194 Search Results for "Bansal, Nikhil"


Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 198

48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

ICALP 2021, July 12-16, 2021, Glasgow, Scotland (Virtual Conference)

Editors: Nikhil Bansal, Emanuela Merelli, and James Worrell

Document
Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy

Authors: Sepehr Assadi, Prantar Ghosh, Bruno Loff, Parth Mittal, and Sagnik Mukhopadhyay

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
The following question arises naturally in the study of graph streaming algorithms: Is there any graph problem which is "not too hard", in that it can be solved efficiently with total communication (nearly) linear in the number n of vertices, and for which, nonetheless, any streaming algorithm with Õ(n) space (i.e., a semi-streaming algorithm) needs a polynomial n^Ω(1) number of passes? Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [STOC 2019] were the first to prove that this is indeed the case. However, the lower bounds that they obtained are for rather non-standard graph problems. Our first main contribution is to present the first polynomial-pass lower bounds for natural "not too hard" graph problems studied previously in the streaming model: k-cores and degeneracy. We devise a novel communication protocol for both problems with near-linear communication, thus showing that k-cores and degeneracy are natural examples of "not too hard" problems. Indeed, previous work have developed single-pass semi-streaming algorithms for approximating these problems. In contrast, we prove that any semi-streaming algorithm for exactly solving these problems requires (almost) Ω(n^{1/3}) passes. The lower bound follows by a reduction from a generalization of the hidden pointer chasing (HPC) problem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna, which is also the basis of their earlier semi-streaming lower bounds. Our second main contribution is improved round-communication lower bounds for the underlying communication problems at the basis of these reductions: - We improve the previous lower bound of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna for HPC to achieve optimal bounds for this problem. - We further observe that all current reductions from HPC can also work with a generalized version of this problem that we call MultiHPC, and prove an even stronger and optimal lower bound for this generalization. These two results collectively allow us to improve the resulting pass lower bounds for semi-streaming algorithms by a polynomial factor, namely, from n^{1/5} to n^{1/3} passes.

Cite as

Sepehr Assadi, Prantar Ghosh, Bruno Loff, Parth Mittal, and Sagnik Mukhopadhyay. Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7,
  author =	{Assadi, Sepehr and Ghosh, Prantar and Loff, Bruno and Mittal, Parth and Mukhopadhyay, Sagnik},
  title =	{{Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204035},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph streaming, Lower bounds, Communication complexity, k-Cores and degeneracy}
}
Document
Baby PIH: Parameterized Inapproximability of Min CSP

Authors: Venkatesan Guruswami, Xuandi Ren, and Sai Sandeep

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
The Parameterized Inapproximability Hypothesis (PIH) is the analog of the PCP theorem in the world of parameterized complexity. It asserts that no FPT algorithm can distinguish a satisfiable 2CSP instance from one which is only (1-ε)-satisfiable (where the parameter is the number of variables) for some constant 0 < ε < 1. We consider a minimization version of CSPs (Min-CSP), where one may assign r values to each variable, and the goal is to ensure that every constraint is satisfied by some choice among the r × r pairs of values assigned to its variables (call such a CSP instance r-list-satisfiable). We prove the following strong parameterized inapproximability for Min CSP: For every r ≥ 1, it is W[1]-hard to tell if a 2CSP instance is satisfiable or is not even r-list-satisfiable. We refer to this statement as "Baby PIH", following the recently proved Baby PCP Theorem (Barto and Kozik, 2021). Our proof adapts the combinatorial arguments underlying the Baby PCP theorem, overcoming some basic obstacles that arise in the parameterized setting. Furthermore, our reduction runs in time polynomially bounded in both the number of variables and the alphabet size, and thus implies the Baby PCP theorem as well.

Cite as

Venkatesan Guruswami, Xuandi Ren, and Sai Sandeep. Baby PIH: Parameterized Inapproximability of Min CSP. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 27:1-27:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.27,
  author =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan and Ren, Xuandi and Sandeep, Sai},
  title =	{{Baby PIH: Parameterized Inapproximability of Min CSP}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204237},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Inapproximability Hypothesis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems}
}
Document
Determining Fixed-Length Paths in Directed and Undirected Edge-Weighted Graphs

Authors: Daniel Hambly, Rhyd Lewis, and Padraig Corcoran

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 301, 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)


Abstract
In this paper, we examine the NP-hard problem of identifying fixed-length s-t paths in edge-weighted graphs - that is, a path of a desired length k from a source vertex s to a target vertex t. Many existing strategies look at paths whose lengths are determined by the number of edges in the path. We, however, look at the length of the path as the sum of the edge weights. Here, three exact algorithms for this problem are proposed: the first based on an integer programming (IP) formulation, the second a backtracking algorithm, and the third based on an extension of Yen’s algorithm. Analysis of these algorithms on random graphs shows that the backtracking algorithm performs best on smaller values of k, whilst the IP is preferable for larger values of k.

Cite as

Daniel Hambly, Rhyd Lewis, and Padraig Corcoran. Determining Fixed-Length Paths in Directed and Undirected Edge-Weighted Graphs. In 22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 301, pp. 15:1-15:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{hambly_et_al:LIPIcs.SEA.2024.15,
  author =	{Hambly, Daniel and Lewis, Rhyd and Corcoran, Padraig},
  title =	{{Determining Fixed-Length Paths in Directed and Undirected Edge-Weighted Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{22nd International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2024)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-325-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{301},
  editor =	{Liberti, Leo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203805},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2024.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graphs, paths, backtracking, integer programming, Yen’s algorithm}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects

Authors: Pritam Acharya, Sujoy Bhore, Aaryan Gupta, Arindam Khan, Bratin Mondal, and Andreas Wiese

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We study the geometric knapsack problem in which we are given a set of d-dimensional objects (each with associated profits) and the goal is to find the maximum profit subset that can be packed non-overlappingly into a given d-dimensional (unit hypercube) knapsack. Even if d = 2 and all input objects are disks, this problem is known to be NP-hard [Demaine, Fekete, Lang, 2010]. In this paper, we give polynomial time (1+ε)-approximation algorithms for the following types of input objects in any constant dimension d: - disks and hyperspheres, - a class of fat convex polygons that generalizes regular k-gons for k ≥ 5 (formally, polygons with a constant number of edges, whose lengths are in a bounded range, and in which each angle is strictly larger than π/2), - arbitrary fat convex objects that are sufficiently small compared to the knapsack. We remark that in our PTAS for disks and hyperspheres, we output the computed set of objects, but for a O_ε(1) of them we determine their coordinates only up to an exponentially small error. However, it is not clear whether there always exists a (1+ε)-approximate solution that uses only rational coordinates for the disks' centers. We leave this as an open problem which is related to well-studied geometric questions in the realm of circle packing.

Cite as

Pritam Acharya, Sujoy Bhore, Aaryan Gupta, Arindam Khan, Bratin Mondal, and Andreas Wiese. Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 8:1-8:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{acharya_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8,
  author =	{Acharya, Pritam and Bhore, Sujoy and Gupta, Aaryan and Khan, Arindam and Mondal, Bratin and Wiese, Andreas},
  title =	{{Approximation Schemes for Geometric Knapsack for Packing Spheres and Fat Objects}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201511},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Polygon Packing, Circle Packing, Sphere Packing, Geometric Knapsack, Resource Augmentation}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Detecting Disjoint Shortest Paths in Linear Time and More

Authors: Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, and Nicole Wein

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In the k-Disjoint Shortest Paths (k-DSP) problem, we are given a graph G (with positive edge weights) on n nodes and m edges with specified source vertices s_1, … , s_k, and target vertices t_1, … , t_k, and are tasked with determining if G contains vertex-disjoint (s_i,t_i)-shortest paths. For any constant k, it is known that k-DSP can be solved in polynomial time over undirected graphs and directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). However, the exact time complexity of k-DSP remains mysterious, with large gaps between the fastest known algorithms and best conditional lower bounds. In this paper, we obtain faster algorithms for important cases of k-DSP, and present better conditional lower bounds for k-DSP and its variants. Previous work solved 2-DSP over weighted undirected graphs in O(n⁷) time, and weighted DAGs in O(mn) time. For the main result of this paper, we present optimal linear time algorithms for solving 2-DSP on weighted undirected graphs and DAGs. Our linear time algorithms are algebraic however, and so only solve the detection rather than search version of 2-DSP (we show how to solve the search version in O(mn) time, which is faster than the previous best runtime in weighted undirected graphs, but only matches the previous best runtime for DAGs). We also obtain a faster algorithm for k-Edge Disjoint Shortest Paths (k-EDSP) in DAGs, the variant of k-DSP where one seeks edge-disjoint instead of vertex-disjoint paths between sources and their corresponding targets. Algorithms for k-EDSP on DAGs from previous work take Ω(m^k) time. We show that k-EDSP can be solved over DAGs in O(mn^{k-1}) time, matching the fastest known runtime for solving k-DSP over DAGs. Previous work established conditional lower bounds for solving k-DSP and its variants via reductions from detecting cliques in graphs. Prior work implied that k-Clique can be reduced to 2k-DSP in DAGs and undirected graphs with O((kn)²) nodes. We improve this reduction, by showing how to reduce from k-Clique to k-DSP in DAGs and undirected graphs with O((kn)²) nodes (halving the number of paths needed in the reduced instance). A variant of k-DSP is the k-Disjoint Paths (k-DP) problem, where the solution paths no longer need to be shortest paths. Previous work reduced from k-Clique to p-DP in DAGs with O(kn) nodes, for p = k + k(k-1)/2. We improve this by showing a reduction from k-Clique to p-DP, for p = k + ⌊k²/4⌋. Under the k-Clique Hypothesis from fine-grained complexity, our results establish better conditional lower bounds for k-DSP for all k ≥ 4, and better conditional lower bounds for p-DP for all p ≤ 4031. Notably, our work gives the first nontrivial conditional lower bounds 4-DP in DAGs and 4-DSP in undirected graphs and DAGs. Before our work, nontrivial conditional lower bounds were only known for k-DP and k-DSP on such graphs when k ≥ 6.

Cite as

Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, and Nicole Wein. Detecting Disjoint Shortest Paths in Linear Time and More. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 9:1-9:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.9,
  author =	{Akmal, Shyan and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia and Wein, Nicole},
  title =	{{Detecting Disjoint Shortest Paths in Linear Time and More}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201529},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: disjoint shortest paths, algebraic graph algorithms, disjoint paths, fine-grained complexity, clique}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
The Bit Complexity of Dynamic Algebraic Formulas and Their Determinants

Authors: Emile Anand, Jan van den Brand, Mehrdad Ghadiri, and Daniel J. Zhang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Many iterative algorithms in computer science require repeated computation of some algebraic expression whose input varies slightly from one iteration to the next. Although efficient data structures have been proposed for maintaining the solution of such algebraic expressions under low-rank updates, most of these results are only analyzed under exact arithmetic (real-RAM model and finite fields) which may not accurately reflect the more limited complexity guarantees of real computers. In this paper, we analyze the stability and bit complexity of such data structures for expressions that involve the inversion, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of matrices under the word-RAM model. We show that the bit complexity only increases linearly in the number of matrix operations in the expression. In addition, we consider the bit complexity of maintaining the determinant of a matrix expression. We show that the required bit complexity depends on the logarithm of the condition number of matrices instead of the logarithm of their determinant. Finally, we discuss rank maintenance and its connections to determinant maintenance. Our results have wide applications ranging from computational geometry (e.g., computing the volume of a polytope) to optimization (e.g., solving linear programs using the simplex algorithm).

Cite as

Emile Anand, Jan van den Brand, Mehrdad Ghadiri, and Daniel J. Zhang. The Bit Complexity of Dynamic Algebraic Formulas and Their Determinants. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 10:1-10:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{anand_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.10,
  author =	{Anand, Emile and van den Brand, Jan and Ghadiri, Mehrdad and Zhang, Daniel J.},
  title =	{{The Bit Complexity of Dynamic Algebraic Formulas and Their Determinants}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201538},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Data Structures, Online Algorithms, Bit Complexity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We consider the problem of learning low-degree quantum objects up to ε-error in 𝓁₂-distance. We show the following results: (i) unknown n-qubit degree-d (in the Pauli basis) quantum channels and unitaries can be learned using O(1/ε^d) queries (which is independent of n), (ii) polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] arising from d-query quantum algorithms can be learned from O((1/ε)^d ⋅ log n) many random examples (x,p(x)) (which implies learnability even for d = O(log n)), and (iii) degree-d polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] can be learned through O(1/ε^d) queries to a quantum unitary U_p that block-encodes p. Our main technical contributions are new Bohnenblust-Hille inequalities for quantum channels and completely bounded polynomials.

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos. Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 13:1-13:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Dutt, Arkopal and Escudero Guti\'{e}rrez, Francisco and Palazuelos, Carlos},
  title =	{{Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201563},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tomography}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials

Authors: Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
An s-sparse polynomial has at most s monomials with nonzero coefficients. The Equivalence Testing problem for sparse polynomials (ETsparse) asks to decide if a given polynomial f is equivalent to (i.e., in the orbit of) some s-sparse polynomial. In other words, given f ∈ 𝔽[𝐱] and s ∈ ℕ, ETsparse asks to check if there exist A ∈ GL(|𝐱|, 𝔽) and 𝐛 ∈ 𝔽^|𝐱| such that f(A𝐱 + 𝐛) is s-sparse. We show that ETsparse is NP-hard over any field 𝔽, if f is given in the sparse representation, i.e., as a list of nonzero coefficients and exponent vectors. This answers a question posed by Gupta, Saha and Thankey (SODA 2023) and also, more explicitly, by Baraskar, Dewan and Saha (STACS 2024). The result implies that the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) is NP-hard for a dense subclass of depth-3 arithmetic circuits if the input is given in sparse representation. We also show that approximating the smallest s₀ such that a given s-sparse polynomial f is in the orbit of some s₀-sparse polynomial to within a factor of s^{1/3 - ε} is NP-hard for any ε > 0; observe that s-factor approximation is trivial as the input is s-sparse. Finally, we show that for any constant σ ≥ 6, checking if a polynomial (given in sparse representation) is in the orbit of some support-σ polynomial is NP-hard. Support of a polynomial f is the maximum number of variables present in any monomial of f. These results are obtained via direct reductions from the 3-SAT problem.

Cite as

Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha. NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 16:1-16:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{baraskar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16,
  author =	{Baraskar, Omkar and Dewan, Agrim and Saha, Chandan and Sinha, Pulkit},
  title =	{{NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201598},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Equivalence testing, MCSP, sparse polynomials, 3SAT}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
On the Streaming Complexity of Expander Decomposition

Authors: Yu Chen, Michael Kapralov, Mikhail Makarov, and Davide Mazzali

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In this paper we study the problem of finding (ε, ϕ)-expander decompositions of a graph in the streaming model, in particular for dynamic streams of edge insertions and deletions. The goal is to partition the vertex set so that every component induces a ϕ-expander, while the number of inter-cluster edges is only an ε fraction of the total volume. It was recently shown that there exists a simple algorithm to construct a (O(ϕ log n), ϕ)-expander decomposition of an n-vertex graph using Õ(n/ϕ²) bits of space [Filtser, Kapralov, Makarov, ITCS'23]. This result calls for understanding the extent to which a dependence in space on the sparsity parameter ϕ is inherent. We move towards answering this question on two fronts. We prove that a (O(ϕ log n), ϕ)-expander decomposition can be found using Õ(n) space, for every ϕ. At the core of our result is the first streaming algorithm for computing boundary-linked expander decompositions, a recently introduced strengthening of the classical notion [Goranci et al., SODA'21]. The key advantage is that a classical sparsifier [Fung et al., STOC'11], with size independent of ϕ, preserves the cuts inside the clusters of a boundary-linked expander decomposition within a multiplicative error. Notable algorithmic applications use sequences of expander decompositions, in particular one often repeatedly computes a decomposition of the subgraph induced by the inter-cluster edges (e.g., the seminal work of Spielman and Teng on spectral sparsifiers [Spielman, Teng, SIAM Journal of Computing 40(4)], or the recent maximum flow breakthrough [Chen et al., FOCS'22], among others). We prove that any streaming algorithm that computes a sequence of (O(ϕ log n), ϕ)-expander decompositions requires Ω̃(n/ϕ) bits of space, even in insertion only streams.

Cite as

Yu Chen, Michael Kapralov, Mikhail Makarov, and Davide Mazzali. On the Streaming Complexity of Expander Decomposition. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 46:1-46:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.46,
  author =	{Chen, Yu and Kapralov, Michael and Makarov, Mikhail and Mazzali, Davide},
  title =	{{On the Streaming Complexity of Expander Decomposition}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{46:1--46:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.46},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201890},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.46},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph Sketching, Dynamic Streaming, Expander Decomposition}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Simultaneously Approximating All 𝓁_p-Norms in Correlation Clustering

Authors: Sami Davies, Benjamin Moseley, and Heather Newman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
This paper considers correlation clustering on unweighted complete graphs. We give a combinatorial algorithm that returns a single clustering solution that is simultaneously O(1)-approximate for all 𝓁_p-norms of the disagreement vector; in other words, a combinatorial O(1)-approximation of the all-norms objective for correlation clustering. This is the first proof that minimal sacrifice is needed in order to optimize different norms of the disagreement vector. In addition, our algorithm is the first combinatorial approximation algorithm for the 𝓁₂-norm objective, and more generally the first combinatorial algorithm for the 𝓁_p-norm objective when 1 < p < ∞. It is also faster than all previous algorithms that minimize the 𝓁_p-norm of the disagreement vector, with run-time O(n^ω), where O(n^ω) is the time for matrix multiplication on n × n matrices. When the maximum positive degree in the graph is at most Δ, this can be improved to a run-time of O(nΔ² log n).

Cite as

Sami Davies, Benjamin Moseley, and Heather Newman. Simultaneously Approximating All 𝓁_p-Norms in Correlation Clustering. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 52:1-52:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{davies_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.52,
  author =	{Davies, Sami and Moseley, Benjamin and Newman, Heather},
  title =	{{Simultaneously Approximating All 𝓁\underlinep-Norms in Correlation Clustering}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{52:1--52:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.52},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201950},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.52},
  annote =	{Keywords: Approximation algorithms, correlation clustering, all-norms, lp-norms}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Sublinear Algorithms for TSP via Path Covers

Authors: Soheil Behnezhad, Mohammad Roghani, Aviad Rubinstein, and Amin Saberi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We study sublinear time algorithms for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). First, we focus on the closely related maximum path cover problem, which asks for a collection of vertex disjoint paths that include the maximum number of edges. We show that for any fixed ε > 0, there is an algorithm that (1/2 - ε)-approximates the maximum path cover size of an n-vertex graph in Õ(n) time. This improves upon a (3/8-ε)-approximate Õ(n √n)-time algorithm of Chen, Kannan, and Khanna [ICALP'20]. Equipped with our path cover algorithm, we give an Õ(n) time algorithm that estimates the cost of (1,2)-TSP within a factor of (1.5+ε) which is an improvement over a folklore (1.75 + ε)-approximate Õ(n)-time algorithm, as well as a (1.625+ε)-approximate Õ(n√n)-time algorithm of [CHK ICALP'20]. For graphic TSP, we present an Õ(n) algorithm that estimates the cost of graphic TSP within a factor of 1.83 which is an improvement over a 1.92-approximate Õ(n) time algorithm due to [CHK ICALP'20, Behnezhad FOCS'21]. We show that the approximation can be further improved to 1.66 using n^{2-Ω(1)} time. All of our Õ(n) time algorithms are information-theoretically time-optimal up to polylog n factors. Additionally, we show that our approximation guarantees for path cover and (1,2)-TSP hit a natural barrier: We show better approximations require better sublinear time algorithms for the well-studied maximum matching problem.

Cite as

Soheil Behnezhad, Mohammad Roghani, Aviad Rubinstein, and Amin Saberi. Sublinear Algorithms for TSP via Path Covers. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 19:1-19:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{behnezhad_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.19,
  author =	{Behnezhad, Soheil and Roghani, Mohammad and Rubinstein, Aviad and Saberi, Amin},
  title =	{{Sublinear Algorithms for TSP via Path Covers}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201623},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sublinear Algorithms, Traveling Salesman Problem, Approximation Algorithm, (1, 2)-TSP, Graphic TSP}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width

Authors: Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Given a graph G = (V,E), a set T ⊆ V, and an integer b, the Steiner Tree problem asks whether G has a connected subgraph H with at most b vertices that spans all of T. This work presents a 3^k⋅ n^𝒪(1) time one-sided Monte-Carlo algorithm for solving Steiner Tree when additionally a clique-expression of width k is provided. Known lower bounds for less expressive parameters imply that this dependence on the clique-width of G is optimal assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). Indeed our work establishes that the parameter dependence of Steiner Tree is the same for any graph parameter between cutwidth and clique-width, assuming SETH. Our work contributes to the program of determining the exact parameterized complexity of fundamental hard problems relative to structural graph parameters such as treewidth, which was initiated by Lokshtanov et al. [SODA 2011 & TALG 2018] and which by now has seen a plethora of results. Since the cut-and-count framework of Cygan et al. [FOCS 2011 & TALG 2022], connectivity problems have played a key role in this program as they pose many challenges for developing tight upper and lower bounds. Recently, Hegerfeld and Kratsch [ESA 2023] gave the first application of the cut-and-count technique to problems parameterized by clique-width and obtained tight bounds for Connected Dominating Set and Connected Vertex Cover, leaving open the complexity of other benchmark connectivity problems such as Steiner Tree and Feedback Vertex Set. Our algorithm for Steiner Tree does not follow the cut-and-count technique and instead works with the connectivity patterns of partial solutions. As a first technical contribution we identify a special family of so-called complete patterns that has strong (existential) representation properties, and using these at least one solution will be preserved. Furthermore, there is a family of 3^k basis patterns that (parity) represents the complete patterns, i.e., it has the same number of solutions modulo two. Our main technical contribution, a new technique called "isolating a representative," allows us to leverage both forms of representation (existential and parity). Both complete patterns and isolation of a representative will likely be applicable to other (connectivity) problems.

Cite as

Narek Bojikian and Stefan Kratsch. A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bojikian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29,
  author =	{Bojikian, Narek and Kratsch, Stefan},
  title =	{{A Tight Monte-Carlo Algorithm for Steiner Tree Parameterized by Clique-Width}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201728},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized complexity, Steiner tree, clique-width}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness

Authors: Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
It is known for many algorithmic problems that if a tree decomposition of width t is given in the input, then the problem can be solved with exponential dependence on t. A line of research initiated by Lokshtanov, Marx, and Saurabh [SODA 2011] produced lower bounds showing that in many cases known algorithms already achieve the best possible exponential dependence on t, assuming the Strong Exponential-Time Hypothesis (SETH). The main message of this paper is showing that the same lower bounds can already be obtained in a much more restricted setting: informally, a graph consisting of a block of t vertices connected to components of constant size already has the same hardness as a general tree decomposition of width t. Formally, a (σ,δ)-hub is a set Q of vertices such that every component of Q has size at most σ and is adjacent to at most δ vertices of Q. We explore if the known tight lower bounds parameterized by the width of the given tree decomposition remain valid if we parameterize by the size of the given hub. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that Independent Set (equivalently Vertex Cover) cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the SETH. This matches the earlier tight lower bounds parameterized by width of the tree decomposition. Similar tight bounds are obtained for Odd Cycle Transversal, Max Cut, q-Coloring, and edge/vertex deletions versions of q-Coloring. - For every ε > 0, there are σ,δ > 0 such that △-Partition cannot be solved in time (2-ε)^p ⋅ n, even if a (σ, δ)-hub of size p is given in the input, assuming the Set Cover Conjecture (SCC). In fact, we prove that this statement is equivalent to the SCC, thus it is unlikely that this could be proved assuming the SETH. - For Dominating Set, we can prove a non-tight lower bound ruling out (2-ε)^p ⋅ n^𝒪(1) algorithms, assuming either the SETH or the SCC, but this does not match the 3^p⋅ n^{𝒪(1)} upper bound. Thus our results reveal that, for many problems, the research on lower bounds on the dependence on tree width was never really about tree decompositions, but the real source of hardness comes from a much simpler structure. Additionally, we study if the same lower bounds can be obtained if σ and δ are fixed universal constants (not depending on ε). We show that lower bounds of this form are possible for Max Cut and the edge-deletion version of q-Coloring, under the Max 3-Sat Hypothesis (M3SH). However, no such lower bounds are possible for Independent Set, Odd Cycle Transversal, and the vertex-deletion version of q-Coloring: better than brute force algorithms are possible for every fixed (σ,δ).

Cite as

Barış Can Esmer, Jacob Focke, Dániel Marx, and Paweł Rzążewski. Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 34:1-34:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{canesmer_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34,
  author =	{Can Esmer, Bar{\i}\c{s} and Focke, Jacob and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Rz\k{a}\.{z}ewski, Pawe{\l}},
  title =	{{Fundamental Problems on Bounded-Treewidth Graphs: The Real Source of Hardness}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201772},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Tight Bounds, Hub, Treewidth, Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis, Vertex Coloring, Vertex Deletion, Edge Deletion, Triangle Packing, Triangle Partition, Set Cover Hypothesis, Dominating Set}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Non-Linear Paging

Authors: Ilan Doron-Arad and Joseph (Seffi) Naor

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We formulate and study non-linear paging - a broad model of online paging where the size of subsets of pages is determined by a monotone non-linear set function of the pages. This model captures the well-studied classic weighted paging and generalized paging problems, and also submodular and supermodular paging, studied here for the first time, that have a range of applications from virtual memory to machine learning. Unlike classic paging, the cache threshold parameter k does not yield good competitive ratios for non-linear paging. Instead, we introduce a novel parameter 𝓁 that generalizes the notion of cache size to the non-linear setting. We obtain a tight deterministic 𝓁-competitive algorithm for general non-linear paging and a o(log²𝓁)-competitive lower bound for randomized algorithms. Our algorithm is based on a new generic LP for the problem that captures both submodular and supermodular paging, in contrast to LPs used for submodular cover settings. We finally focus on the supermodular paging problem, which is a variant of online set cover and online submodular cover, where sets are repeatedly requested to be removed from the cover. We obtain polylogarithmic lower and upper bounds and an offline approximation algorithm.

Cite as

Ilan Doron-Arad and Joseph (Seffi) Naor. Non-Linear Paging. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 57:1-57:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{doronarad_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.57,
  author =	{Doron-Arad, Ilan and Naor, Joseph (Seffi)},
  title =	{{Non-Linear Paging}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{57:1--57:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.57},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202000},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.57},
  annote =	{Keywords: paging, competitive analysis, non-linear paging, submodular and supermodular functions}
}
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