31 Search Results for "Ghaffari, Mohsen"


Document
Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy

Authors: Sepehr Assadi, Prantar Ghosh, Bruno Loff, Parth Mittal, and Sagnik Mukhopadhyay

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
The following question arises naturally in the study of graph streaming algorithms: Is there any graph problem which is "not too hard", in that it can be solved efficiently with total communication (nearly) linear in the number n of vertices, and for which, nonetheless, any streaming algorithm with Õ(n) space (i.e., a semi-streaming algorithm) needs a polynomial n^Ω(1) number of passes? Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [STOC 2019] were the first to prove that this is indeed the case. However, the lower bounds that they obtained are for rather non-standard graph problems. Our first main contribution is to present the first polynomial-pass lower bounds for natural "not too hard" graph problems studied previously in the streaming model: k-cores and degeneracy. We devise a novel communication protocol for both problems with near-linear communication, thus showing that k-cores and degeneracy are natural examples of "not too hard" problems. Indeed, previous work have developed single-pass semi-streaming algorithms for approximating these problems. In contrast, we prove that any semi-streaming algorithm for exactly solving these problems requires (almost) Ω(n^{1/3}) passes. The lower bound follows by a reduction from a generalization of the hidden pointer chasing (HPC) problem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna, which is also the basis of their earlier semi-streaming lower bounds. Our second main contribution is improved round-communication lower bounds for the underlying communication problems at the basis of these reductions: - We improve the previous lower bound of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna for HPC to achieve optimal bounds for this problem. - We further observe that all current reductions from HPC can also work with a generalized version of this problem that we call MultiHPC, and prove an even stronger and optimal lower bound for this generalization. These two results collectively allow us to improve the resulting pass lower bounds for semi-streaming algorithms by a polynomial factor, namely, from n^{1/5} to n^{1/3} passes.

Cite as

Sepehr Assadi, Prantar Ghosh, Bruno Loff, Parth Mittal, and Sagnik Mukhopadhyay. Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7,
  author =	{Assadi, Sepehr and Ghosh, Prantar and Loff, Bruno and Mittal, Parth and Mukhopadhyay, Sagnik},
  title =	{{Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204035},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph streaming, Lower bounds, Communication complexity, k-Cores and degeneracy}
}
Document
Streaming Matching and Edge Cover in Practice

Authors: S M Ferdous, Alex Pothen, and Mahantesh Halappanavar

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
Graph algorithms with polynomial space and time requirements often become infeasible for massive graphs with billions of edges or more. State-of-the-art approaches therefore employ approximate serial, parallel, and distributed algorithms to tackle these challenges. However, such approaches require storing the entire graph in memory and thus need access to costly computing resources such as clusters and supercomputers. In this paper, we present practical streaming approaches for solving massive graph problems using limited memory for two prototypical graph problems: maximum weighted matching and minimum weighted edge cover. For matching, we conduct a thorough computational study on two of the semi-streaming algorithms including a recent breakthrough result that achieves a 1/(2+ε)-approximation of the weight while using O(n log W /ε) memory (here n is the number of vertices and W is the maximum edge weight), designed by Paz and Schwartzman [SODA, 2017]. Empirically, we show that the semi-streaming algorithms produce matchings whose weight is close to the best 1/2-approximate offline algorithm while requiring less time and an order-of-magnitude less memory. For minimum weighted edge cover, we develop three novel semi-streaming algorithms. Two of these algorithms require a single pass through the input graph, require O(n log n) memory, and provide a 2-approximation guarantee on the objective. We also leverage a relationship between approximate maximum weighted matching and approximate minimum weighted edge cover to develop a two-pass 3/2+ε-approximate algorithm with the memory requirement of Paz and Schwartzman’s semi-streaming matching algorithm. These streaming approaches are compared against the state-of-the-art 3/2-approximate offline algorithm. The semi-streaming matching and the novel edge cover algorithms proposed in this paper can process graphs with several billions of edges in under 30 minutes using 6 GB of memory, which is at least an order of magnitude improvement from the offline (non-streaming) algorithms. For the largest graph, the best alternative offline parallel approximation algorithm (GPA+ROMA) could not finish in three hours even while employing hundreds of processors and 1 TB of memory. We also demonstrate an application of semi-streaming algorithm by computing a matching using linearly bounded memory on intersection graphs derived from three machine learning datasets, while the existing offline algorithms could not complete on one of these datasets since its memory requirement exceeded 1TB.

Cite as

S M Ferdous, Alex Pothen, and Mahantesh Halappanavar. Streaming Matching and Edge Cover in Practice. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 12:1-12:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{ferdous_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.12,
  author =	{Ferdous, S M and Pothen, Alex and Halappanavar, Mahantesh},
  title =	{{Streaming Matching and Edge Cover in Practice}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203773},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Matching, Edge Cover, Semi-Streaming Algorithm, Parallel Algorithms, Algorithm Engineering}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Path-Reporting Distance Oracles with Logarithmic Stretch and Linear Size

Authors: Shiri Chechik and Tianyi Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Given an undirected graph G = (V, E, 𝐰) on n vertices with positive edge weights, a distance oracle is a space-efficient data structure that answers pairwise distance queries in fast runtime. The quality of a distance oracle is measured by three parameters: space, query time, and stretch. In a landmark paper by [Thorup and Zwick, 2001], they showed that for any integer parameter k ≥ 1, there exists a distance oracle with size O(kn^{1+1/k}), O(k) query time, and (2k-1)-stretch error on the approximate distances. After that, there has been a line of subsequent improvements which culminated in the optimal trade-off of O(n^{1+1/k}) space, O(1) query time, and (2k-1)-stretch [Chechik, 2015]. However, these line of constructions did not require that the distance oracle is capable of printing an actual path besides an approximate distance estimate, and there has been a performance gap between path-reporting distance oracles and ones that are not path-reporting. It is known that the earliest construction by [Thorup and Zwick, 2001] is path-reporting, but the parameters are worse by a factor of k. In a later construction by [Wulff-Nilsen, 2013], the query time was improved from O(k) to O(log k). Better trade-offs were discovered in [Elkin and Pettie, 2015] where the authors broke the O(kn^{1+1/k}) space barrier and achieved O(n^{1+1/k}log k) space with O(log k) query time, but their stretch was blown up to a polynomial O(k^{log_{4/3}7}); they also gave an alternative choice of O(n^{1+1/k}) space which is optimal, and O(k)-stretch which is also optimal up to a constant factor, but their query time rose exponentially to O(n^ε). In a recent work [Elkin and Shabat, 2023], the authors obtained significant improvements of O(n^{1+1/k}log k) space, O(k)-stretch, and O(log log k) query time, or O(n^{1+1/k}) space, O(klog k)-stretch, and O(log log k) query time. All the above constructions of path-reporting distance oracles share a common barrier; that is, they could not achieve optimal space O(n^{1+1/k}) and stretch O(k) simultaneously within logarithmic query time; for example, in the natural regime where k = ⌈log n⌉, previous distance oracles had to pay an extra factor of log log n either in the space or stretch. As our result, we bypass this barrier by a new construction of path-reporting distance oracles with O(n^{1+1/k}) space and O(k)-stretch and O(log log k) query time.

Cite as

Shiri Chechik and Tianyi Zhang. Path-Reporting Distance Oracles with Logarithmic Stretch and Linear Size. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 42:1-42:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chechik_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.42,
  author =	{Chechik, Shiri and Zhang, Tianyi},
  title =	{{Path-Reporting Distance Oracles with Logarithmic Stretch and Linear Size}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{42:1--42:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.42},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201859},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.42},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph algorithms, shortest paths, distance oracles}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension

Authors: Artur Czumaj, Guichen Gao, Shaofeng H.-C. Jiang, Robert Krauthgamer, and Pavel Veselý

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We design new parallel algorithms for clustering in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces. These algorithms run in the Massively Parallel Computation (MPC) model, and are fully scalable, meaning that the local memory in each machine may be n^σ for arbitrarily small fixed σ > 0. Importantly, the local memory may be substantially smaller than the number of clusters k, yet all our algorithms are fast, i.e., run in O(1) rounds. We first devise a fast MPC algorithm for O(1)-approximation of uniform Facility Location. This is the first fully-scalable MPC algorithm that achieves O(1)-approximation for any clustering problem in general geometric setting; previous algorithms only provide poly(log n)-approximation or apply to restricted inputs, like low dimension or small number of clusters k; e.g. [Bhaskara and Wijewardena, ICML'18; Cohen-Addad et al., NeurIPS'21; Cohen-Addad et al., ICML'22]. We then build on this Facility Location result and devise a fast MPC algorithm that achieves O(1)-bicriteria approximation for k-Median and for k-Means, namely, it computes (1+ε)k clusters of cost within O(1/ε²)-factor of the optimum for k clusters. A primary technical tool that we introduce, and may be of independent interest, is a new MPC primitive for geometric aggregation, namely, computing for every data point a statistic of its approximate neighborhood, for statistics like range counting and nearest-neighbor search. Our implementation of this primitive works in high dimension, and is based on consistent hashing (aka sparse partition), a technique that was recently used for streaming algorithms [Czumaj et al., FOCS'22].

Cite as

Artur Czumaj, Guichen Gao, Shaofeng H.-C. Jiang, Robert Krauthgamer, and Pavel Veselý. Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 50:1-50:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{czumaj_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50,
  author =	{Czumaj, Artur and Gao, Guichen and Jiang, Shaofeng H.-C. and Krauthgamer, Robert and Vesel\'{y}, Pavel},
  title =	{{Fully-Scalable MPC Algorithms for Clustering in High Dimension}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{50:1--50:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201938},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.50},
  annote =	{Keywords: Massively parallel computing, high dimension, facility location, k-median, k-means}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Optimal Electrical Oblivious Routing on Expanders

Authors: Cella Florescu, Rasmus Kyng, Maximilian Probst Gutenberg, and Sushant Sachdeva

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the question of whether the electrical flow routing is a good oblivious routing scheme on an m-edge graph G = (V, E) that is a Φ-expander, i.e. where |∂ S| ≥ Φ ⋅ vol(S) for every S ⊆ V, vol(S) ≤ vol(V)/2. Beyond its simplicity and structural importance, this question is well-motivated by the current state-of-the-art of fast algorithms for 𝓁_∞ oblivious routings that reduce to the expander-case which is in turn solved by electrical flow routing. Our main result proves that the electrical routing is an O(Φ^{-1} log m)-competitive oblivious routing in the 𝓁₁- and 𝓁_∞-norms. We further observe that the oblivious routing is O(log² m)-competitive in the 𝓁₂-norm and, in fact, O(log m)-competitive if 𝓁₂-localization is O(log m) which is widely believed. Using these three upper bounds, we can smoothly interpolate to obtain upper bounds for every p ∈ [2, ∞] and q given by 1/p + 1/q = 1. Assuming 𝓁₂-localization in O(log m), we obtain that in 𝓁_p and 𝓁_q, the electrical oblivious routing is O(Φ^{-(1-2/p)}log m) competitive. Using the currently known result for 𝓁₂-localization, this ratio deteriorates by at most a sublogarithmic factor for every p, q ≠ 2. We complement our upper bounds with lower bounds that show that the electrical routing for any such p and q is Ω(Φ^{-(1-2/p)} log m)-competitive. This renders our results in 𝓁₁ and 𝓁_∞ unconditionally tight up to constants, and the result in any 𝓁_p- and 𝓁_q-norm to be tight in case of 𝓁₂-localization in O(log m).

Cite as

Cella Florescu, Rasmus Kyng, Maximilian Probst Gutenberg, and Sushant Sachdeva. Optimal Electrical Oblivious Routing on Expanders. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 65:1-65:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{florescu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.65,
  author =	{Florescu, Cella and Kyng, Rasmus and Gutenberg, Maximilian Probst and Sachdeva, Sushant},
  title =	{{Optimal Electrical Oblivious Routing on Expanders}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{65:1--65:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.65},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202083},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.65},
  annote =	{Keywords: Expanders, Oblivious routing for 𝓁\underlinep, Electrical flow routing}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Finding Most-Shattering Minimum Vertex Cuts of Polylogarithmic Size in Near-Linear Time

Authors: Kevin Hua, Daniel Li, Jaewoo Park, and Thatchaphol Saranurak

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We show the first near-linear time randomized algorithms for listing all minimum vertex cuts of polylogarithmic size that separate the graph into at least three connected components (also known as shredders) and for finding the most shattering one, i.e., the one maximizing the number of connected components. Our algorithms break the quadratic time bound by Cheriyan and Thurimella (STOC'96) for both problems that has been unimproved for more than two decades. Our work also removes an important bottleneck to near-linear time algorithms for the vertex connectivity augmentation problem (Jordan '95) and finding an even-length directed cycle in a graph, a problem shown to be equivalent to many other fundamental problems (Vazirani and Yannakakis '90, Robertson et al. '99). Note that it is necessary to list only minimum vertex cuts that separate the graph into at least three components because there can be an exponential number of minimum vertex cuts in general. To obtain a near-linear time algorithm, we have extended techniques in local flow algorithms developed by Forster et al. (SODA'20) to list shredders on a local scale. We also exploit fast queries to a pairwise vertex connectivity oracle subject to vertex failures (Long and Saranurak FOCS'22, Kosinas ESA'23). This is the first application of using connectivity oracles subject to vertex failures to speed up a static graph algorithm.

Cite as

Kevin Hua, Daniel Li, Jaewoo Park, and Thatchaphol Saranurak. Finding Most-Shattering Minimum Vertex Cuts of Polylogarithmic Size in Near-Linear Time. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 87:1-87:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{hua_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.87,
  author =	{Hua, Kevin and Li, Daniel and Park, Jaewoo and Saranurak, Thatchaphol},
  title =	{{Finding Most-Shattering Minimum Vertex Cuts of Polylogarithmic Size in Near-Linear Time}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{87:1--87:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.87},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202302},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.87},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graphs, Flows, Randomized Algorithms, Vertex Connectivity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Streaming Edge Coloring with Asymptotically Optimal Colors

Authors: Mohammad Saneian and Soheil Behnezhad

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Given a graph G, an edge-coloring is an assignment of colors to edges of G such that any two edges sharing an endpoint receive different colors. By Vizing’s celebrated theorem, any graph of maximum degree Δ needs at least Δ and at most (Δ + 1) colors to be properly edge colored. In this paper, we study edge colorings in the streaming setting. The edges arrive one by one in an arbitrary order. The algorithm takes a single pass over the input and must output a solution using a much smaller space than the input size. Since the output of edge coloring is as large as its input, the assigned colors should also be reported in a streaming fashion. The streaming edge coloring problem has been studied in a series of works over the past few years. The main challenge is that the algorithm cannot "remember" all the color assignments that it returns. To ensure the validity of the solution, existing algorithms use many more colors than Vizing’s bound. Namely, in n-vertex graphs, the state-of-the-art algorithm with Õ(n s) space requires O(Δ²/s + Δ) colors. Note, in particular, that for an asymptotically optimal O(Δ) coloring, this algorithm requires Ω(nΔ) space which is as large as the input. Whether such a coloring can be achieved with sublinear space has been left open. In this paper, we answer this question in the affirmative. We present a randomized algorithm that returns an asymptotically optimal O(Δ) edge coloring using Õ(n √{Δ}) space. More generally, our algorithm returns a proper O(Δ^{1.5}/s + Δ) edge coloring with Õ(n s) space, improving prior algorithms for the whole range of s.

Cite as

Mohammad Saneian and Soheil Behnezhad. Streaming Edge Coloring with Asymptotically Optimal Colors. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 121:1-121:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{saneian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.121,
  author =	{Saneian, Mohammad and Behnezhad, Soheil},
  title =	{{Streaming Edge Coloring with Asymptotically Optimal Colors}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{121:1--121:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.121},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202640},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.121},
  annote =	{Keywords: Streaming, Edge coloring, Adversarial order}
}
Document
Noisy k-Means++ Revisited

Authors: Christoph Grunau, Ahmet Alper Özüdoğru, and Václav Rozhoň

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
The k-means++ algorithm by Arthur and Vassilvitskii [SODA 2007] is a classical and time-tested algorithm for the k-means problem. While being very practical, the algorithm also has good theoretical guarantees: its solution is O(log k)-approximate, in expectation. In a recent work, Bhattacharya, Eube, Roglin, and Schmidt [ESA 2020] considered the following question: does the algorithm retain its guarantees if we allow for a slight adversarial noise in the sampling probability distributions used by the algorithm? This is motivated e.g. by the fact that computations with real numbers in k-means++ implementations are inexact. Surprisingly, the analysis under this scenario gets substantially more difficult and the authors were able to prove only a weaker approximation guarantee of O(log² k). In this paper, we close the gap by providing a tight, O(log k)-approximate guarantee for the k-means++ algorithm with noise.

Cite as

Christoph Grunau, Ahmet Alper Özüdoğru, and Václav Rozhoň. Noisy k-Means++ Revisited. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 55:1-55:7, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{grunau_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.55,
  author =	{Grunau, Christoph and \"{O}z\"{u}do\u{g}ru, Ahmet Alper and Rozho\v{n}, V\'{a}clav},
  title =	{{Noisy k-Means++ Revisited}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{55:1--55:7},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.55},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187080},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.55},
  annote =	{Keywords: clustering, k-means, k-means++, adversarial noise}
}
Document
Beeping Shortest Paths via Hypergraph Bipartite Decomposition

Authors: Fabien Dufoulon, Yuval Emek, and Ran Gelles

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
Constructing a shortest path between two network nodes is a fundamental task in distributed computing. This work develops schemes for the construction of shortest paths in randomized beeping networks between a predetermined source node and an arbitrary set of destination nodes. Our first scheme constructs a (single) shortest path to an arbitrary destination in O(D log log n + log³ n) rounds with high probability. Our second scheme constructs multiple shortest paths, one per each destination, in O(D log² n + log³ n) rounds with high probability. Our schemes are based on a reduction of the above shortest path construction tasks to a decomposition of hypergraphs into bipartite hypergraphs: We develop a beeping procedure that partitions the hyperedge set of a hypergraph H = (V_H, E_H) into k = Θ (log² n) disjoint subsets F₁ ∪ ⋯ ∪ F_k = E_H such that the (sub-)hypergraph (V_H, F_i) is bipartite in the sense that there exists a vertex subset U ⊆ V such that |U ∩ e| = 1 for every e ∈ F_i. This procedure turns out to be instrumental in speeding up shortest path constructions under the beeping model.

Cite as

Fabien Dufoulon, Yuval Emek, and Ran Gelles. Beeping Shortest Paths via Hypergraph Bipartite Decomposition. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 45:1-45:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{dufoulon_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.45,
  author =	{Dufoulon, Fabien and Emek, Yuval and Gelles, Ran},
  title =	{{Beeping Shortest Paths via Hypergraph Bipartite Decomposition}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{45:1--45:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.45},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175485},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.45},
  annote =	{Keywords: Beeping Networks, Shortest Paths, Hypergraph Bipartite Decomposition}
}
Document
Local Problems on Trees from the Perspectives of Distributed Algorithms, Finitary Factors, and Descriptive Combinatorics

Authors: Sebastian Brandt, Yi-Jun Chang, Jan Grebík, Christoph Grunau, Václav Rozhoň, and Zoltán Vidnyánszky

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
We study connections between three different fields: distributed local algorithms, finitary factors of iid processes, and descriptive combinatorics. We focus on two central questions: Can we apply techniques from one of the areas to obtain results in another? Can we show that complexity classes coming from different areas contain precisely the same problems? We give an affirmative answer to both questions in the context of local problems on regular trees: 1) We extend the Borel determinacy technique of Marks [Marks - J. Am. Math. Soc. 2016] coming from descriptive combinatorics and adapt it to the area of distributed computing, thereby obtaining a more generally applicable lower bound technique in descriptive combinatorics and an entirely new lower bound technique for distributed algorithms. Using our new technique, we prove deterministic distributed Ω(log n)-round lower bounds for problems from a natural class of homomorphism problems. Interestingly, these lower bounds seem beyond the current reach of the powerful round elimination technique [Brandt - PODC 2019] responsible for all substantial locality lower bounds of the last years. Our key technical ingredient is a novel ID graph technique that we expect to be of independent interest; in fact, it has already played an important role in a new lower bound for the Lovász local lemma in the Local Computation Algorithms model from sequential computing [Brandt, Grunau, Rozhoň - PODC 2021]. 2) We prove that a local problem admits a Baire measurable coloring if and only if it admits a local algorithm with local complexity O(log n), extending the classification of Baire measurable colorings of Bernshteyn [Bernshteyn - personal communication]. A key ingredient of the proof is a new and simple characterization of local problems that can be solved in O(log n) rounds. We complement this result by showing separations between complexity classes from distributed computing, finitary factors, and descriptive combinatorics. Most notably, the class of problems that allow a distributed algorithm with sublogarithmic randomized local complexity is incomparable with the class of problems with a Borel solution. We hope that our treatment will help to view all three perspectives as part of a common theory of locality, in which we follow the insightful paper of [Bernshteyn - arXiv 2004.04905].

Cite as

Sebastian Brandt, Yi-Jun Chang, Jan Grebík, Christoph Grunau, Václav Rozhoň, and Zoltán Vidnyánszky. Local Problems on Trees from the Perspectives of Distributed Algorithms, Finitary Factors, and Descriptive Combinatorics. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 29:1-29:26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{brandt_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.29,
  author =	{Brandt, Sebastian and Chang, Yi-Jun and Greb{\'\i}k, Jan and Grunau, Christoph and Rozho\v{n}, V\'{a}clav and Vidny\'{a}nszky, Zolt\'{a}n},
  title =	{{Local Problems on Trees from the Perspectives of Distributed Algorithms, Finitary Factors, and Descriptive Combinatorics}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:26},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156259},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Algorithms, Descriptive Combinatorics}
}
Document
Deterministic Distributed Algorithms and Lower Bounds in the Hybrid Model

Authors: Ioannis Anagnostides and Themis Gouleakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)


Abstract
The HYBRID model was recently introduced by Augustine et al. [John Augustine et al., 2020] in order to characterize from an algorithmic standpoint the capabilities of networks which combine multiple communication modes. Concretely, it is assumed that the standard LOCAL model of distributed computing is enhanced with the feature of all-to-all communication, but with very limited bandwidth, captured by the node-capacitated clique (NCC). In this work we provide several new insights on the power of hybrid networks for fundamental problems in distributed algorithms. First, we present a deterministic algorithm which solves any problem on a sparse n-node graph in 𝒪̃(√n) rounds of HYBRID, where the notation 𝒪̃(⋅) suppresses polylogarithmic factors of n. We combine this primitive with several sparsification techniques to obtain efficient distributed algorithms for general graphs. Most notably, for the all-pairs shortest paths problem we give deterministic (1 + ε)- and log n/log log n-approximate algorithms for unweighted and weighted graphs respectively with round complexity 𝒪̃(√n) in HYBRID, closely matching the performance of the state of the art randomized algorithm of Kuhn and Schneider [Kuhn and Schneider, 2020]. Moreover, we make a connection with the Ghaffari-Haeupler framework of low-congestion shortcuts [Mohsen Ghaffari and Bernhard Haeupler, 2016], leading - among others - to a (1 + ε)-approximate algorithm for Min-Cut after 𝒪(polylog (n)) rounds, with high probability, even if we restrict local edges to transfer 𝒪(log n) bits per round. Finally, we prove via a reduction from the set disjointness problem that Ω̃(n^{1/3}) rounds are required to determine the radius of an unweighted graph, as well as a (3/2 - ε)-approximation for weighted graphs. As a byproduct, we show an Ω̃(n) round-complexity lower bound for computing a (4/3 - ε)-approximation of the radius in the broadcast variant of the congested clique, even for unweighted graphs.

Cite as

Ioannis Anagnostides and Themis Gouleakis. Deterministic Distributed Algorithms and Lower Bounds in the Hybrid Model. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 5:1-5:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{anagnostides_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.5,
  author =	{Anagnostides, Ioannis and Gouleakis, Themis},
  title =	{{Deterministic Distributed Algorithms and Lower Bounds in the Hybrid Model}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-210-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{209},
  editor =	{Gilbert, Seth},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148077},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Computing, Hybrid Model, Sparse Graphs, Deterministic Algorithms, All-Pairs Shortest Paths, Minimum Cut, Radius}
}
Document
Improved MPC Algorithms for MIS, Matching, and Coloring on Trees and Beyond

Authors: Mohsen Ghaffari, Christoph Grunau, and Ce Jin

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)


Abstract
We present O(log log n) round scalable Massively Parallel Computation algorithms for maximal independent set and maximal matching, in trees and more generally graphs of bounded arboricity, as well as for coloring trees with a constant number of colors. Following the standards, by a scalable MPC algorithm, we mean that these algorithms can work on machines that have capacity/memory as small as n^{δ} for any positive constant δ < 1. Our results improve over the O(log²log n) round algorithms of Behnezhad et al. [PODC'19]. Moreover, our matching algorithm is presumably optimal as its bound matches an Ω(log log n) conditional lower bound of Ghaffari, Kuhn, and Uitto [FOCS'19].

Cite as

Mohsen Ghaffari, Christoph Grunau, and Ce Jin. Improved MPC Algorithms for MIS, Matching, and Coloring on Trees and Beyond. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 34:1-34:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{ghaffari_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.34,
  author =	{Ghaffari, Mohsen and Grunau, Christoph and Jin, Ce},
  title =	{{Improved MPC Algorithms for MIS, Matching, and Coloring on Trees and Beyond}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-168-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{179},
  editor =	{Attiya, Hagit},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131128},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Massively Parallel Computation, MIS, Matching, Coloring}
}
Document
RANDOM
Palette Sparsification Beyond (Δ+1) Vertex Coloring

Authors: Noga Alon and Sepehr Assadi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
A recent palette sparsification theorem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [SODA'19] states that in every n-vertex graph G with maximum degree Δ, sampling O(log n) colors per each vertex independently from Δ+1 colors almost certainly allows for proper coloring of G from the sampled colors. Besides being a combinatorial statement of its own independent interest, this theorem was shown to have various applications to design of algorithms for (Δ+1) coloring in different models of computation on massive graphs such as streaming or sublinear-time algorithms. In this paper, we focus on palette sparsification beyond (Δ+1) coloring, in both regimes when the number of available colors is much larger than (Δ+1), and when it is much smaller. In particular, - We prove that for (1+ε) Δ coloring, sampling only O_ε(√{log n}) colors per vertex is sufficient and necessary to obtain a proper coloring from the sampled colors - this shows a separation between (1+ε) Δ and (Δ+1) coloring in the context of palette sparsification. - A natural family of graphs with chromatic number much smaller than (Δ+1) are triangle-free graphs which are O(Δ/ln Δ) colorable. We prove a palette sparsification theorem tailored to these graphs: Sampling O(Δ^γ + √{log n}) colors per vertex is sufficient and necessary to obtain a proper O_γ(Δ/ln Δ) coloring of triangle-free graphs. - We also consider the "local version" of graph coloring where every vertex v can only be colored from a list of colors with size proportional to the degree deg(v) of v. We show that sampling O_ε(log n) colors per vertex is sufficient for proper coloring of any graph with high probability whenever each vertex is sampling from a list of (1+ε) ⋅ deg(v) arbitrary colors, or even only deg(v)+1 colors when the lists are the sets {1,…,deg(v)+1}. Our new palette sparsification results naturally lead to a host of new and/or improved algorithms for vertex coloring in different models including streaming and sublinear-time algorithms.

Cite as

Noga Alon and Sepehr Assadi. Palette Sparsification Beyond (Δ+1) Vertex Coloring. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 6:1-6:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{alon_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6,
  author =	{Alon, Noga and Assadi, Sepehr},
  title =	{{Palette Sparsification Beyond (\Delta+1) Vertex Coloring}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126096},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph coloring, palette sparsification, sublinear algorithms, list-coloring}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Dynamic Averaging Load Balancing on Cycles

Authors: Dan Alistarh, Giorgi Nadiradze, and Amirmojtaba Sabour

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)


Abstract
We consider the following dynamic load-balancing process: given an underlying graph G with n nodes, in each step t≥ 0, one unit of load is created, and placed at a randomly chosen graph node. In the same step, the chosen node picks a random neighbor, and the two nodes balance their loads by averaging them. We are interested in the expected gap between the minimum and maximum loads at nodes as the process progresses, and its dependence on n and on the graph structure. Variants of the above graphical balanced allocation process have been studied previously by Peres, Talwar, and Wieder [Peres et al., 2015], and by Sauerwald and Sun [Sauerwald and Sun, 2015]. These authors left as open the question of characterizing the gap in the case of cycle graphs in the dynamic case, where weights are created during the algorithm’s execution. For this case, the only known upper bound is of 𝒪(n log n), following from a majorization argument due to [Peres et al., 2015], which analyzes a related graphical allocation process. In this paper, we provide an upper bound of 𝒪 (√n log n) on the expected gap of the above process for cycles of length n. We introduce a new potential analysis technique, which enables us to bound the difference in load between k-hop neighbors on the cycle, for any k ≤ n/2. We complement this with a "gap covering" argument, which bounds the maximum value of the gap by bounding its value across all possible subsets of a certain structure, and recursively bounding the gaps within each subset. We provide analytical and experimental evidence that our upper bound on the gap is tight up to a logarithmic factor.

Cite as

Dan Alistarh, Giorgi Nadiradze, and Amirmojtaba Sabour. Dynamic Averaging Load Balancing on Cycles. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{alistarh_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.7,
  author =	{Alistarh, Dan and Nadiradze, Giorgi and Sabour, Amirmojtaba},
  title =	{{Dynamic Averaging Load Balancing on Cycles}},
  booktitle =	{47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-138-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{168},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124142},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algorithms, Load Balancing}
}
Document
Distributed Algorithms for Low Stretch Spanning Trees

Authors: Ruben Becker, Yuval Emek, Mohsen Ghaffari, and Christoph Lenzen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)


Abstract
Given an undirected graph with integer edge lengths, we study the problem of approximating the distances in the graph by a spanning tree based on the notion of stretch. Our main contribution is a distributed algorithm in the CONGEST model of computation that constructs a random spanning tree with the guarantee that the expected stretch of every edge is O(log^{3} n), where n is the number of nodes in the graph. If the graph is unweighted, then this algorithm can be implemented to run in O(D) rounds, where D is the hop-diameter of the graph, thus being asymptotically optimal. In the weighted case, the run-time of our algorithm matches the currently best known bound for exact distance computations, i.e., O~ (min{sqrt{n D}, sqrt{n} D^{1 / 4} + n^{3 / 5} + D}). We stress that this is the first distributed construction of spanning trees leading to poly-logarithmic expected stretch with non-trivial running time.

Cite as

Ruben Becker, Yuval Emek, Mohsen Ghaffari, and Christoph Lenzen. Distributed Algorithms for Low Stretch Spanning Trees. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 4:1-4:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{becker_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.4,
  author =	{Becker, Ruben and Emek, Yuval and Ghaffari, Mohsen and Lenzen, Christoph},
  title =	{{Distributed Algorithms for Low Stretch Spanning Trees}},
  booktitle =	{33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-126-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{146},
  editor =	{Suomela, Jukka},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113116},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: distributed graph algorithms, low-stretch spanning trees, CONGEST model, ball decomposition, star decomposition}
}
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