15 Search Results for "Goldberg, Andrew V."


Document
Practical Minimum Path Cover

Authors: Manuel Cáceres, Brendan Mumey, Santeri Toivonen, and Alexandru I. Tomescu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
Computing a minimum path cover (MPC) of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) is a fundamental problem with a myriad of applications, including reachability. Although it is known how to solve the problem by a simple reduction to minimum flow, recent theoretical advances exploit this idea to obtain algorithms parameterized by the number of paths of an MPC, known as the width. These results obtain fast [Mäkinen et al., TALG 2019] and even linear time [Cáceres et al., SODA 2022] algorithms in the small-width regime. In this paper, we present the first publicly available high-performance implementation of state-of-the-art MPC algorithms, including the parameterized approaches. Our experiments on random DAGs show that parameterized algorithms are orders-of-magnitude faster on dense graphs. Additionally, we present new fast pre-processing heuristics based on transitive edge sparsification. We show that our heuristics improve MPC-solvers by orders of magnitude.

Cite as

Manuel Cáceres, Brendan Mumey, Santeri Toivonen, and Alexandru I. Tomescu. Practical Minimum Path Cover. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 3:1-3:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{caceres_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.3,
  author =	{C\'{a}ceres, Manuel and Mumey, Brendan and Toivonen, Santeri and Tomescu, Alexandru I.},
  title =	{{Practical Minimum Path Cover}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203687},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: minimum path cover, directed acyclic graph, maximum flow, parameterized algorithms, edge sparsification, algorithm engineering}
}
Document
Faster Treewidth-Based Approximations for Wiener Index

Authors: Giovanna Kobus Conrado, Amir Kafshdar Goharshady, Pavel Hudec, Pingjiang Li, and Harshit Jitendra Motwani

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
The Wiener index of a graph G is the sum of distances between all pairs of its vertices. It is a widely-used graph property in chemistry, initially introduced to examine the link between boiling points and structural properties of alkanes, which later found notable applications in drug design. Thus, computing or approximating the Wiener index of molecular graphs, i.e. graphs in which every vertex models an atom of a molecule and every edge models a bond, is of significant interest to the computational chemistry community. In this work, we build upon the observation that molecular graphs are sparse and tree-like and focus on developing efficient algorithms parameterized by treewidth to approximate the Wiener index. We present a new randomized approximation algorithm using a combination of tree decompositions and centroid decompositions. Our algorithm approximates the Wiener index within any desired multiplicative factor (1 ± ε) in time O(n ⋅ log n ⋅ k³ + √n ⋅ k/ε²), where n is the number of vertices of the graph and k is the treewidth. This time bound is almost-linear in n. Finally, we provide experimental results over standard benchmark molecules from PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, showcasing the applicability and scalability of our approach on real-world chemical graphs and comparing it with previous methods.

Cite as

Giovanna Kobus Conrado, Amir Kafshdar Goharshady, Pavel Hudec, Pingjiang Li, and Harshit Jitendra Motwani. Faster Treewidth-Based Approximations for Wiener Index. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 6:1-6:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{conrado_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.6,
  author =	{Conrado, Giovanna Kobus and Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar and Hudec, Pavel and Li, Pingjiang and Motwani, Harshit Jitendra},
  title =	{{Faster Treewidth-Based Approximations for Wiener Index}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203718},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Computational Chemistry, Treewidth, Wiener Index}
}
Document
Determining Fixed-Length Paths in Directed and Undirected Edge-Weighted Graphs

Authors: Daniel Hambly, Rhyd Lewis, and Padraig Corcoran

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
In this paper, we examine the NP-hard problem of identifying fixed-length s-t paths in edge-weighted graphs - that is, a path of a desired length k from a source vertex s to a target vertex t. Many existing strategies look at paths whose lengths are determined by the number of edges in the path. We, however, look at the length of the path as the sum of the edge weights. Here, three exact algorithms for this problem are proposed: the first based on an integer programming (IP) formulation, the second a backtracking algorithm, and the third based on an extension of Yen’s algorithm. Analysis of these algorithms on random graphs shows that the backtracking algorithm performs best on smaller values of k, whilst the IP is preferable for larger values of k.

Cite as

Daniel Hambly, Rhyd Lewis, and Padraig Corcoran. Determining Fixed-Length Paths in Directed and Undirected Edge-Weighted Graphs. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 15:1-15:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{hambly_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.15,
  author =	{Hambly, Daniel and Lewis, Rhyd and Corcoran, Padraig},
  title =	{{Determining Fixed-Length Paths in Directed and Undirected Edge-Weighted Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203805},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graphs, paths, backtracking, integer programming, Yen’s algorithm}
}
Document
Targeted Branching for the Maximum Independent Set Problem Using Graph Neural Networks

Authors: Kenneth Langedal, Demian Hespe, and Peter Sanders

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
Identifying a maximum independent set is a fundamental NP-hard problem. This problem has several real-world applications and requires finding the largest possible set of vertices not adjacent to each other in an undirected graph. Over the past few years, branch-and-bound and branch-and-reduce algorithms have emerged as some of the most effective methods for solving the problem exactly. Specifically, the branch-and-reduce approach, which combines branch-and-bound principles with reduction rules, has proven particularly successful in tackling previously unmanageable real-world instances. This progress was largely made possible by the development of more effective reduction rules. Nevertheless, other key components that can impact the efficiency of these algorithms have not received the same level of interest. Among these is the branching strategy, which determines which vertex to branch on next. Until recently, the most widely used strategy was to choose the vertex of the highest degree. In this work, we present a graph neural network approach for selecting the next branching vertex. The intricate nature of current branch-and-bound solvers makes supervised and reinforcement learning difficult. Therefore, we use a population-based genetic algorithm to evolve the model’s parameters instead. Our proposed approach results in a speedup on 73% of the benchmark instances with a median speedup of 24%.

Cite as

Kenneth Langedal, Demian Hespe, and Peter Sanders. Targeted Branching for the Maximum Independent Set Problem Using Graph Neural Networks. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 20:1-20:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{langedal_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.20,
  author =	{Langedal, Kenneth and Hespe, Demian and Sanders, Peter},
  title =	{{Targeted Branching for the Maximum Independent Set Problem Using Graph Neural Networks}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203853},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graphs, Independent Set, Vertex Cover, Graph Neural Networks, Branch-and-Reduce}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement

Authors: Li Chen and Mingquan Ye

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The multicommodity flow problem is a classic problem in network flow and combinatorial optimization, with applications in transportation, communication, logistics, and supply chain management, etc. Existing algorithms often focus on low-accuracy approximate solutions, while high-accuracy algorithms typically rely on general linear program solvers. In this paper, we present efficient high-accuracy algorithms for a broad family of multicommodity flow problems on undirected graphs, demonstrating improved running times compared to general linear program solvers. Our main result shows that we can solve the 𝓁_{q, p}-norm multicommodity flow problem to a (1 + ε) approximation in time O_{q, p}(m^{1+o(1)} k² log(1/ε)), where k is the number of commodities, and O_{q, p}(⋅) hides constants depending only on q or p. As q and p approach to 1 and ∞ respectively, 𝓁_{q, p}-norm flow tends to maximum concurrent flow. We introduce the first iterative refinement framework for 𝓁_{q, p}-norm minimization problems, which reduces the problem to solving a series of decomposable residual problems. In the case of k-commodity flow, each residual problem can be decomposed into k single commodity convex flow problems, each of which can be solved in almost-linear time. As many classical variants of multicommodity flows were shown to be complete for linear programs in the high-accuracy regime [Ding-Kyng-Zhang, ICALP'22], our result provides new directions for studying more efficient high-accuracy multicommodity flow algorithms.

Cite as

Li Chen and Mingquan Ye. High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 45:1-45:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45,
  author =	{Chen, Li and Ye, Mingquan},
  title =	{{High-Accuracy Multicommodity Flows via Iterative Refinement}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{45:1--45:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201887},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.45},
  annote =	{Keywords: High-accuracy multicommodity flow, Iterative refinement framework, Convex flow solver}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Nearly Optimal Independence Oracle Algorithms for Edge Estimation in Hypergraphs

Authors: Holger Dell, John Lapinskas, and Kitty Meeks

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Consider a query model of computation in which an n-vertex k-hypergraph can be accessed only via its independence oracle or via its colourful independence oracle, and each oracle query may incur a cost depending on the size of the query. Several recent results (Dell and Lapinskas, STOC 2018; Dell, Lapinskas, and Meeks, SODA 2020) give efficient algorithms to approximately count the hypergraph’s edges in the colourful setting. These algorithms immediately imply fine-grained reductions from approximate counting to decision, with overhead only log^Θ(k) n over the running time n^α of the original decision algorithm, for many well-studied problems including k-Orthogonal Vectors, k-SUM, subgraph isomorphism problems including k-Clique and colourful-H, graph motifs, and k-variable first-order model checking. We explore the limits of what is achievable in this setting, obtaining unconditional lower bounds on the oracle cost of algorithms to approximately count the hypergraph’s edges in both the colourful and uncoloured settings. In both settings, we also obtain algorithms which essentially match these lower bounds; in the colourful setting, this requires significant changes to the algorithm of Dell, Lapinskas, and Meeks (SODA 2020) and reduces the total overhead to log^{Θ(k-α)}n. Our lower bound for the uncoloured setting shows that there is no fine-grained reduction from approximate counting to the corresponding uncoloured decision problem (except in the case α ≥ k-1): without an algorithm for the colourful decision problem, we cannot hope to avoid the much larger overhead of roughly n^{(k-α)²/4}. The uncoloured setting has previously been studied for the special case k = 2 (Peled, Ramamoorthy, Rashtchian, Sinha, ITCS 2018; Chen, Levi, and Waingarten, SODA 2020), and our work generalises the existing algorithms and lower bounds for this special case to k > 2 and to oracles with cost.

Cite as

Holger Dell, John Lapinskas, and Kitty Meeks. Nearly Optimal Independence Oracle Algorithms for Edge Estimation in Hypergraphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 54:1-54:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{dell_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.54,
  author =	{Dell, Holger and Lapinskas, John and Meeks, Kitty},
  title =	{{Nearly Optimal Independence Oracle Algorithms for Edge Estimation in Hypergraphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{54:1--54:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.54},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201977},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.54},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph oracles, Fine-grained complexity, Approximate counting, Hypergraphs}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths

Authors: Greg Bodwin, Chengyuan Deng, Jie Gao, Gary Hoppenworth, Jalaj Upadhyay, and Chen Wang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
The hereditary discrepancy of a set system is a quantitative measure of the pseudorandom properties of the system. Roughly speaking, hereditary discrepancy measures how well one can 2-color the elements of the system so that each set contains approximately the same number of elements of each color. Hereditary discrepancy has numerous applications in computational geometry, communication complexity and derandomization. More recently, the hereditary discrepancy of the set system of shortest paths has found applications in differential privacy [Chen et al. SODA 23]. The contribution of this paper is to improve the upper and lower bounds on the hereditary discrepancy of set systems of unique shortest paths in graphs. In particular, we show that any system of unique shortest paths in an undirected weighted graph has hereditary discrepancy O(n^{1/4}), and we construct lower bound examples demonstrating that this bound is tight up to polylog n factors. Our lower bounds hold even for planar graphs and bipartite graphs, and improve a previous lower bound of Ω(n^{1/6}) obtained by applying the trace bound of Chazelle and Lvov [SoCG'00] to a classical point-line system of Erdős. As applications, we improve the lower bound on the additive error for differentially-private all pairs shortest distances from Ω(n^{1/6}) [Chen et al. SODA 23] to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), and we improve the lower bound on additive error for the differentially-private all sets range queries problem to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), which is tight up to polylog n factors [Deng et al. WADS 23].

Cite as

Greg Bodwin, Chengyuan Deng, Jie Gao, Gary Hoppenworth, Jalaj Upadhyay, and Chen Wang. The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 27:1-27:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bodwin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27,
  author =	{Bodwin, Greg and Deng, Chengyuan and Gao, Jie and Hoppenworth, Gary and Upadhyay, Jalaj and Wang, Chen},
  title =	{{The Discrepancy of Shortest Paths}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201705},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Discrepancy, hereditary discrepancy, shortest paths, differential privacy}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Streaming Algorithms for Connectivity Augmentation

Authors: Ce Jin, Michael Kapralov, Sepideh Mahabadi, and Ali Vakilian

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We study the k-connectivity augmentation problem (k-CAP) in the single-pass streaming model. Given a (k-1)-edge connected graph G = (V,E) that is stored in memory, and a stream of weighted edges (also called links) L with weights in {0,1,… ,W}, the goal is to choose a minimum weight subset L' ⊆ L of the links such that G' = (V,E∪ L') is k-edge connected. We give a (2+ε)-approximation algorithm for this problem which requires to store O(ε^{-1} nlog n) words. Moreover, we show the tightness of our result: Any algorithm with better than 2-approximation for the problem requires Ω(n²) bits of space even when k = 2. This establishes a gap between the optimal approximation factor one can obtain in the streaming vs the offline setting for k-CAP. We further consider a natural generalization to the fully streaming model where both E and L arrive in the stream in an arbitrary order. We show that this problem has a space lower bound that matches the best possible size of a spanner of the same approximation ratio. Following this, we give improved results for spanners on weighted graphs: We show a streaming algorithm that finds a (2t-1+ε)-approximate weighted spanner of size at most O(ε^{-1} n^{1+1/t}log n) for integer t, whereas the best prior streaming algorithm for spanner on weighted graphs had size depending on log W. We believe that this result is of independent interest. Using our spanner result, we provide an optimal O(t)-approximation for k-CAP in the fully streaming model with O(nk + n^{1+1/t}) words of space. Finally we apply our results to network design problems such as Steiner tree augmentation problem (STAP), k-edge connected spanning subgraph (k-ECSS) and the general Survivable Network Design problem (SNDP). In particular, we show a single-pass O(tlog k)-approximation for SNDP using O(kn^{1+1/t}) words of space, where k is the maximum connectivity requirement.

Cite as

Ce Jin, Michael Kapralov, Sepideh Mahabadi, and Ali Vakilian. Streaming Algorithms for Connectivity Augmentation. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 93:1-93:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.93,
  author =	{Jin, Ce and Kapralov, Michael and Mahabadi, Sepideh and Vakilian, Ali},
  title =	{{Streaming Algorithms for Connectivity Augmentation}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{93:1--93:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.93},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202367},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.93},
  annote =	{Keywords: streaming algorithms, connectivity augmentation}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch

Authors: Tsvi Kopelowitz, Ariel Korin, and Liam Roditty

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
For an undirected unweighted graph G = (V,E) with n vertices and m edges, let d(u,v) denote the distance from u ∈ V to v ∈ V in G. An (α,β)-stretch approximate distance oracle (ADO) for G is a data structure that given u,v ∈ V returns in constant (or near constant) time a value dˆ(u,v) such that d(u,v) ≤ dˆ(u,v) ≤ α⋅ d(u,v) + β, for some reals α > 1, β. Thorup and Zwick [Mikkel Thorup and Uri Zwick, 2005] showed that one cannot beat stretch 3 with subquadratic space (in terms of n) for general graphs. Pǎtraşcu and Roditty [Mihai Pǎtraşcu and Liam Roditty, 2010] showed that one can obtain stretch 2 using O(m^{1/3}n^{4/3}) space, and so if m is subquadratic in n then the space usage is also subquadratic. Moreover, Pǎtraşcu and Roditty [Mihai Pǎtraşcu and Liam Roditty, 2010] showed that one cannot beat stretch 2 with subquadratic space even for graphs where m = Õ(n), based on the set-intersection hypothesis. In this paper we explore the conditions for which an ADO can beat stretch 2 while using subquadratic space. In particular, we show that if the maximum degree in G is Δ_G ≤ O(n^{1/k-ε}) for some 0 < ε ≤ 1/k, then there exists an ADO for G that uses Õ(n^{2-(kε)/3) space and has a (2,1-k)-stretch. For k = 2 this result implies a subquadratic sub-2 stretch ADO for graphs with Δ_G ≤ O(n^{1/2-ε}). Moreover, we prove a conditional lower bound, based on the set intersection hypothesis, which states that for any positive integer k ≤ log n, obtaining a sub-(k+2)/k stretch for graphs with Δ_G = Θ(n^{1/k}) requires Ω̃(n²) space. Thus, for graphs with maximum degree Θ(n^{1/2}), obtaining a sub-2 stretch requires Ω̃(n²) space.

Cite as

Tsvi Kopelowitz, Ariel Korin, and Liam Roditty. On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 101:1-101:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{kopelowitz_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101,
  author =	{Kopelowitz, Tsvi and Korin, Ariel and Roditty, Liam},
  title =	{{On the Space Usage of Approximate Distance Oracles with Sub-2 Stretch}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{101:1--101:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202443},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.101},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph algorithms, Approximate distance oracle, data structures, shortest path}
}
Document
Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming
Smoothed Analysis of Deterministic Discounted and Mean-Payoff Games

Authors: Bruno Loff and Mateusz Skomra

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We devise a policy-iteration algorithm for deterministic two-player discounted and mean-payoff games, that runs in polynomial time with high probability, on any input where each payoff is chosen independently from a sufficiently random distribution and the underlying graph of the game is ergodic. This includes the case where an arbitrary set of payoffs has been perturbed by a Gaussian, showing for the first time that deterministic two-player games can be solved efficiently, in the sense of smoothed analysis. More generally, we devise a condition number for deterministic discounted and mean-payoff games played on ergodic graphs, and show that our algorithm runs in time polynomial in this condition number. Our result confirms a previous conjecture of Boros et al., which was claimed as a theorem [Boros et al., 2011] and later retracted [Boros et al., 2018]. It stands in contrast with a recent counter-example by Christ and Yannakakis [Christ and Yannakakis, 2023], showing that Howard’s policy-iteration algorithm does not run in smoothed polynomial time on stochastic single-player mean-payoff games. Our approach is inspired by the analysis of random optimal assignment instances by Frieze and Sorkin [Frieze and Sorkin, 2007], and the analysis of bias-induced policies for mean-payoff games by Akian, Gaubert and Hochart [Akian et al., 2018].

Cite as

Bruno Loff and Mateusz Skomra. Smoothed Analysis of Deterministic Discounted and Mean-Payoff Games. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 147:1-147:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{loff_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.147,
  author =	{Loff, Bruno and Skomra, Mateusz},
  title =	{{Smoothed Analysis of Deterministic Discounted and Mean-Payoff Games}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{147:1--147:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.147},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202908},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.147},
  annote =	{Keywords: Mean-payoff games, discounted games, policy iteration, smoothed analysis}
}
Document
A Local Search Algorithm for Large Maximum Weight Independent Set Problems

Authors: Yuanyuan Dong, Andrew V. Goldberg, Alexander Noe, Nikos Parotsidis, Mauricio G.C. Resende, and Quico Spaen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)


Abstract
Motivated by a real-world vehicle routing application, we consider the maximum-weight independent set problem: Given a node-weighted graph, find a set of independent (mutually nonadjacent) nodes whose node-weight sum is maximum. Some of the graphs arising in the vehicle routing application are large, having hundreds of thousands of nodes and hundreds of millions of edges. To solve instances of this size, we develop a new local search algorithm, which is a metaheuristic based on the greedy randomized adaptive search (GRASP) framework. This algorithm, named METAMIS, uses a wider range of simple local search operations than previously described in the literature. We introduce data structures that make these operations efficient. A new variant of path-relinking is introduced to escape local optima and so is a new alternating augmenting-path local search move that improves algorithm performance. We compare an implementation of our algorithm with a state-of-the-art publicly available code on public benchmark sets, including some large instances. Our algorithm is, in general, competitive and outperforms this openly available code on large vehicle routing instances of the maximum weight independent set problem. We hope that our results will lead to even better maximum-weight independent set algorithms.

Cite as

Yuanyuan Dong, Andrew V. Goldberg, Alexander Noe, Nikos Parotsidis, Mauricio G.C. Resende, and Quico Spaen. A Local Search Algorithm for Large Maximum Weight Independent Set Problems. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{dong_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.45,
  author =	{Dong, Yuanyuan and Goldberg, Andrew V. and Noe, Alexander and Parotsidis, Nikos and Resende, Mauricio G.C. and Spaen, Quico},
  title =	{{A Local Search Algorithm for Large Maximum Weight Independent Set Problems}},
  booktitle =	{30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)},
  pages =	{45:1--45:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-247-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{244},
  editor =	{Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.45},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-169839},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.45},
  annote =	{Keywords: GRASP, local search, maximum-weight independent set, path-relinking, heuristic, metaheuristic}
}
Document
Efficient Algorithms for Geometric Partial Matching

Authors: Pankaj K. Agarwal, Hsien-Chih Chang, and Allen Xiao

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)


Abstract
Let A and B be two point sets in the plane of sizes r and n respectively (assume r <= n), and let k be a parameter. A matching between A and B is a family of pairs in A x B so that any point of A cup B appears in at most one pair. Given two positive integers p and q, we define the cost of matching M to be c(M) = sum_{(a, b) in M}||a-b||_p^q where ||*||_p is the L_p-norm. The geometric partial matching problem asks to find the minimum-cost size-k matching between A and B. We present efficient algorithms for geometric partial matching problem that work for any powers of L_p-norm matching objective: An exact algorithm that runs in O((n + k^2)polylog n) time, and a (1 + epsilon)-approximation algorithm that runs in O((n + k sqrt{k})polylog n * log epsilon^{-1}) time. Both algorithms are based on the primal-dual flow augmentation scheme; the main improvements involve using dynamic data structures to achieve efficient flow augmentations. With similar techniques, we give an exact algorithm for the planar transportation problem running in O(min{n^2, rn^{3/2}}polylog n) time.

Cite as

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Hsien-Chih Chang, and Allen Xiao. Efficient Algorithms for Geometric Partial Matching. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 6:1-6:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.6,
  author =	{Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Chang, Hsien-Chih and Xiao, Allen},
  title =	{{Efficient Algorithms for Geometric Partial Matching}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-104-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{129},
  editor =	{Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104109},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: partial matching, transportation, optimal transport, minimum-cost flow, bichromatic closest pair}
}
Document
Minimum Cost Flows in Graphs with Unit Capacities

Authors: Andrew V. Goldberg, Haim Kaplan, Sagi Hed, and Robert E. Tarjan

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 30, 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)


Abstract
We consider the minimum cost flow problem on graphs with unit capacities and its special cases. In previous studies, special purpose algorithms exploiting the fact that capacities are one have been developed. In contrast, for maximum flow with unit capacities, the best bounds are proven for slight modifications of classical blocking flow and push-relabel algorithms. In this paper we show that the classical cost scaling algorithms of Goldberg and Tarjan (for general integer capacities) applied to a problem with unit capacities achieve or improve the best known bounds. For weighted bipartite matching we establish a bound of O(\sqrt{rm}\log C) on a slight variation of this algorithm. Here r is the size of the smaller side of the bipartite graph, m is the number of edges, and C is the largest absolute value of an arc-cost. This simplifies a result of [Duan et al. 2011] and improves the bound, answering an open question of [Tarjan and Ramshaw 2012]. For graphs with unit vertex capacities we establish a novel O(\sqrt{n}m\log(nC)) bound. We also give the first cycle canceling algorithm for minimum cost flow with unit capacities. The algorithm naturally generalizes the single source shortest path algorithm of [Goldberg 1995].

Cite as

Andrew V. Goldberg, Haim Kaplan, Sagi Hed, and Robert E. Tarjan. Minimum Cost Flows in Graphs with Unit Capacities. In 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 30, pp. 406-419, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)


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@InProceedings{goldberg_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2015.406,
  author =	{Goldberg, Andrew V. and Kaplan, Haim and Hed, Sagi and Tarjan, Robert E.},
  title =	{{Minimum Cost Flows in Graphs with Unit Capacities}},
  booktitle =	{32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)},
  pages =	{406--419},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-78-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2015},
  volume =	{30},
  editor =	{Mayr, Ernst W. and Ollinger, Nicolas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.406},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49304},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.406},
  annote =	{Keywords: minimum cost flow, bipartite matching, unit capacity, cost scaling}
}
Document
Algorithm Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 13391)

Authors: Andrew V. Goldberg, Giuseppe F. Italiano, David S. Johnson, and Dorothea Wagner

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 3, Issue 9 (2014)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 13391 "Algorithm Engineering". The algorithm engineering approach consists of a cycle of algorithm design, analysis, implementation, and experimental evaluation, with the aim of bridging the gap between theory and practice in the area of algorithms. This cycle of phases is driven by falsifiable hypotheses validated by experiments. Moreover, real-world instances often have direct impact on this cycle since they often expose modeling and analysis shortcomings. Algorithm engineering touches other research areas such as algorithm theory, combinatorial optimization, computer architecture, parallel and distributed computing, high-performance computing, and operations research. Prominent success stories in algorithm engineering include the linear program solver CPLEX, the traveling salesman suite CONCORDE, speed-up techniques for shortest paths computation, for example, in route planning, as well as graph partitioning and the computation of Steiner trees. All these topics are driven by the need for efficient algorithms and libraries for problems that appear frequently in real-world applications. In the last fifteen years, this approach to algorithmic research has gained increasing attention. There is an ACM Journal on Experimental Algorithmics and several annual conferences (WAE/ESA applied track since 1997, Alenex since 1998, and WEA/SEA since 2001) and the series of DIMACS implementation challenges where people meet to compare implementations for a specific problem. From 2007 to 2013 the German Research Foundation also funded a special priority program on algorithm engineering (DFG SPP 1307).

Cite as

Andrew V. Goldberg, Giuseppe F. Italiano, David S. Johnson, and Dorothea Wagner. Algorithm Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 13391). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 3, Issue 9, pp. 169-189, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)


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@Article{goldberg_et_al:DagRep.3.9.169,
  author =	{Goldberg, Andrew V. and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Johnson, David S. and Wagner, Dorothea},
  title =	{{Algorithm Engineering (Dagstuhl Seminar 13391)}},
  pages =	{169--189},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2014},
  volume =	{3},
  number =	{9},
  editor =	{Goldberg, Andrew V. and Italiano, Giuseppe F. and Johnson, David S. and Wagner, Dorothea},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.3.9.169},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-44214},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.3.9.169},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algorithm Engineering, Science of Algorithmics, Manycore Algorithms, Certifying Algorithms, Web Search, Large Graphs}
}
Document
Faster Batched Shortest Paths in Road Networks

Authors: Daniel Delling, Andrew V. Goldberg, and Renato F. Werneck

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 20, 11th Workshop on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems (2011)


Abstract
We study the problem of computing batched shortest paths in road networks efficiently. Our focus is on computing paths from a single source to multiple targets (one-to-many queries). We perform a comprehensive experimental comparison of several approaches, including new ones. We conclude that a new extension of PHAST (a recent one-to-all algorithm), called RPHAST, has the best performance in most cases, often by orders of magnitude. When used to compute distance tables (many-to-many queries), RPHAST often outperforms all previous approaches.

Cite as

Daniel Delling, Andrew V. Goldberg, and Renato F. Werneck. Faster Batched Shortest Paths in Road Networks. In 11th Workshop on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems. Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 20, pp. 52-63, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)


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@InProceedings{delling_et_al:OASIcs.ATMOS.2011.52,
  author =	{Delling, Daniel and Goldberg, Andrew V. and Werneck, Renato F.},
  title =	{{Faster Batched Shortest Paths in Road Networks}},
  booktitle =	{11th Workshop on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems},
  pages =	{52--63},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-939897-33-0},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2011},
  volume =	{20},
  editor =	{Caprara, Alberto and Kontogiannis, Spyros},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.ATMOS.2011.52},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-32663},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.ATMOS.2011.52},
  annote =	{Keywords: shortest paths, contraction hierarchies, many-to-many, one-to-many}
}
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