61 Search Results for "Saraf, Shubhangi"


Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 169

35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

CCC 2020, July 28-31, 2020, Saarbrücken, Germany (Virtual Conference)

Editors: Shubhangi Saraf

Document
Explicit Time and Space Efficient Encoders Exist Only with Random Access

Authors: Joshua Cook and Dana Moshkovitz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We give the first explicit constant rate, constant relative distance, linear codes with an encoder that runs in time n^{1 + o(1)} and space polylog(n) provided random access to the message. Prior to this work, the only such codes were non-explicit, for instance repeat accumulate codes [Divsalar et al., 1998] and the codes described in [Gál et al., 2013]. To construct our codes, we also give explicit, efficiently invertible, lossless condensers with constant entropy gap and polylogarithmic seed length. In contrast to encoders with random access to the message, we show that encoders with sequential access to the message can not run in almost linear time and polylogarithmic space. Our notion of sequential access is much stronger than streaming access.

Cite as

Joshua Cook and Dana Moshkovitz. Explicit Time and Space Efficient Encoders Exist Only with Random Access. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 5:1-5:54, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{cook_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.5,
  author =	{Cook, Joshua and Moshkovitz, Dana},
  title =	{{Explicit Time and Space Efficient Encoders Exist Only with Random Access}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:54},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204015},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Time-Space Trade Offs, Error Correcting Codes, Encoders, Explicit Constructions, Streaming Lower Bounds, Sequential Access, Time-Space Lower Bounds, Lossless Condensers, Invertible Condensers, Condensers}
}
Document
Asymptotically-Good RLCCs with (log n)^(2+o(1)) Queries

Authors: Gil Cohen and Tal Yankovitz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Recently, Kumar and Mon reached a significant milestone by constructing asymptotically good relaxed locally correctable codes (RLCCs) with poly-logarithmic query complexity. Specifically, they constructed n-bit RLCCs with O(log^{69} n) queries. Their construction relies on a clever reduction to locally testable codes (LTCs), capitalizing on recent breakthrough works in LTCs. As for lower bounds, Gur and Lachish (SICOMP 2021) proved that any asymptotically-good RLCC must make Ω̃(√{log n}) queries. Hence emerges the intriguing question regarding the identity of the least value 1/2 ≤ e ≤ 69 for which asymptotically-good RLCCs with query complexity (log n)^{e+o(1)} exist. In this work, we make substantial progress in narrowing the gap by devising asymptotically-good RLCCs with a query complexity of (log n)^{2+o(1)}. The key insight driving our work lies in recognizing that the strong guarantee of local testability overshoots the requirements for the Kumar-Mon reduction. In particular, we prove that we can replace the LTCs by "vanilla" expander codes which indeed have the necessary property: local testability in the code’s vicinity.

Cite as

Gil Cohen and Tal Yankovitz. Asymptotically-Good RLCCs with (log n)^(2+o(1)) Queries. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 8:1-8:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.8,
  author =	{Cohen, Gil and Yankovitz, Tal},
  title =	{{Asymptotically-Good RLCCs with (log n)^(2+o(1)) Queries}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204045},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Relaxed locally decodable codes, Relxaed locally correctable codes, RLCC, RLDC}
}
Document
Local Enumeration and Majority Lower Bounds

Authors: Mohit Gurumukhani, Ramamohan Paturi, Pavel Pudlák, Michael Saks, and Navid Talebanfard

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Depth-3 circuit lower bounds and k-SAT algorithms are intimately related; the state-of-the-art Σ^k_3-circuit lower bound (Or-And-Or circuits with bottom fan-in at most k) and the k-SAT algorithm of Paturi, Pudlák, Saks, and Zane (J. ACM'05) are based on the same combinatorial theorem regarding k-CNFs. In this paper we define a problem which reveals new interactions between the two, and suggests a concrete approach to significantly stronger circuit lower bounds and improved k-SAT algorithms. For a natural number k and a parameter t, we consider the Enum(k, t) problem defined as follows: given an n-variable k-CNF and an initial assignment α, output all satisfying assignments at Hamming distance t(n) of α, assuming that there are no satisfying assignments of Hamming distance less than t(n) of α. We observe that an upper bound b(n, k, t) on the complexity of Enum(k, t) simultaneously implies depth-3 circuit lower bounds and k-SAT algorithms: - Depth-3 circuits: Any Σ^k_3 circuit computing the Majority function has size at least binom(n,n/2)/b(n, k, n/2). - k-SAT: There exists an algorithm solving k-SAT in time O(∑_{t=1}^{n/2}b(n, k, t)). A simple construction shows that b(n, k, n/2) ≥ 2^{(1 - O(log(k)/k))n}. Thus, matching upper bounds for b(n, k, n/2) would imply a Σ^k_3-circuit lower bound of 2^Ω(log(k)n/k) and a k-SAT upper bound of 2^{(1 - Ω(log(k)/k))n}. The former yields an unrestricted depth-3 lower bound of 2^ω(√n) solving a long standing open problem, and the latter breaks the Super Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. In this paper, we propose a randomized algorithm for Enum(k, t) and introduce new ideas to analyze it. We demonstrate the power of our ideas by considering the first non-trivial instance of the problem, i.e., Enum(3, n/2). We show that the expected running time of our algorithm is 1.598ⁿ, substantially improving on the trivial bound of 3^{n/2} ≃ 1.732ⁿ. This already improves Σ^3_3 lower bounds for Majority function to 1.251ⁿ. The previous bound was 1.154ⁿ which follows from the work of Håstad, Jukna, and Pudlák (Comput. Complex.'95). By restricting ourselves to monotone CNFs, Enum(k, t) immediately becomes a hypergraph Turán problem. Therefore our techniques might be of independent interest in extremal combinatorics.

Cite as

Mohit Gurumukhani, Ramamohan Paturi, Pavel Pudlák, Michael Saks, and Navid Talebanfard. Local Enumeration and Majority Lower Bounds. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 17:1-17:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{gurumukhani_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.17,
  author =	{Gurumukhani, Mohit and Paturi, Ramamohan and Pudl\'{a}k, Pavel and Saks, Michael and Talebanfard, Navid},
  title =	{{Local Enumeration and Majority Lower Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204136},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Depth 3 circuits, k-CNF satisfiability, Circuit lower bounds, Majority function}
}
Document
Pseudorandomness, Symmetry, Smoothing: I

Authors: Harm Derksen, Peter Ivanov, Chin Ho Lee, and Emanuele Viola

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We prove several new results about bounded uniform and small-bias distributions. A main message is that, small-bias, even perturbed with noise, does not fool several classes of tests better than bounded uniformity. We prove this for threshold tests, small-space algorithms, and small-depth circuits. In particular, we obtain small-bias distributions that - achieve an optimal lower bound on their statistical distance to any bounded-uniform distribution. This closes a line of research initiated by Alon, Goldreich, and Mansour in 2003, and improves on a result by O'Donnell and Zhao. - have heavier tail mass than the uniform distribution. This answers a question posed by several researchers including Bun and Steinke. - rule out a popular paradigm for constructing pseudorandom generators, originating in a 1989 work by Ajtai and Wigderson. This again answers a question raised by several researchers. For branching programs, our result matches a bound by Forbes and Kelley. Our small-bias distributions above are symmetric. We show that the xor of any two symmetric small-bias distributions fools any bounded function. Hence our examples cannot be extended to the xor of two small-bias distributions, another popular paradigm whose power remains unknown. We also generalize and simplify the proof of a result of Bazzi.

Cite as

Harm Derksen, Peter Ivanov, Chin Ho Lee, and Emanuele Viola. Pseudorandomness, Symmetry, Smoothing: I. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 18:1-18:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{derksen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.18,
  author =	{Derksen, Harm and Ivanov, Peter and Lee, Chin Ho and Viola, Emanuele},
  title =	{{Pseudorandomness, Symmetry, Smoothing: I}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204144},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: pseudorandomness, k-wise uniform distributions, small-bias distributions, noise, symmetric tests, thresholds, Krawtchouk polynomials}
}
Document
Lower Bounds for Set-Multilinear Branching Programs

Authors: Prerona Chatterjee, Deepanshu Kush, Shubhangi Saraf, and Amir Shpilka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
In this paper, we prove super-polynomial lower bounds for the model of sum of ordered set-multilinear algebraic branching programs, each with a possibly different ordering (∑smABP). Specifically, we give an explicit nd-variate polynomial of degree d such that any ∑smABP computing it must have size n^ω(1) for d as low as ω(log n). Notably, this constitutes the first such lower bound in the low degree regime. Moreover, for d = poly(n), we demonstrate an exponential lower bound. This result generalizes the seminal work of Nisan (STOC, 1991), which proved an exponential lower bound for a single ordered set-multilinear ABP. The significance of our lower bounds is underscored by the recent work of Bhargav, Dwivedi, and Saxena (TAMC, 2024), which showed that super-polynomial lower bounds against a sum of ordered set-multilinear branching programs - for a polynomial of sufficiently low degree - would imply super-polynomial lower bounds against general ABPs, thereby resolving Valiant’s longstanding conjecture that the permanent polynomial can not be computed efficiently by ABPs. More precisely, their work shows that if one could obtain such lower bounds when the degree is bounded by O(log n/ log log n), then it would imply super-polynomial lower bounds against general ABPs. Our results strengthen the works of Arvind & Raja (Chic. J. Theor. Comput. Sci., 2016) and Bhargav, Dwivedi & Saxena (TAMC, 2024), as well as the works of Ramya & Rao (Theor. Comput. Sci., 2020) and Ghoshal & Rao (International Computer Science Symposium in Russia, 2021), each of which established lower bounds for related or restricted versions of this model. They also strongly answer a question from the former two, which asked to prove super-polynomial lower bounds for general ∑smABP.

Cite as

Prerona Chatterjee, Deepanshu Kush, Shubhangi Saraf, and Amir Shpilka. Lower Bounds for Set-Multilinear Branching Programs. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 20:1-20:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chatterjee_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.20,
  author =	{Chatterjee, Prerona and Kush, Deepanshu and Saraf, Shubhangi and Shpilka, Amir},
  title =	{{Lower Bounds for Set-Multilinear Branching Programs}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204167},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: Lower Bounds, Algebraic Branching Programs, Set-multilinear polynomials}
}
Document
Low-Depth Algebraic Circuit Lower Bounds over Any Field

Authors: Michael A. Forbes

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
The recent breakthrough of Limaye, Srinivasan and Tavenas [Limaye et al., 2022] (LST) gave the first super-polynomial lower bounds against low-depth algebraic circuits, for any field of zero (or sufficiently large) characteristic. It was an open question to extend this result to small-characteristic ([Limaye et al., 2022; Govindasamy et al., 2022; Fournier et al., 2023]), which in particular is relevant for an approach to prove superpolynomial AC⁰[p]-Frege lower bounds ([Govindasamy et al., 2022]). In this work, we prove super-polynomial algebraic circuit lower bounds against low-depth algebraic circuits over any field, with the same parameters as LST (or even matching the improved parameters of Bhargav, Dutta, and Saxena [Bhargav et al., 2022]). We give two proofs. The first is logical, showing that even though the proof of LST naively fails in small characteristic, the proof is sufficiently algebraic that generic transfer results imply the result over characteristic zero implies the result over all fields. Motivated by this indirect proof, we then proceed to give a second constructive proof, replacing the field-dependent set-multilinearization result of LST with a set-multilinearization that works over any field, by using the Binet-Minc identity [Minc, 1979].

Cite as

Michael A. Forbes. Low-Depth Algebraic Circuit Lower Bounds over Any Field. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 31:1-31:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{forbes:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.31,
  author =	{Forbes, Michael A.},
  title =	{{Low-Depth Algebraic Circuit Lower Bounds over Any Field}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204271},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: algebraic circuits, lower bounds, low-depth circuits, positive characteristic}
}
Document
BPL ⊆ L-AC¹

Authors: Kuan Cheng and Yichuan Wang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Whether BPL = 𝖫 (which is conjectured to be equal) or even whether BPL ⊆ NL, is a big open problem in theoretical computer science. It is well known that 𝖫 ⊆ NL ⊆ L-AC¹. In this work we show that BPL ⊆ L-AC¹ also holds. Our proof is based on a new iteration method for boosting precision in approximating matrix powering, which is inspired by the Richardson Iteration method developed in a recent line of work [AmirMahdi Ahmadinejad et al., 2020; Edward Pyne and Salil P. Vadhan, 2021; Gil Cohen et al., 2021; William M. Hoza, 2021; Gil Cohen et al., 2023; Aaron (Louie) Putterman and Edward Pyne, 2023; Lijie Chen et al., 2023]. We also improve the algorithm for approximate counting in low-depth L-AC circuits from an additive error setting to a multiplicative error setting.

Cite as

Kuan Cheng and Yichuan Wang. BPL ⊆ L-AC¹. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 32:1-32:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.32,
  author =	{Cheng, Kuan and Wang, Yichuan},
  title =	{{BPL ⊆ L-AC¹}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204282},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: Randomized Space Complexity, Circuit Complexity, Derandomization}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials

Authors: Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
An s-sparse polynomial has at most s monomials with nonzero coefficients. The Equivalence Testing problem for sparse polynomials (ETsparse) asks to decide if a given polynomial f is equivalent to (i.e., in the orbit of) some s-sparse polynomial. In other words, given f ∈ 𝔽[𝐱] and s ∈ ℕ, ETsparse asks to check if there exist A ∈ GL(|𝐱|, 𝔽) and 𝐛 ∈ 𝔽^|𝐱| such that f(A𝐱 + 𝐛) is s-sparse. We show that ETsparse is NP-hard over any field 𝔽, if f is given in the sparse representation, i.e., as a list of nonzero coefficients and exponent vectors. This answers a question posed by Gupta, Saha and Thankey (SODA 2023) and also, more explicitly, by Baraskar, Dewan and Saha (STACS 2024). The result implies that the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) is NP-hard for a dense subclass of depth-3 arithmetic circuits if the input is given in sparse representation. We also show that approximating the smallest s₀ such that a given s-sparse polynomial f is in the orbit of some s₀-sparse polynomial to within a factor of s^{1/3 - ε} is NP-hard for any ε > 0; observe that s-factor approximation is trivial as the input is s-sparse. Finally, we show that for any constant σ ≥ 6, checking if a polynomial (given in sparse representation) is in the orbit of some support-σ polynomial is NP-hard. Support of a polynomial f is the maximum number of variables present in any monomial of f. These results are obtained via direct reductions from the 3-SAT problem.

Cite as

Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha. NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 16:1-16:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{baraskar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16,
  author =	{Baraskar, Omkar and Dewan, Agrim and Saha, Chandan and Sinha, Pulkit},
  title =	{{NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201598},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Equivalence testing, MCSP, sparse polynomials, 3SAT}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Linear Relaxed Locally Decodable and Correctable Codes Do Not Need Adaptivity and Two-Sided Error

Authors: Guy Goldberg

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Relaxed locally decodable codes (RLDCs) are error-correcting codes in which individual bits of the message can be recovered by querying only a few bits from a noisy codeword. For uncorrupted codewords, and for every bit, the decoder must decode the bit correctly with high probability. However, for a noisy codeword, a relaxed local decoder is allowed to output a "rejection" symbol, indicating that the decoding failed. We study the power of adaptivity and two-sided error for RLDCs. Our main result is that if the underlying code is linear, adaptivity and two-sided error do not give any power to relaxed local decoding. We construct a reduction from adaptive, two-sided error relaxed local decoders to non-adaptive, one-sided error ones. That is, the reduction produces a relaxed local decoder that never errs or rejects if its input is a valid codeword and makes queries based on its internal randomness (and the requested index to decode), independently of the input. The reduction essentially maintains the query complexity, requiring at most one additional query. For any input, the decoder’s error probability increases at most two-fold. Furthermore, assuming the underlying code is in systematic form, where the original message is embedded as the first bits of its encoding, the reduction also conserves both the code itself and its rate and distance properties We base the reduction on our new notion of additive promise problems. A promise problem is additive if the sum of any two YES-instances is a YES-instance and the sum of any NO-instance and a YES-instance is a NO-instance. This novel framework captures both linear RLDCs and property testing (of linear properties), despite their significant differences. We prove that in general, algorithms for any additive promise problem do not gain power from adaptivity or two-sided error, and obtain the result for RLDCs as a special case. The result also holds for relaxed locally correctable codes (RLCCs), where a codeword bit should be recovered. As an application, we improve the best known lower bound for linear adaptive RLDCs. Specifically, we prove that such codes require block length of n ≥ k^{1+Ω(1/q²)}, where k denotes the message length and q denotes the number of queries.

Cite as

Guy Goldberg. Linear Relaxed Locally Decodable and Correctable Codes Do Not Need Adaptivity and Two-Sided Error. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 74:1-74:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{goldberg:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.74,
  author =	{Goldberg, Guy},
  title =	{{Linear Relaxed Locally Decodable and Correctable Codes Do Not Need Adaptivity and Two-Sided Error}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{74:1--74:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.74},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202174},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.74},
  annote =	{Keywords: Locally decodable codes, Relaxed locally correctable codes, Relaxed locally decodable codes}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Two-Source and Affine Non-Malleable Extractors for Small Entropy

Authors: Xin Li and Yan Zhong

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Non-malleable extractors are generalizations and strengthening of standard randomness extractors, that are resilient to adversarial tampering. Such extractors have wide applications in cryptography and have become important cornerstones in recent breakthroughs of explicit constructions of two-source extractors and affine extractors for small entropy. However, explicit constructions of non-malleable extractors appear to be much harder than standard extractors. Indeed, in the well-studied models of two-source and affine non-malleable extractors, the previous best constructions only work for entropy rate > 2/3 and 1-γ for some small constant γ > 0 respectively by Li (FOCS' 23). In this paper, we present explicit constructions of two-source and affine non-malleable extractors that match the state-of-the-art constructions of standard ones for small entropy. Our main results include: - Two-source and affine non-malleable extractors (over 𝖥₂) for sources on n bits with min-entropy k ≥ log^C n and polynomially small error, matching the parameters of standard extractors by Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman (STOC' 16, Annals of Mathematics' 19) and Li (FOCS' 16). - Two-source and affine non-malleable extractors (over 𝖥₂) for sources on n bits with min-entropy k = O(log n) and constant error, matching the parameters of standard extractors by Li (FOCS' 23). Our constructions significantly improve previous results, and the parameters (entropy requirement and error) are the best possible without first improving the constructions of standard extractors. In addition, our improved affine non-malleable extractors give strong lower bounds for a certain kind of read-once linear branching programs, recently introduced by Gryaznov, Pudlák, and Talebanfard (CCC' 22) as a generalization of several well studied computational models. These bounds match the previously best-known average-case hardness results given by Chattopadhyay and Liao (CCC' 23) and Li (FOCS' 23), where the branching program size lower bounds are close to optimal, but the explicit functions we use here are different. Our results also suggest a possible deeper connection between non-malleable extractors and standard ones.

Cite as

Xin Li and Yan Zhong. Two-Source and Affine Non-Malleable Extractors for Small Entropy. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 108:1-108:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.108,
  author =	{Li, Xin and Zhong, Yan},
  title =	{{Two-Source and Affine Non-Malleable Extractors for Small Entropy}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{108:1--108:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.108},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202512},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.108},
  annote =	{Keywords: Randomness Extractors, Non-malleable, Two-source, Affine}
}
Document
Near-Optimal Set-Multilinear Formula Lower Bounds

Authors: Deepanshu Kush and Shubhangi Saraf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
The seminal work of Raz (J. ACM 2013) as well as the recent breakthrough results by Limaye, Srinivasan, and Tavenas (FOCS 2021, STOC 2022) have demonstrated a potential avenue for obtaining lower bounds for general algebraic formulas, via strong enough lower bounds for set-multilinear formulas. In this paper, we make progress along this direction by proving near-optimal lower bounds against low-depth as well as unbounded-depth set-multilinear formulas. More precisely, we show that over any field of characteristic zero, there is a polynomial f computed by a polynomial-sized set-multilinear branching program (i.e., f is in set-multilinear VBP) defined over Θ(n²) variables and of degree Θ(n), such that any product-depth Δ set-multilinear formula computing f has size at least n^Ω(n^{1/Δ}/Δ). Moreover, we show that any unbounded-depth set-multilinear formula computing f has size at least n^{Ω(log n)}. If such strong lower bounds are proven for the iterated matrix multiplication (IMM) polynomial or rather, any polynomial that is computed by an ordered set-multilinear branching program (i.e., a further restriction of set-multilinear VBP), then this would have dramatic consequences as it would imply super-polynomial lower bounds for general algebraic formulas (Raz, J. ACM 2013; Tavenas, Limaye, and Srinivasan, STOC 2022). Prior to our work, either only weaker lower bounds were known for the IMM polynomial (Tavenas, Limaye, and Srinivasan, STOC 2022), or similar strong lower bounds were known but for a hard polynomial not known to be even in set-multilinear VP (Kush and Saraf, CCC 2022; Raz, J. ACM 2009). By known depth-reduction results, our lower bounds are essentially tight for f and in general, for any hard polynomial that is in set-multilinear VBP or set-multilinear VP. Any asymptotic improvement in the lower bound (for a hard polynomial, say, in VNP) would imply super-polynomial lower bounds for general set-multilinear circuits.

Cite as

Deepanshu Kush and Shubhangi Saraf. Near-Optimal Set-Multilinear Formula Lower Bounds. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 15:1-15:33, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{kush_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.15,
  author =	{Kush, Deepanshu and Saraf, Shubhangi},
  title =	{{Near-Optimal Set-Multilinear Formula Lower Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:33},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182855},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algebraic Complexity, Set-multilinear, Formula Lower Bounds}
}
Document
Improved Low-Depth Set-Multilinear Circuit Lower Bounds

Authors: Deepanshu Kush and Shubhangi Saraf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
In this paper, we prove strengthened lower bounds for constant-depth set-multilinear formulas. More precisely, we show that over any field, there is an explicit polynomial f in VNP defined over n² variables, and of degree n, such that any product-depth Δ set-multilinear formula computing f has size at least n^Ω(n^{1/Δ}/Δ). The hard polynomial f comes from the class of Nisan-Wigderson (NW) design-based polynomials. Our lower bounds improve upon the recent work of Limaye, Srinivasan and Tavenas (STOC 2022), where a lower bound of the form (log n)^Ω(Δ n^{1/Δ}) was shown for the size of product-depth Δ set-multilinear formulas computing the iterated matrix multiplication (IMM) polynomial of the same degree and over the same number of variables as f. Moreover, our lower bounds are novel for any Δ ≥ 2. The precise quantitative expression in our lower bound is interesting also because the lower bounds we obtain are "sharp" in the sense that any asymptotic improvement would imply general set-multilinear circuit lower bounds via depth reduction results. In the setting of general set-multilinear formulas, a lower bound of the form n^Ω(log n) was already obtained by Raz (J. ACM 2009) for the more general model of multilinear formulas. The techniques of LST (which extend the techniques of the same authors in (FOCS 2021)) give a different route to set-multilinear formula lower bounds, and allow them to obtain a lower bound of the form (log n)^Ω(log n) for the size of general set-multilinear formulas computing the IMM polynomial. Our proof techniques are another variation on those of LST, and enable us to show an improved lower bound (matching that of Raz) of the form n^Ω(log n), albeit for the same polynomial f in VNP (the NW polynomial). As observed by LST, if the same n^Ω(log n) size lower bounds for unbounded-depth set-multilinear formulas could be obtained for the IMM polynomial, then using the self-reducibility of IMM and using hardness escalation results, this would imply super-polynomial lower bounds for general algebraic formulas.

Cite as

Deepanshu Kush and Shubhangi Saraf. Improved Low-Depth Set-Multilinear Circuit Lower Bounds. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 38:1-38:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{kush_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.38,
  author =	{Kush, Deepanshu and Saraf, Shubhangi},
  title =	{{Improved Low-Depth Set-Multilinear Circuit Lower Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{38:1--38:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.38},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-166003},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.38},
  annote =	{Keywords: algebraic circuit complexity, complexity measure, set-multilinear formulas}
}
Document
RANDOM
On Multilinear Forms: Bias, Correlation, and Tensor Rank

Authors: Abhishek Bhrushundi, Prahladh Harsha, Pooya Hatami, Swastik Kopparty, and Mrinal Kumar

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)


Abstract
In this work, we prove new relations between the bias of multilinear forms, the correlation between multilinear forms and lower degree polynomials, and the rank of tensors over F₂. We show the following results for multilinear forms and tensors. Correlation bounds. We show that a random d-linear form has exponentially low correlation with low-degree polynomials. More precisely, for d = 2^{o(k)}, we show that a random d-linear form f(X₁,X₂, … , X_d) : (F₂^{k}) ^d → F₂ has correlation 2^{-k(1-o(1))} with any polynomial of degree at most d/2 with high probability. This result is proved by giving near-optimal bounds on the bias of a random d-linear form, which is in turn proved by giving near-optimal bounds on the probability that a sum of t random d-dimensional rank-1 tensors is identically zero. Tensor rank vs Bias. We show that if a 3-dimensional tensor has small rank then its bias, when viewed as a 3-linear form, is large. More precisely, given any 3-dimensional tensor T: [k]³ → F₂ of rank at most t, the bias of the 3-linear form f_T(X₁, X₂, X₃) : = ∑_{(i₁, i₂, i₃) ∈ [k]³} T(i₁, i₂, i₃)⋅ X_{1,i₁}⋅ X_{2,i₂}⋅ X_{3,i₃} is at least (3/4)^t. This bias vs tensor-rank connection suggests a natural approach to proving nontrivial tensor-rank lower bounds. In particular, we use this approach to give a new proof that the finite field multiplication tensor has tensor rank at least 3.52 k, which is the best known rank lower bound for any explicit tensor in three dimensions over F₂. Moreover, this relation between bias and tensor rank holds for d-dimensional tensors for any fixed d.

Cite as

Abhishek Bhrushundi, Prahladh Harsha, Pooya Hatami, Swastik Kopparty, and Mrinal Kumar. On Multilinear Forms: Bias, Correlation, and Tensor Rank. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 29:1-29:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{bhrushundi_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.29,
  author =	{Bhrushundi, Abhishek and Harsha, Prahladh and Hatami, Pooya and Kopparty, Swastik and Kumar, Mrinal},
  title =	{{On Multilinear Forms: Bias, Correlation, and Tensor Rank}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-164-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{176},
  editor =	{Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126325},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: polynomials, Boolean functions, tensor rank, bias, correlation}
}
Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 169, CCC 2020, Complete Volume

Authors: Shubhangi Saraf

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 169, CCC 2020, Complete Volume

Cite as

35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 1-1068, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@Proceedings{saraf:LIPIcs.CCC.2020,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 169, CCC 2020, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)},
  pages =	{1--1068},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-156-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{169},
  editor =	{Saraf, Shubhangi},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125518},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020},
  annote =	{Keywords: LIPIcs, Volume 169, CCC 2020, Complete Volume}
}
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