27 Search Results for "Sudan, Madhu"


Document
Pseudorandom Linear Codes Are List-Decodable to Capacity

Authors: Aaron (Louie) Putterman and Edward Pyne

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
We introduce a novel family of expander-based error correcting codes. These codes can be sampled with randomness linear in the block-length, and achieve list decoding capacity (among other local properties). Our expander-based codes can be made starting from any family of sufficiently low-bias codes, and as a consequence, we give the first construction of a family of algebraic codes that can be sampled with linear randomness and achieve list-decoding capacity. We achieve this by introducing the notion of a pseudorandom puncturing of a code, where we select n indices of a base code C ⊂ 𝔽_q^m in a correlated fashion. Concretely, whereas a random linear code (i.e. a truly random puncturing of the Hadamard code) requires O(n log(m)) random bits to sample, we sample a pseudorandom linear code with O(n + log (m)) random bits by instantiating our pseudorandom puncturing as a length n random walk on an exapnder graph on [m]. In particular, we extend a result of Guruswami and Mosheiff (FOCS 2022) and show that a pseudorandom puncturing of a small-bias code satisfies the same local properties as a random linear code with high probability. As a further application of our techniques, we also show that pseudorandom puncturings of Reed-Solomon codes are list-recoverable beyond the Johnson bound, extending a result of Lund and Potukuchi (RANDOM 2020). We do this by instead analyzing properties of codes with large distance, and show that pseudorandom puncturings still work well in this regime.

Cite as

Aaron (Louie) Putterman and Edward Pyne. Pseudorandom Linear Codes Are List-Decodable to Capacity. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 90:1-90:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{putterman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.90,
  author =	{Putterman, Aaron (Louie) and Pyne, Edward},
  title =	{{Pseudorandom Linear Codes Are List-Decodable to Capacity}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{90:1--90:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.90},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196183},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.90},
  annote =	{Keywords: Derandomization, error-correcting codes}
}
Document
APPROX
Oblivious Algorithms for the Max-kAND Problem

Authors: Noah G. Singer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)


Abstract
Motivated by recent works on streaming algorithms for constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), we define and analyze oblivious algorithms for the Max-kAND problem. This is a class of simple, combinatorial algorithms which round each variable with probability depending only on a quantity called the variable’s bias. Our definition generalizes a class of algorithms defined by Feige and Jozeph (Algorithmica '15) for Max-DICUT, a special case of Max-2AND. For each oblivious algorithm, we design a so-called factor-revealing linear program (LP) which captures its worst-case instance, generalizing one of Feige and Jozeph for Max-DICUT. Then, departing from their work, we perform a fully explicit analysis of these (infinitely many!) LPs. In particular, we show that for all k, oblivious algorithms for Max-kAND provably outperform a special subclass of algorithms we call "superoblivious" algorithms. Our result has implications for streaming algorithms: Generalizing the result for Max-DICUT of Saxena, Singer, Sudan, and Velusamy (SODA'23), we prove that certain separation results hold between streaming models for infinitely many CSPs: for every k, O(log n)-space sketching algorithms for Max-kAND known to be optimal in o(√n)-space can be beaten in (a) O(log n)-space under a random-ordering assumption, and (b) O(n^{1-1/k} D^{1/k}) space under a maximum-degree-D assumption. Even in the previously-known case of Max-DICUT, our analytic proof gives a fuller, computer-free picture of these separation results.

Cite as

Noah G. Singer. Oblivious Algorithms for the Max-kAND Problem. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 15:1-15:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{singer:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.15,
  author =	{Singer, Noah G.},
  title =	{{Oblivious Algorithms for the Max-kAND Problem}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-296-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{275},
  editor =	{Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188409},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: streaming algorithm, approximation algorithm, constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), factor-revealing linear program}
}
Document
RANDOM
Low-Degree Testing over Grids

Authors: Prashanth Amireddy, Srikanth Srinivasan, and Madhu Sudan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)


Abstract
We study the question of local testability of low (constant) degree functions from a product domain 𝒮_1 × … × 𝒮_n to a field 𝔽, where 𝒮_i ⊆ 𝔽 can be arbitrary constant sized sets. We show that this family is locally testable when the grid is "symmetric". That is, if 𝒮_i = 𝒮 for all i, there is a probabilistic algorithm using constantly many queries that distinguishes whether f has a polynomial representation of degree at most d or is Ω(1)-far from having this property. In contrast, we show that there exist asymmetric grids with |𝒮_1| = ⋯ = |𝒮_n| = 3 for which testing requires ω_n(1) queries, thereby establishing that even in the context of polynomials, local testing depends on the structure of the domain and not just the distance of the underlying code. The low-degree testing problem has been studied extensively over the years and a wide variety of tools have been applied to propose and analyze tests. Our work introduces yet another new connection in this rich field, by building low-degree tests out of tests for "junta-degrees". A function f:𝒮_1 × ⋯ × 𝒮_n → 𝒢, for an abelian group 𝒢 is said to be a junta-degree-d function if it is a sum of d-juntas. We derive our low-degree test by giving a new local test for junta-degree-d functions. For the analysis of our tests, we deduce a small-set expansion theorem for spherical/hamming noise over large grids, which may be of independent interest.

Cite as

Prashanth Amireddy, Srikanth Srinivasan, and Madhu Sudan. Low-Degree Testing over Grids. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 41:1-41:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{amireddy_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.41,
  author =	{Amireddy, Prashanth and Srinivasan, Srikanth and Sudan, Madhu},
  title =	{{Low-Degree Testing over Grids}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)},
  pages =	{41:1--41:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-296-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{275},
  editor =	{Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.41},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188665},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.41},
  annote =	{Keywords: Property testing, Low-degree testing, Small-set expansion, Local testing}
}
Document
Matrix Multiplication and Number on the Forehead Communication

Authors: Josh Alman and Jarosław Błasiok

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
Three-player Number On the Forehead communication may be thought of as a three-player Number In the Hand promise model, in which each player is given the inputs that are supposedly on the other two players' heads, and promised that they are consistent with the inputs of the other players. The set of all allowed inputs under this promise may be thought of as an order-3 tensor. We surprisingly observe that this tensor is exactly the matrix multiplication tensor, which is widely studied in the design of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. Using this connection, we prove a number of results about both Number On the Forehead communication and matrix multiplication, each by using known results or techniques about the other. For example, we show how the Laser method, a key technique used to design the best matrix multiplication algorithms, can also be used to design communication protocols for a variety of problems. We also show how known lower bounds for Number On the Forehead communication can be used to bound properties of the matrix multiplication tensor such as its zeroing out subrank. Finally, we substantially generalize known methods based on slice-rank for studying communication, and show how they directly relate to the matrix multiplication exponent ω.

Cite as

Josh Alman and Jarosław Błasiok. Matrix Multiplication and Number on the Forehead Communication. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 16:1-16:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{alman_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.16,
  author =	{Alman, Josh and B{\l}asiok, Jaros{\l}aw},
  title =	{{Matrix Multiplication and Number on the Forehead Communication}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182861},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Number on the forehead, communication complexity, matrix multiplication}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Low-Depth Arithmetic Circuit Lower Bounds: Bypassing Set-Multilinearization

Authors: Prashanth Amireddy, Ankit Garg, Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha, and Bhargav Thankey

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
A recent breakthrough work of Limaye, Srinivasan and Tavenas [Nutan Limaye et al., 2021] proved superpolynomial lower bounds for low-depth arithmetic circuits via a "hardness escalation" approach: they proved lower bounds for low-depth set-multilinear circuits and then lifted the bounds to low-depth general circuits. In this work, we prove superpolynomial lower bounds for low-depth circuits by bypassing the hardness escalation, i.e., the set-multilinearization, step. As set-multilinearization comes with an exponential blow-up in circuit size, our direct proof opens up the possibility of proving an exponential lower bound for low-depth homogeneous circuits by evading a crucial bottleneck. Our bounds hold for the iterated matrix multiplication and the Nisan-Wigderson design polynomials. We also define a subclass of unrestricted depth homogeneous formulas which we call unique parse tree (UPT) formulas, and prove superpolynomial lower bounds for these. This significantly generalizes the superpolynomial lower bounds for regular formulas [Neeraj Kayal et al., 2014; Hervé Fournier et al., 2015].

Cite as

Prashanth Amireddy, Ankit Garg, Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha, and Bhargav Thankey. Low-Depth Arithmetic Circuit Lower Bounds: Bypassing Set-Multilinearization. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 12:1-12:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{amireddy_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.12,
  author =	{Amireddy, Prashanth and Garg, Ankit and Kayal, Neeraj and Saha, Chandan and Thankey, Bhargav},
  title =	{{Low-Depth Arithmetic Circuit Lower Bounds: Bypassing Set-Multilinearization}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180642},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: arithmetic circuits, low-depth circuits, lower bounds, shifted partials}
}
Document
Is This Correct? Let’s Check!

Authors: Omri Ben-Eliezer, Dan Mikulincer, Elchanan Mossel, and Madhu Sudan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
Societal accumulation of knowledge is a complex process. The correctness of new units of knowledge depends not only on the correctness of new reasoning, but also on the correctness of old units that the new one builds on. The errors in such accumulation processes are often remedied by error correction and detection heuristics. Motivating examples include the scientific process based on scientific publications, and software development based on libraries of code. Natural processes that aim to keep errors under control, such as peer review in scientific publications, and testing and debugging in software development, would typically check existing pieces of knowledge - both for the reasoning that generated them and the previous facts they rely on. In this work, we present a simple process that models such accumulation of knowledge and study the persistence (or lack thereof) of errors. We consider a simple probabilistic model for the generation of new units of knowledge based on the preferential attachment growth model, which additionally allows for errors. Furthermore, the process includes checks aimed at catching these errors. We investigate when effects of errors persist forever in the system (with positive probability) and when they get rooted out completely by the checking process. The two basic parameters associated with the checking process are the probability of conducting a check and the depth of the check. We show that errors are rooted out if checks are sufficiently frequent and sufficiently deep. In contrast, shallow or infrequent checks are insufficient to root out errors.

Cite as

Omri Ben-Eliezer, Dan Mikulincer, Elchanan Mossel, and Madhu Sudan. Is This Correct? Let’s Check!. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 15:1-15:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{beneliezer_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.15,
  author =	{Ben-Eliezer, Omri and Mikulincer, Dan and Mossel, Elchanan and Sudan, Madhu},
  title =	{{Is This Correct? Let’s Check!}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175180},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Error Propagation, Preferential Attachment}
}
Document
APPROX
Sketching Approximability of (Weak) Monarchy Predicates

Authors: Chi-Ning Chou, Alexander Golovnev, Amirbehshad Shahrasbi, Madhu Sudan, and Santhoshini Velusamy

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)


Abstract
We analyze the sketching approximability of constraint satisfaction problems on Boolean domains, where the constraints are balanced linear threshold functions applied to literals. In particular, we explore the approximability of monarchy-like functions where the value of the function is determined by a weighted combination of the vote of the first variable (the president) and the sum of the votes of all remaining variables. The pure version of this function is when the president can only be overruled by when all remaining variables agree. For every k ≥ 5, we show that CSPs where the underlying predicate is a pure monarchy function on k variables have no non-trivial sketching approximation algorithm in o(√n) space. We also show infinitely many weaker monarchy functions for which CSPs using such constraints are non-trivially approximable by O(log(n)) space sketching algorithms. Moreover, we give the first example of sketching approximable asymmetric Boolean CSPs. Our results work within the framework of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, and Velusamy (FOCS 2021) that characterizes the sketching approximability of all CSPs. Their framework can be applied naturally to get a computer-aided analysis of the approximability of any specific constraint satisfaction problem. The novelty of our work is in using their work to get an analysis that applies to infinitely many problems simultaneously.

Cite as

Chi-Ning Chou, Alexander Golovnev, Amirbehshad Shahrasbi, Madhu Sudan, and Santhoshini Velusamy. Sketching Approximability of (Weak) Monarchy Predicates. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 35:1-35:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chou_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.35,
  author =	{Chou, Chi-Ning and Golovnev, Alexander and Shahrasbi, Amirbehshad and Sudan, Madhu and Velusamy, Santhoshini},
  title =	{{Sketching Approximability of (Weak) Monarchy Predicates}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)},
  pages =	{35:1--35:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-249-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{245},
  editor =	{Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.35},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171573},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.35},
  annote =	{Keywords: sketching algorithms, approximability, linear threshold functions}
}
Document
APPROX
On Sketching Approximations for Symmetric Boolean CSPs

Authors: Joanna Boyland, Michael Hwang, Tarun Prasad, Noah Singer, and Santhoshini Velusamy

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)


Abstract
A Boolean maximum constraint satisfaction problem, Max-CSP(f), is specified by a predicate f:{-1,1}^k → {0,1}. An n-variable instance of Max-CSP(f) consists of a list of constraints, each of which applies f to k distinct literals drawn from the n variables. For k = 2, Chou, Golovnev, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2020] obtained explicit ratios characterizing the √ n-space streaming approximability of every predicate. For k ≥ 3, Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] proved a general dichotomy theorem for √ n-space sketching algorithms: For every f, there exists α(f) ∈ (0,1] such that for every ε > 0, Max-CSP(f) is (α(f)-ε)-approximable by an O(log n)-space linear sketching algorithm, but (α(f)+ε)-approximation sketching algorithms require Ω(√n) space. In this work, we give closed-form expressions for the sketching approximation ratios of multiple families of symmetric Boolean functions. Letting α'_k = 2^{-(k-1)} (1-k^{-2})^{(k-1)/2}, we show that for odd k ≥ 3, α(kAND) = α'_k, and for even k ≥ 2, α(kAND) = 2α'_{k+1}. Thus, for every k, kAND can be (2-o(1))2^{-k}-approximated by O(log n)-space sketching algorithms; we contrast this with a lower bound of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, Velingker, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] implying that streaming (2+ε)2^{-k}-approximations require Ω(n) space! We also resolve the ratio for the "at-least-(k-1)-1’s" function for all even k; the "exactly-(k+1)/2-1’s" function for odd k ∈ {3,…,51}; and fifteen other functions. We stress here that for general f, the dichotomy theorem in [Chou et al., 2022] only implies that α(f) can be computed to arbitrary precision in PSPACE, and thus closed-form expressions need not have existed a priori. Our analyses involve identifying and exploiting structural "saddle-point" properties of this dichotomy. Separately, for all threshold functions, we give optimal "bias-based" approximation algorithms generalizing [Chou et al., 2020] while simplifying [Chou et al., 2022]. Finally, we investigate the √ n-space streaming lower bounds in [Chou et al., 2022], and show that they are incomplete for 3AND, i.e., they fail to rule out (α(3AND})-ε)-approximations in o(√ n) space.

Cite as

Joanna Boyland, Michael Hwang, Tarun Prasad, Noah Singer, and Santhoshini Velusamy. On Sketching Approximations for Symmetric Boolean CSPs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 38:1-38:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{boyland_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.38,
  author =	{Boyland, Joanna and Hwang, Michael and Prasad, Tarun and Singer, Noah and Velusamy, Santhoshini},
  title =	{{On Sketching Approximations for Symmetric Boolean CSPs}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)},
  pages =	{38:1--38:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-249-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{245},
  editor =	{Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.38},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171604},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.38},
  annote =	{Keywords: Streaming algorithms, constraint satisfaction problems, approximability}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Streaming and Sketching Complexity of CSPs: A Survey (Invited Talk)

Authors: Madhu Sudan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
In this survey we describe progress over the last decade or so in understanding the complexity of solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) approximately in the streaming and sketching models of computation. After surveying some of the results we give some sketches of the proofs and in particular try to explain why there is a tight dichotomy result for sketching algorithms working in subpolynomial space regime.

Cite as

Madhu Sudan. Streaming and Sketching Complexity of CSPs: A Survey (Invited Talk). In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 5:1-5:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{sudan:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.5,
  author =	{Sudan, Madhu},
  title =	{{Streaming and Sketching Complexity of CSPs: A Survey}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163460},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Streaming algorithms, Sketching algorithms, Dichotomy, Communication Complexity}
}
Document
Improved Decoding of Expander Codes

Authors: Xue Chen, Kuan Cheng, Xin Li, and Minghui Ouyang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
We study the classical expander codes, introduced by Sipser and Spielman [M. Sipser and D. A. Spielman, 1996]. Given any constants 0 < α, ε < 1/2, and an arbitrary bipartite graph with N vertices on the left, M < N vertices on the right, and left degree D such that any left subset S of size at most α N has at least (1-ε)|S|D neighbors, we show that the corresponding linear code given by parity checks on the right has distance at least roughly {α N}/{2 ε}. This is strictly better than the best known previous result of 2(1-ε) α N [Madhu Sudan, 2000; Viderman, 2013] whenever ε < 1/2, and improves the previous result significantly when ε is small. Furthermore, we show that this distance is tight in general, thus providing a complete characterization of the distance of general expander codes. Next, we provide several efficient decoding algorithms, which vastly improve previous results in terms of the fraction of errors corrected, whenever ε < 1/4. Finally, we also give a bound on the list-decoding radius of general expander codes, which beats the classical Johnson bound in certain situations (e.g., when the graph is almost regular and the code has a high rate). Our techniques exploit novel combinatorial properties of bipartite expander graphs. In particular, we establish a new size-expansion tradeoff, which may be of independent interests.

Cite as

Xue Chen, Kuan Cheng, Xin Li, and Minghui Ouyang. Improved Decoding of Expander Codes. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 43:1-43:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43,
  author =	{Chen, Xue and Cheng, Kuan and Li, Xin and Ouyang, Minghui},
  title =	{{Improved Decoding of Expander Codes}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{43:1--43:3},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156394},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.43},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expander Code, Decoding}
}
Document
APPROX
Streaming Approximation Resistance of Every Ordering CSP

Authors: Noah Singer, Madhu Sudan, and Santhoshini Velusamy

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)


Abstract
An ordering constraint satisfaction problem (OCSP) is given by a positive integer k and a constraint predicate Π mapping permutations on {1,…,k} to {0,1}. Given an instance of OCSP(Π) on n variables and m constraints, the goal is to find an ordering of the n variables that maximizes the number of constraints that are satisfied, where a constraint specifies a sequence of k distinct variables and the constraint is satisfied by an ordering on the n variables if the ordering induced on the k variables in the constraint satisfies Π. Ordering constraint satisfaction problems capture natural problems including "Maximum acyclic subgraph (MAS)" and "Betweenness". In this work we consider the task of approximating the maximum number of satisfiable constraints in the (single-pass) streaming setting, where an instance is presented as a stream of constraints. We show that for every Π, OCSP(Π) is approximation-resistant to o(n)-space streaming algorithms, i.e., algorithms using o(n) space cannot distinguish streams where almost every constraint is satisfiable from streams where no ordering beats the random ordering by a noticeable amount. This space bound is tight up to polylogarithmic factors. In the case of MAS our result shows that for every ε > 0, MAS is not 1/2+ε-approximable in o(n) space. The previous best inapproximability result only ruled out a 3/4-approximation in o(√ n) space. Our results build on recent works of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, Velingker, and Velusamy who show tight, linear-space inapproximability results for a broad class of (non-ordering) constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) over arbitrary (finite) alphabets. Our results are obtained by building a family of appropriate CSPs (one for every q) from any given OCSP, and applying their work to this family of CSPs. To convert the resulting hardness results for CSPs back to our OCSP, we show that the hard instances from this earlier work have the following "small-set expansion" property: If the CSP instance is viewed as a hypergraph in the natural way, then for every partition of the hypergraph into small blocks most of the hyperedges are incident on vertices from distinct blocks. By exploiting this combinatorial property, in combination with the hardness results of the resulting families of CSPs, we give optimal inapproximability results for all OCSPs.

Cite as

Noah Singer, Madhu Sudan, and Santhoshini Velusamy. Streaming Approximation Resistance of Every Ordering CSP. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 17:1-17:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{singer_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.17,
  author =	{Singer, Noah and Sudan, Madhu and Velusamy, Santhoshini},
  title =	{{Streaming Approximation Resistance of Every Ordering CSP}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-207-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{207},
  editor =	{Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147106},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Streaming approximations, approximation resistance, constraint satisfaction problems, ordering constraint satisfaction problems}
}
Document
RANDOM
Ideal-Theoretic Explanation of Capacity-Achieving Decoding

Authors: Siddharth Bhandari, Prahladh Harsha, Mrinal Kumar, and Madhu Sudan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)


Abstract
In this work, we present an abstract framework for some algebraic error-correcting codes with the aim of capturing codes that are list-decodable to capacity, along with their decoding algorithm. In the polynomial ideal framework, a code is specified by some ideals in a polynomial ring, messages are polynomials and their encoding is the residue modulo the ideals. We present an alternate way of viewing this class of codes in terms of linear operators, and show that this alternate view makes their algorithmic list-decodability amenable to analysis. Our framework leads to a new class of codes that we call affine Folded Reed-Solomon codes (which are themselves a special case of the broader class we explore). These codes are common generalizations of the well-studied Folded Reed-Solomon codes and Univariate Multiplicity codes, while also capturing the less-studied Additive Folded Reed-Solomon codes as well as a large family of codes that were not previously known/studied. More significantly our framework also captures the algorithmic list-decodability of the constituent codes. Specifically, we present a unified view of the decoding algorithm for ideal-theoretic codes and show that the decodability reduces to the analysis of the distance of some related codes. We show that good bounds on this distance lead to capacity-achieving performance of the underlying code, providing a unifying explanation of known capacity-achieving results. In the specific case of affine Folded Reed-Solomon codes, our framework shows that they are list-decodable up to capacity (for appropriate setting of the parameters), thereby unifying the previous results for Folded Reed-Solomon, Multiplicity and Additive Folded Reed-Solomon codes.

Cite as

Siddharth Bhandari, Prahladh Harsha, Mrinal Kumar, and Madhu Sudan. Ideal-Theoretic Explanation of Capacity-Achieving Decoding. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 56:1-56:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{bhandari_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.56,
  author =	{Bhandari, Siddharth and Harsha, Prahladh and Kumar, Mrinal and Sudan, Madhu},
  title =	{{Ideal-Theoretic Explanation of Capacity-Achieving Decoding}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)},
  pages =	{56:1--56:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-207-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{207},
  editor =	{Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.56},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147499},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.56},
  annote =	{Keywords: List Decodability, List Decoding Capacity, Polynomial Ideal Codes, Multiplicity Codes, Folded Reed-Solomon Codes}
}
Document
Error Correcting Codes for Uncompressed Messages

Authors: Ofer Grossman and Justin Holmgren

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
Most types of messages we transmit (e.g., video, audio, images, text) are not fully compressed, since they do not have known efficient and information theoretically optimal compression algorithms. When transmitting such messages, standard error correcting codes fail to take advantage of the fact that messages are not fully compressed. We show that in this setting, it is sub-optimal to use standard error correction. We consider a model where there is a set of "valid messages" which the sender may send that may not be efficiently compressible, but where it is possible for the receiver to recognize valid messages. In this model, we construct a (probabilistic) encoding procedure that achieves better tradeoffs between data rates and error-resilience (compared to just applying a standard error correcting code). Additionally, our techniques yield improved efficiently decodable (probabilistic) codes for fully compressed messages (the standard setting where the set of valid messages is all binary strings) in the high-rate regime.

Cite as

Ofer Grossman and Justin Holmgren. Error Correcting Codes for Uncompressed Messages. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 43:1-43:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{grossman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.43,
  author =	{Grossman, Ofer and Holmgren, Justin},
  title =	{{Error Correcting Codes for Uncompressed Messages}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{43:1--43:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.43},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135828},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.43},
  annote =	{Keywords: Coding Theory, List Decoding}
}
Document
Improved Explicit Data Structures in the Bit-Probe Model Using Error-Correcting Codes

Authors: Palash Dey, Jaikumar Radhakrishnan, and Santhoshini Velusamy

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)


Abstract
We consider the bit-probe complexity of the set membership problem: represent an n-element subset S of an m-element universe as a succinct bit vector so that membership queries of the form "Is x ∈ S" can be answered using at most t probes into the bit vector. Let s(m,n,t) (resp. s_N(m,n,t)) denote the minimum number of bits of storage needed when the probes are adaptive (resp. non-adaptive). Lewenstein, Munro, Nicholson, and Raman (ESA 2014) obtain fully-explicit schemes that show that s(m,n,t) = 𝒪((2^t-1)m^{1/(t - min{2⌊log n⌋, n-3/2})}) for n ≥ 2,t ≥ ⌊log n⌋+1 . In this work, we improve this bound when the probes are allowed to be superlinear in n, i.e., when t ≥ Ω(nlog n), n ≥ 2, we design fully-explicit schemes that show that s(m,n,t) = 𝒪((2^t-1)m^{1/(t-{n-1}/{2^{t/(2(n-1))}})}), asymptotically (in the exponent of m) close to the non-explicit upper bound on s(m,n,t) derived by Radhakrishan, Shah, and Shannigrahi (ESA 2010), for constant n. In the non-adaptive setting, it was shown by Garg and Radhakrishnan (STACS 2017) that for a large constant n₀, for n ≥ n₀, s_N(m,n,3) ≥ √{mn}. We improve this result by showing that the same lower bound holds even for storing sets of size 2, i.e., s_N(m,2,3) ≥ Ω(√m).

Cite as

Palash Dey, Jaikumar Radhakrishnan, and Santhoshini Velusamy. Improved Explicit Data Structures in the Bit-Probe Model Using Error-Correcting Codes. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 28:1-28:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{dey_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.28,
  author =	{Dey, Palash and Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar and Velusamy, Santhoshini},
  title =	{{Improved Explicit Data Structures in the Bit-Probe Model Using Error-Correcting Codes}},
  booktitle =	{45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-159-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{170},
  editor =	{Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126965},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: Set membership, Bit-probe model, Fully-explicit data structures, Adaptive data structures, Error-correcting codes}
}
Document
APPROX
Revisiting Alphabet Reduction in Dinur’s PCP

Authors: Venkatesan Guruswami, Jakub Opršal, and Sai Sandeep

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
Dinur’s celebrated proof of the PCP theorem alternates two main steps in several iterations: gap amplification to increase the soundness gap by a large constant factor (at the expense of much larger alphabet size), and a composition step that brings back the alphabet size to an absolute constant (at the expense of a fixed constant factor loss in the soundness gap). We note that the gap amplification can produce a Label Cover CSP. This allows us to reduce the alphabet size via a direct long-code based reduction from Label Cover to a Boolean CSP. Our composition step thus bypasses the concept of Assignment Testers from Dinur’s proof, and we believe it is more intuitive - it is just a gadget reduction. The analysis also uses only elementary facts (Parseval’s identity) about Fourier Transforms over the hypercube.

Cite as

Venkatesan Guruswami, Jakub Opršal, and Sai Sandeep. Revisiting Alphabet Reduction in Dinur’s PCP. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 34:1-34:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.34,
  author =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan and Opr\v{s}al, Jakub and Sandeep, Sai},
  title =	{{Revisiting Alphabet Reduction in Dinur’s PCP}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126372},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: PCP theorem, CSP, discrete Fourier analysis, label cover, long code}
}
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