approximations. Furthermore, we propose three new heuristics and one exact approach. These include a greedy algorithm considering link costs and the number of unique cuts covered, an approach based on minimum spanning trees and a local search algorithm that may improve a given solution by swapping links of paths. Our exact approach uses an ILP formulation with efficient cut enumeration as well as a fast initialization routine. We then perform an extensive experimental evaluation which shows that our algorithms are faster and yield the best solutions compared to the current state-of-the-art as well as the recently discovered better-than-2 approximation algorithms. Our novel local search algorithm can improve solution quality even further.

Cite as

Marcelo Fonseca Faraj, Ernestine Großmann, Felix Joos, Thomas Möller, and Christian Schulz. Engineering Weighted Connectivity Augmentation Algorithms. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 11:1-11:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{faraj_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.11,
  author =	{Faraj, Marcelo Fonseca and Gro{\ss}mann, Ernestine and Joos, Felix and M\"{o}ller, Thomas and Schulz, Christian},
  title =	{{Engineering Weighted Connectivity Augmentation Algorithms}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203768},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: weighted connectivity augmentation, approximation, heuristic, integer linear program, algorithm engineering}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Parameterized Approximation For Robust Clustering in Discrete Geometric Spaces

Authors: Fateme Abbasi, Sandip Banerjee, Jarosław Byrka, Parinya Chalermsook, Ameet Gadekar, Kamyar Khodamoradi, Dániel Marx, Roohani Sharma, and Joachim Spoerhase

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We consider the well-studied Robust (k,z)-Clustering problem, which generalizes the classic k-Median, k-Means, and k-Center problems and arises in the domains of robust optimization [Anthony, Goyal, Gupta, Nagarajan, Math. Oper. Res. 2010] and in algorithmic fairness [Abbasi, Bhaskara, Venkatasubramanian, 2021 & Ghadiri, Samadi, Vempala, 2022]. Given a constant z ≥ 1, the input to Robust (k,z)-Clustering is a set P of n points in a metric space (M,δ), a weight function w: P → ℝ_{≥ 0} and a positive integer k. Further, each point belongs to one (or more) of the m many different groups S_1,S_2,…,S_m ⊆ P. Our goal is to find a set X of k centers such that max_{i ∈ [m]} ∑_{p ∈ S_i} w(p) δ(p,X)^z is minimized. Complementing recent work on this problem, we give a comprehensive understanding of the parameterized approximability of the problem in geometric spaces where the parameter is the number k of centers. We prove the following results: [(i)] 1) For a universal constant η₀ > 0.0006, we devise a 3^z(1-η₀)-factor FPT approximation algorithm for Robust (k,z)-Clustering in discrete high-dimensional Euclidean spaces where the set of potential centers is finite. This shows that the lower bound of 3^z for general metrics [Goyal, Jaiswal, Inf. Proc. Letters, 2023] no longer holds when the metric has geometric structure. 2) We show that Robust (k,z)-Clustering in discrete Euclidean spaces is (√{3/2}- o(1))-hard to approximate for FPT algorithms, even if we consider the special case k-Center in logarithmic dimensions. This rules out a (1+ε)-approximation algorithm running in time f(k,ε)poly(m,n) (also called efficient parameterized approximation scheme or EPAS), giving a striking contrast with the recent EPAS for the continuous setting where centers can be placed anywhere in the space [Abbasi et al., FOCS'23]. 3) However, we obtain an EPAS for Robust (k,z)-Clustering in discrete Euclidean spaces when the dimension is sublogarithmic (for the discrete problem, earlier work [Abbasi et al., FOCS'23] provides an EPAS only in dimension o(log log n)). Our EPAS works also for metrics of sub-logarithmic doubling dimension.

Cite as

Fateme Abbasi, Sandip Banerjee, Jarosław Byrka, Parinya Chalermsook, Ameet Gadekar, Kamyar Khodamoradi, Dániel Marx, Roohani Sharma, and Joachim Spoerhase. Parameterized Approximation For Robust Clustering in Discrete Geometric Spaces. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 6:1-6:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{abbasi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.6,
  author =	{Abbasi, Fateme and Banerjee, Sandip and Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Chalermsook, Parinya and Gadekar, Ameet and Khodamoradi, Kamyar and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sharma, Roohani and Spoerhase, Joachim},
  title =	{{Parameterized Approximation For Robust Clustering in Discrete Geometric Spaces}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201494},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Clustering, approximation algorithms, parameterized complexity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
On the Streaming Complexity of Expander Decomposition

Authors: Yu Chen, Michael Kapralov, Mikhail Makarov, and Davide Mazzali

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In this paper we study the problem of finding (ε, ϕ)-expander decompositions of a graph in the streaming model, in particular for dynamic streams of edge insertions and deletions. The goal is to partition the vertex set so that every component induces a ϕ-expander, while the number of inter-cluster edges is only an ε fraction of the total volume. It was recently shown that there exists a simple algorithm to construct a (O(ϕ log n), ϕ)-expander decomposition of an n-vertex graph using Õ(n/ϕ²) bits of space [Filtser, Kapralov, Makarov, ITCS'23]. This result calls for understanding the extent to which a dependence in space on the sparsity parameter ϕ is inherent. We move towards answering this question on two fronts. We prove that a (O(ϕ log n), ϕ)-expander decomposition can be found using Õ(n) space, for every ϕ. At the core of our result is the first streaming algorithm for computing boundary-linked expander decompositions, a recently introduced strengthening of the classical notion [Goranci et al., SODA'21]. The key advantage is that a classical sparsifier [Fung et al., STOC'11], with size independent of ϕ, preserves the cuts inside the clusters of a boundary-linked expander decomposition within a multiplicative error. Notable algorithmic applications use sequences of expander decompositions, in particular one often repeatedly computes a decomposition of the subgraph induced by the inter-cluster edges (e.g., the seminal work of Spielman and Teng on spectral sparsifiers [Spielman, Teng, SIAM Journal of Computing 40(4)], or the recent maximum flow breakthrough [Chen et al., FOCS'22], among others). We prove that any streaming algorithm that computes a sequence of (O(ϕ log n), ϕ)-expander decompositions requires Ω̃(n/ϕ) bits of space, even in insertion only streams.

Cite as

Yu Chen, Michael Kapralov, Mikhail Makarov, and Davide Mazzali. On the Streaming Complexity of Expander Decomposition. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 46:1-46:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.46,
  author =	{Chen, Yu and Kapralov, Michael and Makarov, Mikhail and Mazzali, Davide},
  title =	{{On the Streaming Complexity of Expander Decomposition}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{46:1--46:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.46},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201890},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.46},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph Sketching, Dynamic Streaming, Expander Decomposition}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Lower Bounds on 0-Extension with Steiner Nodes

Authors: Yu Chen and Zihan Tan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In the 0-Extension problem, we are given an edge-weighted graph G = (V,E,c), a set T ⊆ V of its vertices called terminals, and a semi-metric D over T, and the goal is to find an assignment f of each non-terminal vertex to a terminal, minimizing the sum, over all edges (u,v) ∈ E, the product of the edge weight c(u,v) and the distance D(f(u),f(v)) between the terminals that u,v are mapped to. Current best approximation algorithms on 0-Extension are based on rounding a linear programming relaxation called the semi-metric LP relaxation. The integrality gap of this LP, is upper bounded by O(log|T|/log log|T|) and lower bounded by Ω((log|T|)^{2/3}), has been shown to be closely related to the quality of cut and flow vertex sparsifiers. We study a variant of the 0-Extension problem where Steiner vertices are allowed. Specifically, we focus on the integrality gap of the same semi-metric LP relaxation to this new problem. Following from previous work, this new integrality gap turns out to be closely related to the quality achievable by cut/flow vertex sparsifiers with Steiner nodes, a major open problem in graph compression. We show that the new integrality gap stays superconstant Ω(log log |T|) even if we allow a super-linear O(|T|log^{1-ε}|T|) number of Steiner nodes.

Cite as

Yu Chen and Zihan Tan. Lower Bounds on 0-Extension with Steiner Nodes. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 47:1-47:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.47,
  author =	{Chen, Yu and Tan, Zihan},
  title =	{{Lower Bounds on 0-Extension with Steiner Nodes}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{47:1--47:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.47},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201905},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.47},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph Algorithms, Zero Extension, Integrality Gap}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension

Authors: Artur Czumaj, Guichen Gao, Shaofeng H.-C. Jiang, Robert Krauthgamer, and Pavel Veselý

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We design new parallel algorithms for clustering in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces. These algorithms run in the Massively Parallel Computation (MPC) model, and are fully scalable, meaning that the local memory in each machine may be n^σ for arbitrarily small fixed σ > 0. Importantly, the local memory may be substantially smaller than the number of clusters k, yet all our algorithms are fast, i.e., run in O(1) rounds. We first devise a fast MPC algorithm for O(1)-approximation of uniform Facility Location. This is the first fully-scalable MPC algorithm that achieves O(1)-approximation for any clustering problem in general geometric setting; previous algorithms only provide poly(log n)-approximation or apply to restricted inputs, like low dimension or small number of clusters k; e.g. [Bhaskara and Wijewardena, ICML'18; Cohen-Addad et al., NeurIPS'21; Cohen-Addad et al., ICML'22]. We then build on this Facility Location result and devise a fast MPC algorithm that achieves O(1)-bicriteria approximation for k-Median and for k-Means, namely, it computes (1+ε)k clusters of cost within O(1/ε²)-factor of the optimum for k clusters. A primary technical tool that we introduce, and may be of independent interest, is a new MPC primitive for geometric aggregation, namely, computing for every data point a statistic of its approximate neighborhood, for statistics like range counting and nearest-neighbor search. Our implementation of this primitive works in high dimension, and is based on consistent hashing (aka sparse partition), a technique that was recently used for streaming algorithms [Czumaj et al., FOCS'22].

Cite as

Artur Czumaj, Guichen Gao, Shaofeng H.-C. Jiang, Robert Krauthgamer, and Pavel Veselý. Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 50:1-50:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{czumaj_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50,
  author =	{Czumaj, Artur and Gao, Guichen and Jiang, Shaofeng H.-C. and Krauthgamer, Robert and Vesel\'{y}, Pavel},
  title =	{{Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{50:1--50:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201938},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50},
  annote =	{Keywords: Massively parallel computing, high dimension, facility location, k-median, k-means}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on Planar Graphs

Authors: Matthias Bentert, Pål Grønås Drange, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, and Tuukka Korhonen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We study Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on planar graphs. Therein, one is given an undirected planar graph G and two disjoint sets S and T of vertices as input. The question is, what is the minimum number of edges to remove from G, such that all vertices in S are separated from all vertices in T, while maintaining that every vertex in S, and respectively in T, stays in the same connected component. We show that this problem can be solved in 2^{|S|+|T|} n^𝒪(1) time with a one-sided-error randomized algorithm. Our algorithm implies a polynomial-time algorithm for the network diversion problem on planar graphs, which resolves an open question from the literature. More generally, we show that Two-Sets Cut-Uncut is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the number r of faces in a planar embedding covering the terminals S ∪ T, by providing a 2^𝒪(r) n^𝒪(1)-time algorithm.

Cite as

Matthias Bentert, Pål Grønås Drange, Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, and Tuukka Korhonen. Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on Planar Graphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 22:1-22:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bentert_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.22,
  author =	{Bentert, Matthias and Drange, P\r{a}l Gr{\o}n\r{a}s and Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Korhonen, Tuukka},
  title =	{{Two-Sets Cut-Uncut on Planar Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201654},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: planar graphs, cut-uncut, group-constrained paths}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths

Authors: Greg Bodwin, Chengyuan Deng, Jie Gao, Gary Hoppenworth, Jalaj Upadhyay, and Chen Wang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The hereditary discrepancy of a set system is a quantitative measure of the pseudorandom properties of the system. Roughly speaking, hereditary discrepancy measures how well one can 2-color the elements of the system so that each set contains approximately the same number of elements of each color. Hereditary discrepancy has numerous applications in computational geometry, communication complexity and derandomization. More recently, the hereditary discrepancy of the set system of shortest paths has found applications in differential privacy [Chen et al. SODA 23]. The contribution of this paper is to improve the upper and lower bounds on the hereditary discrepancy of set systems of unique shortest paths in graphs. In particular, we show that any system of unique shortest paths in an undirected weighted graph has hereditary discrepancy O(n^{1/4}), and we construct lower bound examples demonstrating that this bound is tight up to polylog n factors. Our lower bounds hold even for planar graphs and bipartite graphs, and improve a previous lower bound of Ω(n^{1/6}) obtained by applying the trace bound of Chazelle and Lvov [SoCG'00] to a classical point-line system of Erdős. As applications, we improve the lower bound on the additive error for differentially-private all pairs shortest distances from Ω(n^{1/6}) [Chen et al. SODA 23] to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), and we improve the lower bound on additive error for the differentially-private all sets range queries problem to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), which is tight up to polylog n factors [Deng et al. WADS 23].

Cite as

Greg Bodwin, Chengyuan Deng, Jie Gao, Gary Hoppenworth, Jalaj Upadhyay, and Chen Wang. The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 27:1-27:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bodwin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27,
  author =	{Bodwin, Greg and Deng, Chengyuan and Gao, Jie and Hoppenworth, Gary and Upadhyay, Jalaj and Wang, Chen},
  title =	{{The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201705},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Discrepancy, hereditary discrepancy, shortest paths, differential privacy}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width

Authors: Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Given a graph G = (V,E), a set T ⊆ V, and an integer b, the Steiner Tree problem asks whether G has a connected subgraph H with at most b vertices that spans all of T. This work presents a 3^k⋅ n^𝒪(1) time one-sided Monte-Carlo algorithm for solving Steiner Tree when additionally a clique-expression of width k is provided. Known lower bounds for less expressive parameters imply that this dependence on the clique-width of G is optimal assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). Indeed our work establishes that the parameter dependence of Steiner Tree is the same for any graph parameter between cutwidth and clique-width, assuming SETH. Our work contributes to the program of determining the exact parameterized complexity of fundamental hard problems relative to structural graph parameters such as treewidth, which was initiated by Lokshtanov et al. [SODA 2011 & TALG 2018] and which by now has seen a plethora of results. Since the cut-and-count framework of Cygan et al. [FOCS 2011 & TALG 2022], connectivity problems have played a key role in this program as they pose many challenges for developing tight upper and lower bounds. Recently, Hegerfeld and Kratsch [ESA 2023] gave the first application of the cut-and-count technique to problems parameterized by clique-width and obtained tight bounds for Connected Dominating Set and Connected Vertex Cover, leaving open the complexity of other benchmark connectivity problems such as Steiner Tree and Feedback Vertex Set. Our algorithm for Steiner Tree does not follow the cut-and-count technique and instead works with the connectivity patterns of partial solutions. As a first technical contribution we identify a special family of so-called complete patterns that has strong (existential) representation properties, and using these at least one solution will be preserved. Furthermore, there is a family of 3^k basis patterns that (parity) represents the complete patterns, i.e., it has the same number of solutions modulo two. Our main technical contribution, a new technique called "isolating a representative," allows us to leverage both forms of representation (existential and parity). Both complete patterns and isolation of a representative will likely be applicable to other (connectivity) problems.

Cite as

Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch. A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bojikian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29,
  author =	{Bojikian, Narek and Kratsch, Stefan},
  title =	{{A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201728},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized complexity, Steiner tree, clique-width}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness

Authors: Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
It is known for many algorithmic problems that if a tree decomposition of width t is given in the input, then the problem can be solved with exponential dependence on t. A line of research initiated by Lokshtanov, Marx, and Saurabh [SODA 2011] produced lower bounds showing that in many cases known algorithms already achieve the best possible exponential dependence on t, assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). The main message of this paper is showing that the same lower bounds can already be obtained in a much more restricted setting: informally, a graph consisting of a block of t vertices connected to components of constant size already has the same hardness as a general tree decomposition of width t. Formally, a (σ,δ)-hub is a set Q of vertices such that every component of Q has size at most σ and is adjacent to at most δ vertices of Q. We explore if the known tight lower bounds parameterized by the width of the given tree decomposition remain valid if we parameterize by the size of the given hub. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that Independent Set (equivalently Vertex Cover) cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the SETH. This matches the earlier tight lower bounds parameterized by width of the tree decomposition. Similar tight bounds are obtained for Odd Cycle Transversal, Max Cut, q-Coloring, and edge/vertex deletions versions of q-Coloring. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that △-Partition cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p ⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the Set Cover Conjecture (SCC). In fact, we prove that this statement is equivalent to the SCC, thus it is unlikely that this could be proved assuming the SETH. - For Dominating Set, we can prove a non-tight lower bound ruling out (2-ε)^p ⋅ n^𝒪(1) algorithms, assuming either the SETH or the SCC, but this does not match the 3^p⋅ n^{𝒪(1)} upper bound. Thus our results reveal that, for many problems, the research on lower bounds on the dependence on tree width was never really about tree decompositions, but the real source of hardness comes from a much simpler structure. Additionally, we study if the same lower bounds can be obtained if σ and δ are fixed universal constants (not depending on ε). We show that lower bounds of this form are possible for Max Cut and the edge-deletion version of q-Coloring, under the Max 3-Sat Hypothesis (M3SH). However, no such lower bounds are possible for Independent Set, Odd Cycle Transversal, and the vertex-deletion version of q-Coloring: better than brute force algorithms are possible for every fixed (σ,δ).

Cite as

Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski. Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 34:1-34:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{canesmer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34,
  author =	{Can Esmer, Bar{\i}\c{s} and Focke, Jacob and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201772},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Tight Bounds, Hub, Treewidth, Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis, Vertex Coloring, Vertex Deletion, Edge Deletion, Triangle Packing, Triangle Partition, Set Cover Hypothesis, Dominating Set}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Cut Sparsification and Succinct Representation of Submodular Hypergraphs

Authors: Yotam Kenneth and Robert Krauthgamer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In cut sparsification, all cuts of a hypergraph H = (V,E,w) are approximated within 1±ε factor by a small hypergraph H'. This widely applied method was generalized recently to a setting where the cost of cutting each hyperedge e is provided by a splitting function g_e: 2^e → ℝ_+. This generalization is called a submodular hypergraph when the functions {g_e}_{e ∈ E} are submodular, and it arises in machine learning, combinatorial optimization, and algorithmic game theory. Previous work studied the setting where H' is a reweighted sub-hypergraph of H, and measured the size of H' by the number of hyperedges in it. In this setting, we present two results: (i) all submodular hypergraphs admit sparsifiers of size polynomial in n = |V| and ε^{-1}; (ii) we propose a new parameter, called spread, and use it to obtain smaller sparsifiers in some cases. We also show that for a natural family of splitting functions, relaxing the requirement that H' be a reweighted sub-hypergraph of H yields a substantially smaller encoding of the cuts of H (almost a factor n in the number of bits). This is in contrast to graphs, where the most succinct representation is attained by reweighted subgraphs. A new tool in our construction of succinct representation is the notion of deformation, where a splitting function g_e is decomposed into a sum of functions of small description, and we provide upper and lower bounds for deformation of common splitting functions.

Cite as

Yotam Kenneth and Robert Krauthgamer. Cut Sparsification and Succinct Representation of Submodular Hypergraphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 97:1-97:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{kenneth_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.97,
  author =	{Kenneth, Yotam and Krauthgamer, Robert},
  title =	{{Cut Sparsification and Succinct Representation of Submodular Hypergraphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{97:1--97:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.97},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202406},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.97},
  annote =	{Keywords: Cut Sparsification, Submodular Hypergraphs, Succinct Representation}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Almost-Tight Bounds on Preserving Cuts in Classes of Submodular Hypergraphs

Authors: Sanjeev Khanna, Aaron (Louie) Putterman, and Madhu Sudan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Recently, a number of variants of the notion of cut-preserving hypergraph sparsification have been studied in the literature. These variants include directed hypergraph sparsification, submodular hypergraph sparsification, general notions of approximation including spectral approximations, and more general notions like sketching that can answer cut queries using more general data structures than just sparsifiers. In this work, we provide reductions between these different variants of hypergraph sparsification and establish new upper and lower bounds on the space complexity of preserving their cuts. Specifically, we show that: 1) (1 ± ε) directed hypergraph spectral (respectively cut) sparsification on n vertices efficiently reduces to (1 ± ε) undirected hypergraph spectral (respectively cut) sparsification on n² + 1 vertices. Using the work of Lee and Jambulapati, Liu, and Sidford (STOC 2023) this gives us directed hypergraph spectral sparsifiers with O(n² log²(n) / ε²) hyperedges and directed hypergraph cut sparsifiers with O(n² log(n)/ ε²) hyperedges by using the work of Chen, Khanna, and Nagda (FOCS 2020), both of which improve upon the work of Oko, Sakaue, and Tanigawa (ICALP 2023). 2) Any cut sketching scheme which preserves all cuts in any directed hypergraph on n vertices to a (1 ± ε) factor (for ε = 1/(2^{O(√{log(n)})})) must have worst-case bit complexity n^{3 - o(1)}. Because directed hypergraphs are a subclass of submodular hypergraphs, this also shows a worst-case sketching lower bound of n^{3 - o(1)} bits for sketching cuts in general submodular hypergraphs. 3) (1 ± ε) monotone submodular hypergraph cut sparsification on n vertices efficiently reduces to (1 ± ε) symmetric submodular hypergraph sparsification on n+1 vertices. Using the work of Jambulapati et. al. (FOCS 2023) this gives us monotone submodular hypergraph sparsifiers with Õ(n / ε²) hyperedges, improving on the O(n³ / ε²) hyperedge bound of Kenneth and Krauthgamer (arxiv 2023). At a high level, our results use the same general principle, namely, by showing that cuts in one class of hypergraphs can be simulated by cuts in a simpler class of hypergraphs, we can leverage sparsification results for the simpler class of hypergraphs.

Cite as

Sanjeev Khanna, Aaron (Louie) Putterman, and Madhu Sudan. Almost-Tight Bounds on Preserving Cuts in Classes of Submodular Hypergraphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 98:1-98:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{khanna_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.98,
  author =	{Khanna, Sanjeev and Putterman, Aaron (Louie) and Sudan, Madhu},
  title =	{{Almost-Tight Bounds on Preserving Cuts in Classes of Submodular Hypergraphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{98:1--98:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.98},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202410},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.98},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sparsification, sketching, hypergraphs}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch

Authors: Tsvi Kopelowitz, Ariel Korin, and Liam Roditty

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
For an undirected unweighted graph G = (V,E) with n vertices and m edges, let d(u,v) denote the distance from u ∈ V to v ∈ V in G. An (α,β)-stretch approximate distance oracle (ADO) for G is a data structure that given u,v ∈ V returns in constant (or near constant) time a value dˆ(u,v) such that d(u,v) ≤ dˆ(u,v) ≤ α⋅ d(u,v) + β, for some reals α > 1, β. Thorup and Zwick [Mikkel Thorup and Uri Zwick, 2005] showed that one cannot beat stretch 3 with subquadratic space (in terms of n) for general graphs. Pǎtraşcu and Roditty [Mihai Pǎtraşcu and Liam Roditty, 2010] showed that one can obtain stretch 2 using O(m^{1/3}n^{4/3}) space, and so if m is subquadratic in n then the space usage is also subquadratic. Moreover, Pǎtraşcu and Roditty [Mihai Pǎtraşcu and Liam Roditty, 2010] showed that one cannot beat stretch 2 with subquadratic space even for graphs where m = Õ(n), based on the set-intersection hypothesis. In this paper we explore the conditions for which an ADO can beat stretch 2 while using subquadratic space. In particular, we show that if the maximum degree in G is Δ_G ≤ O(n^{1/k-ε}) for some 0 < ε ≤ 1/k, then there exists an ADO for G that uses Õ(n^{2-(kε)/3) space and has a (2,1-k)-stretch. For k = 2 this result implies a subquadratic sub-2 stretch ADO for graphs with Δ_G ≤ O(n^{1/2-ε}). Moreover, we prove a conditional lower bound, based on the set intersection hypothesis, which states that for any positive integer k ≤ log n, obtaining a sub-(k+2)/k stretch for graphs with Δ_G = Θ(n^{1/k}) requires Ω̃(n²) space. Thus, for graphs with maximum degree Θ(n^{1/2}), obtaining a sub-2 stretch requires Ω̃(n²) space.

Cite as

Tsvi Kopelowitz, Ariel Korin, and Liam Roditty. On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 101:1-101:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{kopelowitz_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101,
  author =	{Kopelowitz, Tsvi and Korin, Ariel and Roditty, Liam},
  title =	{{On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{101:1--101:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202443},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph algorithms, Approximate distance oracle, data structures, shortest path}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters

Authors: Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is an edge-preserving mapping from V(G) to V(H). In the graph homomorphism problem, denoted by Hom(H), the graph H is fixed and we need to determine if there exists a homomorphism from an instance graph G to H. We study the complexity of the problem parameterized by the cutwidth of G, i.e., we assume that G is given along with a linear ordering v_1,…,v_n of V(G) such that, for each i ∈ {1,…,n-1}, the number of edges with one endpoint in {v_1,…,v_i} and the other in {v_{i+1},…,v_n} is at most k. We aim, for each H, for algorithms for Hom(H) running in time c_H^k n^𝒪(1) and matching lower bounds that exclude c_H^{k⋅o(1)} n^𝒪(1) or c_H^{k(1-Ω(1))} n^𝒪(1) time algorithms under the (Strong) Exponential Time Hypothesis. In the paper we introduce a new parameter that we call mimsup(H). Our main contribution is strong evidence of a close connection between c_H and mimsup(H): - an information-theoretic argument that the number of states needed in a natural dynamic programming algorithm is at most mimsup(H)^k, - lower bounds that show that for almost all graphs H indeed we have c_H ≥ mimsup(H), assuming the (Strong) Exponential-Time Hypothesis, and - an algorithm with running time exp(𝒪(mimsup(H)⋅k log k)) n^𝒪(1). In the last result we do not need to assume that H is a fixed graph. Thus, as a consequence, we obtain that the problem of deciding whether G admits a homomorphism to H is fixed-parameter tractable, when parameterized by cutwidth of G and mimsup(H). The parameter mimsup(H) can be thought of as the p-th root of the maximum induced matching number in the graph obtained by multiplying p copies of H via a certain graph product, where p tends to infinity. It can also be defined as an asymptotic rank parameter of the adjacency matrix of H. Such parameters play a central role in, among others, algebraic complexity theory and additive combinatorics. Our results tightly link the parameterized complexity of a problem to such an asymptotic matrix parameter for the first time.

Cite as

Carla Groenland, Isja Mannens, Jesper Nederlof, Marta Piecyk, and Paweł Rzążewski. Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 77:1-77:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{groenland_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77,
  author =	{Groenland, Carla and Mannens, Isja and Nederlof, Jesper and Piecyk, Marta and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Towards Tight Bounds for the Graph Homomorphism Problem Parameterized by Cutwidth via Asymptotic Matrix Parameters}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{77:1--77:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202208},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.77},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph homomorphism, cutwidth, asymptotic matrix parameters}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Adaptive Sparsification for Matroid Intersection

Authors: Kent Quanrud

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We consider the matroid intersection problem in the independence oracle model. Given two matroids over n common elements such that the intersection has rank k, our main technique reduces approximate matroid intersection to logarithmically many primal-dual instances over subsets of size Õ(k). This technique is inspired by recent work by [Assadi, 2024] and requires additional insight into structuring and efficiently approximating the dual LP. This combination of ideas leads to faster approximate maximum cardinality and maximum weight matroid intersection algorithms in the independence oracle model. We obtain the first nearly linear time/query approximation schemes for the regime where k ≤ n^{2/3}.

Cite as

Kent Quanrud. Adaptive Sparsification for Matroid Intersection. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 118:1-118:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{quanrud:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.118,
  author =	{Quanrud, Kent},
  title =	{{Adaptive Sparsification for Matroid Intersection}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{118:1--118:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.118},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202614},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.118},
  annote =	{Keywords: Matroid intersection, adaptive sparsification, multiplicative-weight udpates, primal-dual}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Better Sparsifiers for Directed Eulerian Graphs

Authors: Sushant Sachdeva, Anvith Thudi, and Yibin Zhao

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Spectral sparsification for directed Eulerian graphs is a key component in the design of fast algorithms for solving directed Laplacian linear systems. Directed Laplacian linear system solvers are crucial algorithmic primitives to fast computation of fundamental problems on random walks, such as computing stationary distributions, hitting and commute times, and personalized PageRank vectors. While spectral sparsification is well understood for undirected graphs and it is known that for every graph G, (1+ε)-sparsifiers with O(nε^{-2}) edges exist [Batson-Spielman-Srivastava, STOC '09] (which is optimal), the best known constructions of Eulerian sparsifiers require Ω(nε^{-2}log⁴ n) edges and are based on short-cycle decompositions [Chu et al., FOCS '18]. In this paper, we give improved constructions of Eulerian sparsifiers, specifically: 1) We show that for every directed Eulerian graph G→, there exists an Eulerian sparsifier with O(nε^{-2} log² n log²log n + nε^{-4/3}log^{8/3} n) edges. This result is based on combining short-cycle decompositions [Chu-Gao-Peng-Sachdeva-Sawlani-Wang, FOCS '18, SICOMP] and [Parter-Yogev, ICALP '19], with recent progress on the matrix Spencer conjecture [Bansal-Meka-Jiang, STOC '23]. 2) We give an improved analysis of the constructions based on short-cycle decompositions, giving an m^{1+δ}-time algorithm for any constant δ > 0 for constructing Eulerian sparsifiers with O(nε^{-2}log³ n) edges.

Cite as

Sushant Sachdeva, Anvith Thudi, and Yibin Zhao. Better Sparsifiers for Directed Eulerian Graphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 119:1-119:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{sachdeva_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.119,
  author =	{Sachdeva, Sushant and Thudi, Anvith and Zhao, Yibin},
  title =	{{Better Sparsifiers for Directed Eulerian Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{119:1--119:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.119},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202628},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.119},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph algorithms, Linear algebra and computation, Discrepancy theory}
}
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