22 Search Results for "Mertzios, George B."


Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Exploiting Automorphisms of Temporal Graphs for Fast Exploration and Rendezvous

Authors: Konstantinos Dogeas, Thomas Erlebach, Frank Kammer, Johannes Meintrup, and William K. Moses Jr.

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Temporal graphs are dynamic graphs where the edge set can change in each time step, while the vertex set stays the same. Exploration of temporal graphs whose snapshot in each time step is a connected graph, called connected temporal graphs, has been widely studied. In this paper, we extend the concept of graph automorphisms from static graphs to temporal graphs and show for the first time that symmetries enable faster exploration: We prove that a connected temporal graph with n vertices and orbit number r (i.e., r is the number of automorphism orbits) can be explored in O(r n^{1+ε}) time steps, for any fixed ε > 0. For r = O(n^c) for constant c < 1, this is a significant improvement over the known tight worst-case bound of Θ(n²) time steps for arbitrary connected temporal graphs. We also give two lower bounds for temporal exploration, showing that Ω(n log n) time steps are required for some inputs with r = O(1) and that Ω(rn) time steps are required for some inputs for any r with 1 ≤ r ≤ n. Moreover, we show that the techniques we develop for fast exploration can be used to derive the following result for rendezvous: Two agents with different programs and without communication ability are placed by an adversary at arbitrary vertices and given full information about the connected temporal graph, except that they do not have consistent vertex labels. Then the two agents can meet at a common vertex after O(n^{1+ε}) time steps, for any constant ε > 0. For some connected temporal graphs with the orbit number being a constant, we also present a complementary lower bound of Ω(nlog n) time steps.

Cite as

Konstantinos Dogeas, Thomas Erlebach, Frank Kammer, Johannes Meintrup, and William K. Moses Jr.. Exploiting Automorphisms of Temporal Graphs for Fast Exploration and Rendezvous. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 55:1-55:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{dogeas_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.55,
  author =	{Dogeas, Konstantinos and Erlebach, Thomas and Kammer, Frank and Meintrup, Johannes and Moses Jr., William K.},
  title =	{{Exploiting Automorphisms of Temporal Graphs for Fast Exploration and Rendezvous}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{55:1--55:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.55},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201989},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.55},
  annote =	{Keywords: dynamic graphs, parameterized algorithms, algorithmic graph theory, graph automorphism, orbit number}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Another Hamiltonian Cycle in Bipartite Pfaffian Graphs

Authors: Andreas Björklund, Petteri Kaski, and Jesper Nederlof

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Finding a Hamiltonian cycle in a given graph is computationally challenging, and in general remains so even when one is further given one Hamiltonian cycle in the graph and asked to find another. In fact, no significantly faster algorithms are known for finding another Hamiltonian cycle than for finding a first one even in the setting where another Hamiltonian cycle is structurally guaranteed to exist, such as for odd-degree graphs. We identify a graph class - the bipartite Pfaffian graphs of minimum degree three - where it is NP-complete to decide whether a given graph in the class is Hamiltonian, but when presented with a Hamiltonian cycle as part of the input, another Hamiltonian cycle can be found efficiently. We prove that Thomason’s lollipop method [Ann. Discrete Math., 1978], a well-known algorithm for finding another Hamiltonian cycle, runs in a linear number of steps in cubic bipartite Pfaffian graphs. This was conjectured for cubic bipartite planar graphs by Haddadan [MSc thesis, Waterloo, 2015]; in contrast, examples are known of both cubic bipartite graphs and cubic planar graphs where the lollipop method takes exponential time. Beyond the reach of the lollipop method, we address a slightly more general graph class and present two algorithms, one running in linear-time and one operating in logarithmic space, that take as input (i) a bipartite Pfaffian graph G of minimum degree three, (ii) a Hamiltonian cycle H in G, and (iii) an edge e in H, and output at least three other Hamiltonian cycles through the edge e in G. We also present further improved algorithms for finding optimal traveling salesperson tours and counting Hamiltonian cycles in bipartite planar graphs with running times that are not achieved yet in general planar graphs. Our technique also has purely graph-theoretical consequences; for example, we show that every cubic bipartite Pfaffian graph has either zero or at least six distinct Hamiltonian cycles; the latter case is tight for the cube graph.

Cite as

Andreas Björklund, Petteri Kaski, and Jesper Nederlof. Another Hamiltonian Cycle in Bipartite Pfaffian Graphs. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 26:1-26:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bjorklund_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.26,
  author =	{Bj\"{o}rklund, Andreas and Kaski, Petteri and Nederlof, Jesper},
  title =	{{Another Hamiltonian Cycle in Bipartite Pfaffian Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201692},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: Another Hamiltonian cycle, Pfaffian graph, planar graph, Thomason’s lollipop method}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Isomorphism for Tournaments of Small Twin Width

Authors: Martin Grohe and Daniel Neuen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We prove that isomorphism of tournaments of twin width at most k can be decided in time k^O(log k) n^O(1). This implies that the isomorphism problem for classes of tournaments of bounded or moderately growing twin width is in polynomial time. By comparison, there are classes of undirected graphs of bounded twin width that are isomorphism complete, that is, the isomorphism problem for the classes is as hard as the general graph isomorphism problem. Twin width is a graph parameter that has been introduced only recently (Bonnet et al., FOCS 2020), but has received a lot of attention in structural graph theory since then. On directed graphs, it is functionally smaller than clique width. We prove that on tournaments (but not on general directed graphs) it is also functionally smaller than directed tree width (and thus, the same also holds for cut width and directed path width). Hence, our result implies that tournament isomorphism testing is also fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by any of these parameters. Our isomorphism algorithm heavily employs group-theoretic techniques. This seems to be necessary: as a second main result, we show that the combinatorial Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm does not decide isomorphism of tournaments of twin width at most 35 if its dimension is o(n). (Throughout this abstract, n is the order of the input graphs.)

Cite as

Martin Grohe and Daniel Neuen. Isomorphism for Tournaments of Small Twin Width. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 78:1-78:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{grohe_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.78,
  author =	{Grohe, Martin and Neuen, Daniel},
  title =	{{Isomorphism for Tournaments of Small Twin Width}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{78:1--78:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.78},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202216},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.78},
  annote =	{Keywords: tournament isomorphism, twin width, fixed-parameter tractability, Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm}
}
Document
Temporal Graph Realization from Fastest Paths

Authors: Nina Klobas, George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, and Paul G. Spirakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 292, 3rd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2024)


Abstract
In this paper we initiate the study of the temporal graph realization problem with respect to the fastest path durations among its vertices, while we focus on periodic temporal graphs. Given an n × n matrix D and a Δ ∈ ℕ, the goal is to construct a Δ-periodic temporal graph with n vertices such that the duration of a fastest path from v_i to v_j is equal to D_{i,j}, or to decide that such a temporal graph does not exist. The variations of the problem on static graphs has been well studied and understood since the 1960’s (e.g. [Erdős and Gallai, 1960], [Hakimi and Yau, 1965]). As it turns out, the periodic temporal graph realization problem has a very different computational complexity behavior than its static (i. e., non-temporal) counterpart. First we show that the problem is NP-hard in general, but polynomial-time solvable if the so-called underlying graph is a tree. Building upon those results, we investigate its parameterized computational complexity with respect to structural parameters of the underlying static graph which measure the "tree-likeness". We prove a tight classification between such parameters that allow fixed-parameter tractability (FPT) and those which imply W[1]-hardness. We show that our problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the feedback vertex number (and therefore also any smaller parameter such as treewidth, degeneracy, and cliquewidth) of the underlying graph, while we show that it is in FPT when parameterized by the feedback edge number (and therefore also any larger parameter such as maximum leaf number) of the underlying graph.

Cite as

Nina Klobas, George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, and Paul G. Spirakis. Temporal Graph Realization from Fastest Paths. In 3rd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 292, pp. 16:1-16:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{klobas_et_al:LIPIcs.SAND.2024.16,
  author =	{Klobas, Nina and Mertzios, George B. and Molter, Hendrik and Spirakis, Paul G.},
  title =	{{Temporal Graph Realization from Fastest Paths}},
  booktitle =	{3rd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2024)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-315-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{292},
  editor =	{Casteigts, Arnaud and Kuhn, Fabian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2024.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-198945},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2024.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal graph, periodic temporal labeling, fastest temporal path, graph realization, temporal connectivity, parameterized complexity}
}
Document
Brief Announcement
Brief Announcement: On the Existence of δ-Temporal Cliques in Random Simple Temporal Graphs

Authors: George B. Mertzios, Sotiris Nikoletseas, Christoforos Raptopoulos, and Paul G. Spirakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 292, 3rd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2024)


Abstract
We consider random simple temporal graphs in which every edge of the complete graph K_n appears once within the time interval [0,1] independently and uniformly at random. Our main result is a sharp threshold on the size of any maximum δ-clique (namely a clique with edges appearing at most δ apart within [0,1]) in random instances of this model, for any constant δ. In particular, using the probabilistic method, we prove that the size of a maximum δ-clique is approximately (2 log n)/(log 1/δ) with high probability (whp). What seems surprising is that, even though the random simple temporal graph contains Θ(n²) overlapping δ-windows, which (when viewed separately) correspond to different random instances of the Erdős-Rényi random graphs model, the size of the maximum δ-clique in the former model and the maximum clique size of the latter are approximately the same. Furthermore, we show that the minimum interval containing a δ-clique is δ-o(δ) whp. We use this result to show that any polynomial time algorithm for δ-Temporal Clique is unlikely to have very large probability of success.

Cite as

George B. Mertzios, Sotiris Nikoletseas, Christoforos Raptopoulos, and Paul G. Spirakis. Brief Announcement: On the Existence of δ-Temporal Cliques in Random Simple Temporal Graphs. In 3rd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 292, pp. 27:1-27:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{mertzios_et_al:LIPIcs.SAND.2024.27,
  author =	{Mertzios, George B. and Nikoletseas, Sotiris and Raptopoulos, Christoforos and Spirakis, Paul G.},
  title =	{{Brief Announcement: On the Existence of \delta-Temporal Cliques in Random Simple Temporal Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{3rd Symposium on Algorithmic Foundations of Dynamic Networks (SAND 2024)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:5},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-315-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{292},
  editor =	{Casteigts, Arnaud and Kuhn, Fabian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2024.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-199056},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SAND.2024.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Simple random temporal graph, \delta-temporal clique, probabilistic method}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Sliding into the Future: Investigating Sliding Windows in Temporal Graphs (Invited Talk)

Authors: Nina Klobas, George B. Mertzios, and Paul G. Spirakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)


Abstract
Graphs are fundamental tools for modelling relations among objects in various scientific fields. However, traditional static graphs have limitations when it comes to capturing the dynamic nature of real-world systems. To overcome this limitation, temporal graphs have been introduced as a framework to model graphs that change over time. In temporal graphs the edges among vertices appear and disappear at specific time steps, reflecting the temporal dynamics of the observed system, which allows us to analyse time dependent patterns and processes. In this paper we focus on the research related to sliding time windows in temporal graphs. Sliding time windows offer a way to analyse specific time intervals within the lifespan of a temporal graph. By sliding the window along the timeline, we can examine the graph’s characteristics and properties within different time periods. This paper provides an overview of the research on sliding time windows in temporal graphs. Although progress has been made in this field, there are still many interesting questions and challenges to be explored. We discuss some of the open problems and highlight their potential for future research.

Cite as

Nina Klobas, George B. Mertzios, and Paul G. Spirakis. Sliding into the Future: Investigating Sliding Windows in Temporal Graphs (Invited Talk). In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 5:1-5:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{klobas_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.5,
  author =	{Klobas, Nina and Mertzios, George B. and Spirakis, Paul G.},
  title =	{{Sliding into the Future: Investigating Sliding Windows in Temporal Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-292-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{272},
  editor =	{Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185397},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal Graphs, Sliding Time Windows}
}
Document
The Complexity of Computing Optimum Labelings for Temporal Connectivity

Authors: Nina Klobas, George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, and Paul G. Spirakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)


Abstract
A graph is temporally connected if there exists a strict temporal path, i.e., a path whose edges have strictly increasing labels, from every vertex u to every other vertex v. In this paper we study temporal design problems for undirected temporally connected graphs. The basic setting of these optimization problems is as follows: given a connected undirected graph G, what is the smallest number |λ| of time-labels that we need to add to the edges of G such that the resulting temporal graph (G,λ) is temporally connected? As it turns out, this basic problem, called Minimum Labeling (ML), can be optimally solved in polynomial time. However, exploiting the temporal dimension, the problem becomes more interesting and meaningful in its following variations, which we investigate in this paper. First we consider the problem Min. Aged Labeling (MAL) of temporally connecting the graph when we are given an upper-bound on the allowed age (i.e., maximum label) of the obtained temporal graph (G,λ). Second we consider the problem Min. Steiner Labeling (MSL), where the aim is now to have a temporal path between any pair of "important" vertices which lie in a subset R ⊆ V, which we call the terminals. This relaxed problem resembles the problem Steiner Tree in static (i.e., non-temporal) graphs. However, due to the requirement of strictly increasing labels in a temporal path, Steiner Tree is not a special case of MSL. Finally we consider the age-restricted version of MSL, namely Min. Aged Steiner Labeling (MASL). Our main results are threefold: we prove that (i) MAL becomes NP-complete on undirected graphs, while (ii) MASL becomes W[1]-hard with respect to the number |R| of terminals. On the other hand we prove that (iii) although the age-unrestricted problem MSL remains NP-hard, it is in FPT with respect to the number |R| of terminals. That is, adding the age restriction, makes the above problems strictly harder (unless P=NP or W[1]=FPT).

Cite as

Nina Klobas, George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, and Paul G. Spirakis. The Complexity of Computing Optimum Labelings for Temporal Connectivity. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 62:1-62:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{klobas_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.62,
  author =	{Klobas, Nina and Mertzios, George B. and Molter, Hendrik and Spirakis, Paul G.},
  title =	{{The Complexity of Computing Optimum Labelings for Temporal Connectivity}},
  booktitle =	{47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)},
  pages =	{62:1--62:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-256-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{241},
  editor =	{Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.62},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168603},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.62},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal graph, graph labeling, foremost temporal path, temporal connectivity, Steiner Tree}
}
Document
Temporal Graphs: Structure, Algorithms, Applications (Dagstuhl Seminar 21171)

Authors: Arnaud Casteigts, Kitty Meeks, George B. Mertzios, and Rolf Niedermeier

Published in: Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 11, Issue 3 (2021)


Abstract
This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 121171 "Temporal Graphs: Structure, Algorithms, Applications". The seminar was organized around four core areas: models, concepts, classes; concrete algorithmic problems; distributed aspects; applications. Because of the ongoing pandemic crisis, the seminar had to be held fully online, with talk and open problems sessions focussing on afternoons. Besides 19 contributed talks and small-group discussions, there were lively open-problem sessions, and some of the problems and research directions proposed there are part of this document. Despite strongly missing the usual Dagstuhl atmosphere and personal interaction possibilities, the seminar helped to establish new contacts and to identify new research directions in a thriving research area between (algorithmic) graph theory and network science.

Cite as

Arnaud Casteigts, Kitty Meeks, George B. Mertzios, and Rolf Niedermeier. Temporal Graphs: Structure, Algorithms, Applications (Dagstuhl Seminar 21171). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp. 16-46, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@Article{casteigts_et_al:DagRep.11.3.16,
  author =	{Casteigts, Arnaud and Meeks, Kitty and Mertzios, George B. and Niedermeier, Rolf},
  title =	{{Temporal Graphs: Structure, Algorithms, Applications (Dagstuhl Seminar 21171)}},
  pages =	{16--46},
  journal =	{Dagstuhl Reports},
  ISSN =	{2192-5283},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{11},
  number =	{3},
  editor =	{Casteigts, Arnaud and Meeks, Kitty and Mertzios, George B. and Niedermeier, Rolf},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.11.3.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146892},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagRep.11.3.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: algorithm engineering, complex network analysis, distributed computing, models and classes, parameterized complexity analysis}
}
Document
The Complexity of Transitively Orienting Temporal Graphs

Authors: George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, Malte Renken, Paul G. Spirakis, and Philipp Zschoche

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)


Abstract
In a temporal network with discrete time-labels on its edges, entities and information can only "flow" along sequences of edges whose time-labels are non-decreasing (resp. increasing), i.e. along temporal (resp. strict temporal) paths. Nevertheless, in the model for temporal networks of [Kempe, Kleinberg, Kumar, JCSS, 2002], the individual time-labeled edges remain undirected: an edge e = {u,v} with time-label t specifies that "u communicates with v at time t". This is a symmetric relation between u and v, and it can be interpreted that the information can flow in either direction. In this paper we make a first attempt to understand how the direction of information flow on one edge can impact the direction of information flow on other edges. More specifically, naturally extending the classical notion of a transitive orientation in static graphs, we introduce the fundamental notion of a temporal transitive orientation and we systematically investigate its algorithmic behavior in various situations. An orientation of a temporal graph is called temporally transitive if, whenever u has a directed edge towards v with time-label t₁ and v has a directed edge towards w with time-label t₂ ≥ t₁, then u also has a directed edge towards w with some time-label t₃ ≥ t₂. If we just demand that this implication holds whenever t₂ > t₁, the orientation is called strictly temporally transitive, as it is based on the fact that there is a strict directed temporal path from u to w. Our main result is a conceptually simple, yet technically quite involved, polynomial-time algorithm for recognizing whether a given temporal graph 𝒢 is transitively orientable. In wide contrast we prove that, surprisingly, it is NP-hard to recognize whether 𝒢 is strictly transitively orientable. Additionally we introduce and investigate further related problems to temporal transitivity, notably among them the temporal transitive completion problem, for which we prove both algorithmic and hardness results.

Cite as

George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, Malte Renken, Paul G. Spirakis, and Philipp Zschoche. The Complexity of Transitively Orienting Temporal Graphs. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 75:1-75:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{mertzios_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.75,
  author =	{Mertzios, George B. and Molter, Hendrik and Renken, Malte and Spirakis, Paul G. and Zschoche, Philipp},
  title =	{{The Complexity of Transitively Orienting Temporal Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)},
  pages =	{75:1--75:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-201-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{202},
  editor =	{Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.75},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-145157},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.75},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal graph, transitive orientation, transitive closure, polynomial-time algorithm, NP-hardness, satisfiability}
}
Document
Exact and Approximate Algorithms for Computing a Second Hamiltonian Cycle

Authors: Argyrios Deligkas, George B. Mertzios, Paul G. Spirakis, and Viktor Zamaraev

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)


Abstract
In this paper we consider the following total functional problem: Given a cubic Hamiltonian graph G and a Hamiltonian cycle C₀ of G, how can we compute a second Hamiltonian cycle C₁ ≠ C₀ of G? Cedric Smith and William Tutte proved in 1946, using a non-constructive parity argument, that such a second Hamiltonian cycle always exists. Our main result is a deterministic algorithm which computes the second Hamiltonian cycle in O(n⋅2^0.299862744n) = O(1.23103ⁿ) time and in linear space, thus improving the state of the art running time of O*(2^0.3n) = O(1.2312ⁿ) for solving this problem (among deterministic algorithms running in polynomial space). Whenever the input graph G does not contain any induced cycle C₆ on 6 vertices, the running time becomes O(n⋅ 2^0.2971925n) = O(1.22876ⁿ). Our algorithm is based on a fundamental structural property of Thomason’s lollipop algorithm, which we prove here for the first time. In the direction of approximating the length of a second cycle in a (not necessarily cubic) Hamiltonian graph G with a given Hamiltonian cycle C₀ (where we may not have guarantees on the existence of a second Hamiltonian cycle), we provide a linear-time algorithm computing a second cycle with length at least n - 4α (√n+2α)+8, where α = (Δ-2)/(δ-2) and δ,Δ are the minimum and the maximum degree of the graph, respectively. This approximation result also improves the state of the art.

Cite as

Argyrios Deligkas, George B. Mertzios, Paul G. Spirakis, and Viktor Zamaraev. Exact and Approximate Algorithms for Computing a Second Hamiltonian Cycle. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 27:1-27:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{deligkas_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.27,
  author =	{Deligkas, Argyrios and Mertzios, George B. and Spirakis, Paul G. and Zamaraev, Viktor},
  title =	{{Exact and Approximate Algorithms for Computing a Second Hamiltonian Cycle}},
  booktitle =	{45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-159-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{170},
  editor =	{Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126953},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, cubic graph, exact algorithm, approximation algorithm}
}
Document
Computing Maximum Matchings in Temporal Graphs

Authors: George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, Rolf Niedermeier, Viktor Zamaraev, and Philipp Zschoche

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 154, 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)


Abstract
Temporal graphs are graphs whose topology is subject to discrete changes over time. Given a static underlying graph G, a temporal graph is represented by assigning a set of integer time-labels to every edge e of G, indicating the discrete time steps at which e is active. We introduce and study the complexity of a natural temporal extension of the classical graph problem Maximum Matching, taking into account the dynamic nature of temporal graphs. In our problem, Maximum Temporal Matching, we are looking for the largest possible number of time-labeled edges (simply time-edges) (e,t) such that no vertex is matched more than once within any time window of Δ consecutive time slots, where Δ ∈ ℕ is given. The requirement that a vertex cannot be matched twice in any Δ-window models some necessary "recovery" period that needs to pass for an entity (vertex) after being paired up for some activity with another entity. We prove strong computational hardness results for Maximum Temporal Matching, even for elementary cases. To cope with this computational hardness, we mainly focus on fixed-parameter algorithms with respect to natural parameters, as well as on polynomial-time approximation algorithms.

Cite as

George B. Mertzios, Hendrik Molter, Rolf Niedermeier, Viktor Zamaraev, and Philipp Zschoche. Computing Maximum Matchings in Temporal Graphs. In 37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 154, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{mertzios_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2020.27,
  author =	{Mertzios, George B. and Molter, Hendrik and Niedermeier, Rolf and Zamaraev, Viktor and Zschoche, Philipp},
  title =	{{Computing Maximum Matchings in Temporal Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{37th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2020)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-140-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{154},
  editor =	{Paul, Christophe and Bl\"{a}ser, Markus},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-118881},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2020.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal Graph, Link Stream, Temporal Line Graph, NP-hardness, APX-hardness, Approximation Algorithm, Fixed-parameter Tractability, Independent Set}
}
Document
Deleting Edges to Restrict the Size of an Epidemic in Temporal Networks

Authors: Jessica Enright, Kitty Meeks, George B. Mertzios, and Viktor Zamaraev

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)


Abstract
Spreading processes on graphs are a natural model for a wide variety of real-world phenomena, including information or behaviour spread over social networks, biological diseases spreading over contact or trade networks, and the potential flow of goods over logistical infrastructure. Often, the networks over which these processes spread are dynamic in nature, and can be modeled with graphs whose structure is subject to discrete changes over time, i.e. with temporal graphs. Here, we consider temporal graphs in which edges are available at specified timesteps, and study the problem of deleting edges from a given temporal graph in order to reduce the number of vertices (temporally) reachable from a given starting point. This could be used to control the spread of a disease, rumour, etc. in a temporal graph. In particular, our aim is to find a temporal subgraph in which a process starting at any single vertex can be transferred to only a limited number of other vertices using a temporally-feasible path (i.e. a path, along which the times of the edge availabilities increase). We introduce a natural deletion problem for temporal graphs and we provide positive and negative results on its computational complexity, both in the traditional and the parameterised sense (subject to various natural parameters), as well as addressing the approximability of this problem.

Cite as

Jessica Enright, Kitty Meeks, George B. Mertzios, and Viktor Zamaraev. Deleting Edges to Restrict the Size of an Epidemic in Temporal Networks. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 57:1-57:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{enright_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.57,
  author =	{Enright, Jessica and Meeks, Kitty and Mertzios, George B. and Zamaraev, Viktor},
  title =	{{Deleting Edges to Restrict the Size of an Epidemic in Temporal Networks}},
  booktitle =	{44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)},
  pages =	{57:1--57:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-117-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{138},
  editor =	{Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.57},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110010},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.57},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal networks, spreading processes, graph modification, parameterised complexity}
}
Document
Track C: Foundations of Networks and Multi-Agent Systems: Models, Algorithms and Information Management
How Fast Can We Reach a Target Vertex in Stochastic Temporal Graphs?

Authors: Eleni C. Akrida, George B. Mertzios, Sotiris Nikoletseas, Christoforos Raptopoulos, Paul G. Spirakis, and Viktor Zamaraev

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)


Abstract
Temporal graphs are used to abstractly model real-life networks that are inherently dynamic in nature, in the sense that the network structure undergoes discrete changes over time. Given a static underlying graph G=(V,E), a temporal graph on G is a sequence of snapshots {G_t=(V,E_t) subseteq G: t in N}, one for each time step t >= 1. In this paper we study stochastic temporal graphs, i.e. stochastic processes G={G_t subseteq G: t in N} whose random variables are the snapshots of a temporal graph on G. A natural feature of stochastic temporal graphs which can be observed in various real-life scenarios is a memory effect in the appearance probabilities of particular edges; that is, the probability an edge e in E appears at time step t depends on its appearance (or absence) at the previous k steps. In this paper we study the hierarchy of models memory-k, k >= 0, which address this memory effect in an edge-centric network evolution: every edge of G has its own probability distribution for its appearance over time, independently of all other edges. Clearly, for every k >= 1, memory-(k-1) is a special case of memory-k. However, in this paper we make a clear distinction between the values k=0 ("no memory") and k >= 1 ("some memory"), as in some cases these models exhibit a fundamentally different computational behavior for these values of k, as our results indicate. For every k >= 0 we investigate the computational complexity of two naturally related, but fundamentally different, temporal path (or journey) problems: {Minimum Arrival} and {Best Policy}. In the first problem we are looking for the expected arrival time of a foremost journey between two designated vertices {s},{y}. In the second one we are looking for the expected arrival time of the best policy for actually choosing a particular {s}-{y} journey. We present a detailed investigation of the computational landscape of both problems for the different values of memory k. Among other results we prove that, surprisingly, {Minimum Arrival} is strictly harder than {Best Policy}; in fact, for k=0, {Minimum Arrival} is #P-hard while {Best Policy} is solvable in O(n^2) time.

Cite as

Eleni C. Akrida, George B. Mertzios, Sotiris Nikoletseas, Christoforos Raptopoulos, Paul G. Spirakis, and Viktor Zamaraev. How Fast Can We Reach a Target Vertex in Stochastic Temporal Graphs?. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 131:1-131:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{akrida_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.131,
  author =	{Akrida, Eleni C. and Mertzios, George B. and Nikoletseas, Sotiris and Raptopoulos, Christoforos and Spirakis, Paul G. and Zamaraev, Viktor},
  title =	{{How Fast Can We Reach a Target Vertex in Stochastic Temporal Graphs?}},
  booktitle =	{46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)},
  pages =	{131:1--131:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-109-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{132},
  editor =	{Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.131},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107071},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.131},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal network, stochastic temporal graph, temporal path, #P-hard problem, polynomial-time approximation scheme}
}
Document
Temporal Vertex Cover with a Sliding Time Window

Authors: Eleni C. Akrida, George B. Mertzios, Paul G. Spirakis, and Viktor Zamaraev

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)


Abstract
Modern, inherently dynamic systems are usually characterized by a network structure, i.e. an underlying graph topology, which is subject to discrete changes over time. Given a static underlying graph G, a temporal graph can be represented via an assignment of a set of integer time-labels to every edge of G, indicating the discrete time steps when this edge is active. While most of the recent theoretical research on temporal graphs has focused on the notion of a temporal path and other "path-related" temporal notions, only few attempts have been made to investigate "non-path" temporal graph problems. In this paper, motivated by applications in sensor and in transportation networks, we introduce and study two natural temporal extensions of the classical problem Vertex Cover. In our first problem, Temporal Vertex Cover, the aim is to cover every edge at least once during the lifetime of the temporal graph, where an edge can only be covered by one of its endpoints at a time step when it is active. In our second, more pragmatic variation Sliding Window Temporal Vertex Cover, we are also given a natural number Delta, and our aim is to cover every edge at least once at every Delta consecutive time steps. In both cases we wish to minimize the total number of "vertex appearances" that are needed to cover the whole graph. We present a thorough investigation of the computational complexity and approximability of these two temporal covering problems. In particular, we provide strong hardness results, complemented by various approximation and exact algorithms. Some of our algorithms are polynomial-time, while others are asymptotically almost optimal under the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH) and other plausible complexity assumptions.

Cite as

Eleni C. Akrida, George B. Mertzios, Paul G. Spirakis, and Viktor Zamaraev. Temporal Vertex Cover with a Sliding Time Window. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 148:1-148:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{akrida_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.148,
  author =	{Akrida, Eleni C. and Mertzios, George B. and Spirakis, Paul G. and Zamaraev, Viktor},
  title =	{{Temporal Vertex Cover with a Sliding Time Window}},
  booktitle =	{45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)},
  pages =	{148:1--148:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-076-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{107},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.148},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91522},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.148},
  annote =	{Keywords: Temporal networks, temporal vertex cover, APX-hard, approximation algorithm, Exponential Time Hypothesis}
}
Document
Binary Search in Graphs Revisited

Authors: Argyrios Deligkas, George B. Mertzios, and Paul G. Spirakis

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 83, 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)


Abstract
In the classical binary search in a path the aim is to detect an unknown target by asking as few queries as possible, where each query reveals the direction to the target. This binary search algorithm has been recently extended by [Emamjomeh-Zadeh et al., STOC, 2016] to the problem of detecting a target in an arbitrary graph. Similarly to the classical case in the path, the algorithm of Emamjomeh-Zadeh et al. maintains a candidates’ set for the target, while each query asks an appropriately chosen vertex– the "median"–which minimises a potential \Phi among the vertices of the candidates' set. In this paper we address three open questions posed by Emamjomeh-Zadeh et al., namely (a) detecting a target when the query response is a direction to an approximately shortest path to the target, (b) detecting a target when querying a vertex that is an approximate median of the current candidates' set (instead of an exact one), and (c) detecting multiple targets, for which to the best of our knowledge no progress has been made so far. We resolve questions (a) and (b) by providing appropriate upper and lower bounds, as well as a new potential Γ that guarantees efficient target detection even by querying an approximate median each time. With respect to (c), we initiate a systematic study for detecting two targets in graphs and we identify sufficient conditions on the queries that allow for strong (linear) lower bounds and strong (polylogarithmic) upper bounds for the number of queries. All of our positive results can be derived using our new potential \Gamma that allows querying approximate medians.

Cite as

Argyrios Deligkas, George B. Mertzios, and Paul G. Spirakis. Binary Search in Graphs Revisited. In 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 83, pp. 20:1-20:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{deligkas_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.20,
  author =	{Deligkas, Argyrios and Mertzios, George B. and Spirakis, Paul G.},
  title =	{{Binary Search in Graphs Revisited}},
  booktitle =	{42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-046-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{83},
  editor =	{Larsen, Kim G. and Bodlaender, Hans L. and Raskin, Jean-Francois},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80589},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: binary search, graph, approximate query, probabilistic algorithm, lower bound.}
}
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