17 Search Results for "Yehudayoff, Amir"


Document
New Lower Bounds Against Homogeneous Non-Commutative Circuits

Authors: Prerona Chatterjee and Pavel Hrubeš

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
We give several new lower bounds on size of homogeneous non-commutative circuits. We present an explicit homogeneous bivariate polynomial of degree d which requires homogeneous non-commutative circuit of size Ω(d/log d). For an n-variate polynomial with n > 1, the result can be improved to Ω(nd), if d ≤ n, or Ω(nd (log n)/(log d)), if d ≥ n. Under the same assumptions, we also give a quadratic lower bound for the ordered version of the central symmetric polynomial.

Cite as

Prerona Chatterjee and Pavel Hrubeš. New Lower Bounds Against Homogeneous Non-Commutative Circuits. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 13:1-13:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{chatterjee_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.13,
  author =	{Chatterjee, Prerona and Hrube\v{s}, Pavel},
  title =	{{New Lower Bounds Against Homogeneous Non-Commutative Circuits}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:10},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182835},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algebraic circuit complexity, Non-Commutative Circuits, Homogeneous Computation, Lower bounds against algebraic circuits}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Expander Random Walks: The General Case and Limitations

Authors: Gil Cohen, Dor Minzer, Shir Peleg, Aaron Potechin, and Amnon Ta-Shma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
Cohen, Peri and Ta-Shma [Gil Cohen et al., 2021] considered the following question: Assume the vertices of an expander graph are labelled by ± 1. What "test" functions f : {±1}^t → {±1} can or cannot distinguish t independent samples from those obtained by a random walk? [Gil Cohen et al., 2021] considered only balanced labellings, and proved that for all symmetric functions the distinguishability goes down to zero with the spectral gap λ of the expander G. In addition, [Gil Cohen et al., 2021] show that functions computable by AC⁰ circuits are fooled by expanders with vanishing spectral expansion. We continue the study of this question. We generalize the result to all labelling, not merely balanced ones. We also improve the upper bound on the error of symmetric functions. More importantly, we give a matching lower bound and show a symmetric function with distinguishability going down to zero with λ but not with t. Moreover, we prove a lower bound on the error of functions in AC⁰ in particular, we prove that a random walk on expanders with constant spectral gap does not fool AC⁰.

Cite as

Gil Cohen, Dor Minzer, Shir Peleg, Aaron Potechin, and Amnon Ta-Shma. Expander Random Walks: The General Case and Limitations. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 43:1-43:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.43,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Minzer, Dor and Peleg, Shir and Potechin, Aaron and Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  title =	{{Expander Random Walks: The General Case and Limitations}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{43:1--43:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.43},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163849},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.43},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expander Graphs, Random Walks, Lower Bounds}
}
Document
Robust Sylvester-Gallai Type Theorem for Quadratic Polynomials

Authors: Shir Peleg and Amir Shpilka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)


Abstract
In this work we extend the robust version of the Sylvester-Gallai theorem, obtained by Barak, Dvir, Wigderson and Yehudayoff, and by Dvir, Saraf and Wigderson, to the case of quadratic polynomials. Specifically, we prove that if {𝒬} ⊂ ℂ[x₁.…,x_n] is a finite set, |{𝒬}| = m, of irreducible quadratic polynomials that satisfy the following condition There is δ > 0 such that for every Q ∈ {𝒬} there are at least δ m polynomials P ∈ {𝒬} such that whenever Q and P vanish then so does a third polynomial in {𝒬}⧵{Q,P}. then dim(span) = Poly(1/δ). The work of Barak et al. and Dvir et al. studied the case of linear polynomials and proved an upper bound of O(1/δ) on the dimension (in the first work an upper bound of O(1/δ²) was given, which was improved to O(1/δ) in the second work).

Cite as

Shir Peleg and Amir Shpilka. Robust Sylvester-Gallai Type Theorem for Quadratic Polynomials. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 43:1-43:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{peleg_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.43,
  author =	{Peleg, Shir and Shpilka, Amir},
  title =	{{Robust Sylvester-Gallai Type Theorem for Quadratic Polynomials}},
  booktitle =	{38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)},
  pages =	{43:1--43:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-227-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{224},
  editor =	{Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.43},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160515},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.43},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sylvester-Gallai theorem, quadratic polynomials, Algebraic computation}
}
Document
Monotone Complexity of Spanning Tree Polynomial Re-Visited

Authors: Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Rajit Datta, Utsab Ghosal, and Partha Mukhopadhyay

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
We prove two results that shed new light on the monotone complexity of the spanning tree polynomial, a classic polynomial in algebraic complexity and beyond. First, we show that the spanning tree polynomials having n variables and defined over constant-degree expander graphs, have monotone arithmetic complexity 2^{Ω(n)}. This yields the first strongly exponential lower bound on monotone arithmetic circuit complexity for a polynomial in VP. Before this result, strongly exponential size monotone lower bounds were known only for explicit polynomials in VNP [S. B. Gashkov and I. S. Sergeev, 2012; Ran Raz and Amir Yehudayoff, 2011; Srikanth Srinivasan, 2020; Bruno Pasqualotto Cavalar et al., 2020; Pavel Hrubeš and Amir Yehudayoff, 2021]. Recently, Hrubeš [Pavel Hrubeš, 2020] initiated a program to prove lower bounds against general arithmetic circuits by proving ε-sensitive lower bounds for monotone arithmetic circuits for a specific range of values for ε ∈ (0,1). The first ε-sensitive lower bound was just proved for a family of polynomials inside VNP by Chattopadhyay, Datta and Mukhopadhyay [Arkadev Chattopadhyay et al., 2021]. We consider the spanning tree polynomial ST_n defined over the complete graph of n vertices and show that the polynomials F_{n-1,n} - ε⋅ ST_{n} and F_{n-1,n} + ε⋅ ST_{n}, defined over (n-1)n variables, have monotone circuit complexity 2^{Ω(n)} if ε ≥ 2^{- Ω(n)} and F_{n-1,n} := ∏_{i = 2}ⁿ (x_{i,1} + ⋯ + x_{i,n}) is the complete set-multilinear polynomial. This provides the first ε-sensitive exponential lower bound for a family of polynomials inside VP. En-route, we consider a problem in 2-party, best partition communication complexity of deciding whether two sets of oriented edges distributed among Alice and Bob form a spanning tree or not. We prove that there exists a fixed distribution, under which the problem has low discrepancy with respect to every nearly-balanced partition. This result could be of interest beyond algebraic complexity. Our two results, thus, are incomparable generalizations of the well known result by Jerrum and Snir [Mark Jerrum and Marc Snir, 1982] which showed that the spanning tree polynomial, defined over complete graphs with n vertices (so the number of variables is (n-1)n), has monotone complexity 2^{Ω(n)}. In particular, the first result is an optimal lower bound and the second result can be thought of as a robust version of the earlier monotone lower bound for the spanning tree polynomial.

Cite as

Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Rajit Datta, Utsab Ghosal, and Partha Mukhopadhyay. Monotone Complexity of Spanning Tree Polynomial Re-Visited. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 39:1-39:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.39,
  author =	{Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Datta, Rajit and Ghosal, Utsab and Mukhopadhyay, Partha},
  title =	{{Monotone Complexity of Spanning Tree Polynomial Re-Visited}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{39:1--39:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.39},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156356},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.39},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spanning Tree Polynomial, Monotone Computation, Lower Bounds, Communication Complexity}
}
Document
Shadows of Newton Polytopes

Authors: Pavel Hrubeš and Amir Yehudayoff

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)


Abstract
We define the shadow complexity of a polytope P as the maximum number of vertices in a linear projection of P to the plane. We describe connections to algebraic complexity and to parametrized optimization. We also provide several basic examples and constructions, and develop tools for bounding shadow complexity.

Cite as

Pavel Hrubeš and Amir Yehudayoff. Shadows of Newton Polytopes. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 9:1-9:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{hrubes_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.9,
  author =	{Hrube\v{s}, Pavel and Yehudayoff, Amir},
  title =	{{Shadows of Newton Polytopes}},
  booktitle =	{36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-193-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{200},
  editor =	{Kabanets, Valentine},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-142833},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Newton polytope, Monotone arithmetic circuit}
}
Document
Sunflowers in Set Systems of Bounded Dimension

Authors: Jacob Fox, János Pach, and Andrew Suk

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 189, 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)


Abstract
Given a family F of k-element sets, S₁,…,S_r ∈ F form an r-sunflower if S_i ∩ S_j = S_{i'} ∩ S_{j'} for all i ≠ j and i' ≠ j'. According to a famous conjecture of Erdős and Rado (1960), there is a constant c = c(r) such that if |F| ≥ c^k, then F contains an r-sunflower. We come close to proving this conjecture for families of bounded Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, VC-dim(F) ≤ d. In this case, we show that r-sunflowers exist under the slightly stronger assumption |F| ≥ 2^{10k(dr)^{2log^{*} k}}. Here, log^* denotes the iterated logarithm function. We also verify the Erdős-Rado conjecture for families F of bounded Littlestone dimension and for some geometrically defined set systems.

Cite as

Jacob Fox, János Pach, and Andrew Suk. Sunflowers in Set Systems of Bounded Dimension. In 37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 189, pp. 37:1-37:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{fox_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.37,
  author =	{Fox, Jacob and Pach, J\'{a}nos and Suk, Andrew},
  title =	{{Sunflowers in Set Systems of Bounded Dimension}},
  booktitle =	{37th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2021)},
  pages =	{37:1--37:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-184-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{189},
  editor =	{Buchin, Kevin and Colin de Verdi\`{e}re, \'{E}ric},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.37},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-138366},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2021.37},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sunflower, VC-dimension, Littlestone dimension, pseudodisks}
}
Document
Interactive Proofs for Verifying Machine Learning

Authors: Shafi Goldwasser, Guy N. Rothblum, Jonathan Shafer, and Amir Yehudayoff

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
We consider the following question: using a source of labeled data and interaction with an untrusted prover, what is the complexity of verifying that a given hypothesis is "approximately correct"? We study interactive proof systems for PAC verification, where a verifier that interacts with a prover is required to accept good hypotheses, and reject bad hypotheses. Both the verifier and the prover are efficient and have access to labeled data samples from an unknown distribution. We are interested in cases where the verifier can use significantly less data than is required for (agnostic) PAC learning, or use a substantially cheaper data source (e.g., using only random samples for verification, even though learning requires membership queries). We believe that today, when data and data-driven algorithms are quickly gaining prominence, the question of verifying purported outcomes of data analyses is very well-motivated. We show three main results. First, we prove that for a specific hypothesis class, verification is significantly cheaper than learning in terms of sample complexity, even if the verifier engages with the prover only in a single-round (NP-like) protocol. Moreover, for this class we prove that single-round verification is also significantly cheaper than testing closeness to the class. Second, for the broad class of Fourier-sparse boolean functions, we show a multi-round (IP-like) verification protocol, where the prover uses membership queries, and the verifier is able to assess the result while only using random samples. Third, we show that verification is not always more efficient. Namely, we show a class of functions where verification requires as many samples as learning does, up to a logarithmic factor.

Cite as

Shafi Goldwasser, Guy N. Rothblum, Jonathan Shafer, and Amir Yehudayoff. Interactive Proofs for Verifying Machine Learning. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 41:1-41:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{goldwasser_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.41,
  author =	{Goldwasser, Shafi and Rothblum, Guy N. and Shafer, Jonathan and Yehudayoff, Amir},
  title =	{{Interactive Proofs for Verifying Machine Learning}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{41:1--41:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.41},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135806},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.41},
  annote =	{Keywords: PAC learning, Fourier analysis of boolean functions, Complexity gaps, Complexity lower bounds, Goldreich-Levin algorithm, Kushilevitz-Mansour algorithm, Distribution testing}
}
Document
A Super-Quadratic Lower Bound for Depth Four Arithmetic Circuits

Authors: Nikhil Gupta, Chandan Saha, and Bhargav Thankey

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)


Abstract
We show an Ω̃(n^2.5) lower bound for general depth four arithmetic circuits computing an explicit n-variate degree-Θ(n) multilinear polynomial over any field of characteristic zero. To our knowledge, and as stated in the survey [Amir Shpilka and Amir Yehudayoff, 2010], no super-quadratic lower bound was known for depth four circuits over fields of characteristic ≠ 2 before this work. The previous best lower bound is Ω̃(n^1.5) [Abhijat Sharma, 2017], which is a slight quantitative improvement over the roughly Ω(n^1.33) bound obtained by invoking the super-linear lower bound for constant depth circuits in [Ran Raz, 2010; Victor Shoup and Roman Smolensky, 1997]. Our lower bound proof follows the approach of the almost cubic lower bound for depth three circuits in [Neeraj Kayal et al., 2016] by replacing the shifted partials measure with a suitable variant of the projected shifted partials measure, but it differs from [Neeraj Kayal et al., 2016]’s proof at a crucial step - namely, the way "heavy" product gates are handled. Loosely speaking, a heavy product gate has a relatively high fan-in. Product gates of a depth three circuit compute products of affine forms, and so, it is easy to prune Θ(n) many heavy product gates by projecting the circuit to a low-dimensional affine subspace [Neeraj Kayal et al., 2016; Amir Shpilka and Avi Wigderson, 2001]. However, in a depth four circuit, the second (from the top) layer of product gates compute products of polynomials having arbitrary degree, and hence it was not clear how to prune such heavy product gates from the circuit. We show that heavy product gates can also be eliminated from a depth four circuit by projecting the circuit to a low-dimensional affine subspace, unless the heavy gates together account for Ω̃(n^2.5) size. This part of our argument is inspired by a well-known greedy approximation algorithm for the weighted set-cover problem.

Cite as

Nikhil Gupta, Chandan Saha, and Bhargav Thankey. A Super-Quadratic Lower Bound for Depth Four Arithmetic Circuits. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 23:1-23:31, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{gupta_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.23,
  author =	{Gupta, Nikhil and Saha, Chandan and Thankey, Bhargav},
  title =	{{A Super-Quadratic Lower Bound for Depth Four Arithmetic Circuits}},
  booktitle =	{35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:31},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-156-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{169},
  editor =	{Saraf, Shubhangi},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125757},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: depth four arithmetic circuits, Projected Shifted Partials, super-quadratic lower bound}
}
Document
Equivalence of Systematic Linear Data Structures and Matrix Rigidity

Authors: Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy and Cyrus Rashtchian

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
Recently, Dvir, Golovnev, and Weinstein have shown that sufficiently strong lower bounds for linear data structures would imply new bounds for rigid matrices. However, their result utilizes an algorithm that requires an NP oracle, and hence, the rigid matrices are not explicit. In this work, we derive an equivalence between rigidity and the systematic linear model of data structures. For the n-dimensional inner product problem with m queries, we prove that lower bounds on the query time imply rigidity lower bounds for the query set itself. In particular, an explicit lower bound of ω(n/r log m) for r redundant storage bits would yield better rigidity parameters than the best bounds due to Alon, Panigrahy, and Yekhanin. We also prove a converse result, showing that rigid matrices directly correspond to hard query sets for the systematic linear model. As an application, we prove that the set of vectors obtained from rank one binary matrices is rigid with parameters matching the known results for explicit sets. This implies that the vector-matrix-vector problem requires query time Ω(n^(3/2)/r) for redundancy r ≥ √n in the systematic linear model, improving a result of Chakraborty, Kamma, and Larsen. Finally, we prove a cell probe lower bound for the vector-matrix-vector problem in the high error regime, improving a result of Chattopadhyay, Koucký, Loff, and Mukhopadhyay.

Cite as

Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy and Cyrus Rashtchian. Equivalence of Systematic Linear Data Structures and Matrix Rigidity. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 35:1-35:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{natarajanramamoorthy_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.35,
  author =	{Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Sivaramakrishnan and Rashtchian, Cyrus},
  title =	{{Equivalence of Systematic Linear Data Structures and Matrix Rigidity}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{35:1--35:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.35},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117204},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.35},
  annote =	{Keywords: matrix rigidity, systematic linear data structures, cell probe model, communication complexity}
}
Document
Trade-Offs in Distributed Interactive Proofs

Authors: Pierluigi Crescenzi, Pierre Fraigniaud, and Ami Paz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)


Abstract
The study of interactive proofs in the context of distributed network computing is a novel topic, recently introduced by Kol, Oshman, and Saxena [PODC 2018]. In the spirit of sequential interactive proofs theory, we study the power of distributed interactive proofs. This is achieved via a series of results establishing trade-offs between various parameters impacting the power of interactive proofs, including the number of interactions, the certificate size, the communication complexity, and the form of randomness used. Our results also connect distributed interactive proofs with the established field of distributed verification. In general, our results contribute to providing structure to the landscape of distributed interactive proofs.

Cite as

Pierluigi Crescenzi, Pierre Fraigniaud, and Ami Paz. Trade-Offs in Distributed Interactive Proofs. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 13:1-13:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{crescenzi_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.13,
  author =	{Crescenzi, Pierluigi and Fraigniaud, Pierre and Paz, Ami},
  title =	{{Trade-Offs in Distributed Interactive Proofs}},
  booktitle =	{33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-126-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{146},
  editor =	{Suomela, Jukka},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113202},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed interactive proofs, Distributed verification}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Lower Bounds on Balancing Sets and Depth-2 Threshold Circuits

Authors: Pavel Hrubeš, Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Anup Rao, and Amir Yehudayoff

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
There are various notions of balancing set families that appear in combinatorics and computer science. For example, a family of proper non-empty subsets S_1,...,S_k subset [n] is balancing if for every subset X subset {1,2,...,n} of size n/2, there is an i in [k] so that |S_i cap X| = |S_i|/2. We extend and simplify the framework developed by Hegedűs for proving lower bounds on the size of balancing set families. We prove that if n=2p for a prime p, then k >= p. For arbitrary values of n, we show that k >= n/2 - o(n). We then exploit the connection between balancing families and depth-2 threshold circuits. This connection helps resolve a question raised by Kulikov and Podolskii on the fan-in of depth-2 majority circuits computing the majority function on n bits. We show that any depth-2 threshold circuit that computes the majority on n bits has at least one gate with fan-in at least n/2 - o(n). We also prove a sharp lower bound on the fan-in of depth-2 threshold circuits computing a specific weighted threshold function.

Cite as

Pavel Hrubeš, Sivaramakrishnan Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Anup Rao, and Amir Yehudayoff. Lower Bounds on Balancing Sets and Depth-2 Threshold Circuits. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 72:1-72:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{hrubes_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.72,
  author =	{Hrube\v{s}, Pavel and Natarajan Ramamoorthy, Sivaramakrishnan and Rao, Anup and Yehudayoff, Amir},
  title =	{{Lower Bounds on Balancing Sets and Depth-2 Threshold Circuits}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{72:1--72:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.72},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106487},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.72},
  annote =	{Keywords: Balancing sets, depth-2 threshold circuits, polynomials, majority, weighted thresholds}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Towards Optimal Depth Reductions for Syntactically Multilinear Circuits

Authors: Mrinal Kumar, Rafael Oliveira, and Ramprasad Saptharishi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
We show that any n-variate polynomial computable by a syntactically multilinear circuit of size poly(n) can be computed by a depth-4 syntactically multilinear (Sigma Pi Sigma Pi) circuit of size at most exp ({O (sqrt{n log n})}). For degree d = omega(n/log n), this improves upon the upper bound of exp ({O(sqrt{d}log n)}) obtained by Tavenas [Sébastien Tavenas, 2015] for general circuits, and is known to be asymptotically optimal in the exponent when d < n^{epsilon} for a small enough constant epsilon. Our upper bound matches the lower bound of exp ({Omega (sqrt{n log n})}) proved by Raz and Yehudayoff [Ran Raz and Amir Yehudayoff, 2009], and thus cannot be improved further in the exponent. Our results hold over all fields and also generalize to circuits of small individual degree. More generally, we show that an n-variate polynomial computable by a syntactically multilinear circuit of size poly(n) can be computed by a syntactically multilinear circuit of product-depth Delta of size at most exp inparen{O inparen{Delta * (n/log n)^{1/Delta} * log n}}. It follows from the lower bounds of Raz and Yehudayoff [Ran Raz and Amir Yehudayoff, 2009] that in general, for constant Delta, the exponent in this upper bound is tight and cannot be improved to o inparen{inparen{n/log n}^{1/Delta}* log n}.

Cite as

Mrinal Kumar, Rafael Oliveira, and Ramprasad Saptharishi. Towards Optimal Depth Reductions for Syntactically Multilinear Circuits. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 78:1-78:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{kumar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.78,
  author =	{Kumar, Mrinal and Oliveira, Rafael and Saptharishi, Ramprasad},
  title =	{{Towards Optimal Depth Reductions for Syntactically Multilinear Circuits}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{78:1--78:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.78},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106548},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.78},
  annote =	{Keywords: arithmetic circuits, multilinear circuits, depth reduction, lower bounds}
}
Document
On Weak epsilon-Nets and the Radon Number

Authors: Shay Moran and Amir Yehudayoff

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)


Abstract
We show that the Radon number characterizes the existence of weak nets in separable convexity spaces (an abstraction of the Euclidean notion of convexity). The construction of weak nets when the Radon number is finite is based on Helly’s property and on metric properties of VC classes. The lower bound on the size of weak nets when the Radon number is large relies on the chromatic number of the Kneser graph. As an application, we prove an amplification result for weak epsilon-nets.

Cite as

Shay Moran and Amir Yehudayoff. On Weak epsilon-Nets and the Radon Number. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 51:1-51:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{moran_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.51,
  author =	{Moran, Shay and Yehudayoff, Amir},
  title =	{{On Weak epsilon-Nets and the Radon Number}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)},
  pages =	{51:1--51:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-104-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{129},
  editor =	{Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.51},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104551},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.51},
  annote =	{Keywords: abstract convexity, weak epsilon nets, Radon number, VC dimension, Haussler packing lemma, Kneser graphs}
}
Document
On the Communication Complexity of Key-Agreement Protocols

Authors: Iftach Haitner, Noam Mazor, Rotem Oshman, Omer Reingold, and Amir Yehudayoff

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)


Abstract
Key-agreement protocols whose security is proven in the random oracle model are an important alternative to protocols based on public-key cryptography. In the random oracle model, the parties and the eavesdropper have access to a shared random function (an "oracle"), but the parties are limited in the number of queries they can make to the oracle. The random oracle serves as an abstraction for black-box access to a symmetric cryptographic primitive, such as a collision resistant hash. Unfortunately, as shown by Impagliazzo and Rudich [STOC '89] and Barak and Mahmoody [Crypto '09], such protocols can only guarantee limited secrecy: the key of any l-query protocol can be revealed by an O(l^2)-query adversary. This quadratic gap between the query complexity of the honest parties and the eavesdropper matches the gap obtained by the Merkle's Puzzles protocol of Merkle [CACM '78]. In this work we tackle a new aspect of key-agreement protocols in the random oracle model: their communication complexity. In Merkle's Puzzles, to obtain secrecy against an eavesdropper that makes roughly l^2 queries, the honest parties need to exchange Omega(l) bits. We show that for protocols with certain natural properties, ones that Merkle's Puzzle has, such high communication is unavoidable. Specifically, this is the case if the honest parties' queries are uniformly random, or alternatively if the protocol uses non-adaptive queries and has only two rounds. Our proof for the first setting uses a novel reduction from the set-disjointness problem in two-party communication complexity. For the second setting we prove the lower bound directly, using information-theoretic arguments. Understanding the communication complexity of protocols whose security is proven (in the random-oracle model) is an important question in the study of practical protocols. Our results and proof techniques are a first step in this direction.

Cite as

Iftach Haitner, Noam Mazor, Rotem Oshman, Omer Reingold, and Amir Yehudayoff. On the Communication Complexity of Key-Agreement Protocols. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 40:1-40:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{haitner_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.40,
  author =	{Haitner, Iftach and Mazor, Noam and Oshman, Rotem and Reingold, Omer and Yehudayoff, Amir},
  title =	{{On the Communication Complexity of Key-Agreement Protocols}},
  booktitle =	{10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)},
  pages =	{40:1--40:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-095-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{124},
  editor =	{Blum, Avrim},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.40},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101335},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.40},
  annote =	{Keywords: key agreement, random oracle, communication complexity, Merkle's puzzles}
}
Document
On Isoperimetric Profiles and Computational Complexity

Authors: Pavel Hrubes and Amir Yehudayoff

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)


Abstract
The isoperimetric profile of a graph is a function that measures, for an integer k, the size of the smallest edge boundary over all sets of vertices of size k. We observe a connection between isoperimetric profiles and computational complexity. We illustrate this connection by an example from communication complexity, but our main result is in algebraic complexity. We prove a sharp super-polynomial separation between monotone arithmetic circuits and monotone arithmetic branching programs. This shows that the classical simulation of arithmetic circuits by arithmetic branching programs by Valiant, Skyum, Berkowitz, and Rackoff (1983) cannot be improved, as long as it preserves monotonicity. A key ingredient in the proof is an accurate analysis of the isoperimetric profile of finite full binary trees. We show that the isoperimetric profile of a full binary tree constantly fluctuates between one and almost the depth of the tree.

Cite as

Pavel Hrubes and Amir Yehudayoff. On Isoperimetric Profiles and Computational Complexity. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 89:1-89:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{hrubes_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.89,
  author =	{Hrubes, Pavel and Yehudayoff, Amir},
  title =	{{On Isoperimetric Profiles and Computational Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)},
  pages =	{89:1--89:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-013-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.89},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-61964},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.89},
  annote =	{Keywords: Monotone computation, separations, communication complexity, isoperimetry}
}
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