69 Search Results for "Zuckerman, David"


Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 33

30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015)

CCC 2015, June 17-19, 2015, Portland, Oregon, USA

Editors: David Zuckerman

Document
A Technique for Hardness Amplification Against AC⁰

Authors: William M. Hoza

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We study hardness amplification in the context of two well-known "moderate" average-case hardness results for AC⁰ circuits. First, we investigate the extent to which AC⁰ circuits of depth d can approximate AC⁰ circuits of some larger depth d + k. The case k = 1 is resolved by Håstad, Rossman, Servedio, and Tan’s celebrated average-case depth hierarchy theorem (JACM 2017). Our contribution is a significantly stronger correlation bound when k ≥ 3. Specifically, we show that there exists a linear-size AC⁰_{d + k} circuit h : {0, 1}ⁿ → {0, 1} such that for every AC⁰_d circuit g, either g has size exp(n^{Ω(1/d)}), or else g agrees with h on at most a (1/2 + ε)-fraction of inputs where ε = exp(-(1/d) ⋅ Ω(log n)^{k-1}). For comparison, Håstad, Rossman, Servedio, and Tan’s result has ε = n^{-Θ(1/d)}. Second, we consider the majority function. It is well known that the majority function is moderately hard for AC⁰ circuits (and stronger classes). Our contribution is a stronger correlation bound for the XOR of t copies of the n-bit majority function, denoted MAJ_n^{⊕ t}. We show that if g is an AC⁰_d circuit of size S, then g agrees with MAJ_n^{⊕ t} on at most a (1/2 + ε)-fraction of inputs, where ε = (O(log S)^{d - 1} / √n)^t. To prove these results, we develop a hardness amplification technique that is tailored to a specific type of circuit lower bound proof. In particular, one way to show that a function h is moderately hard for AC⁰ circuits is to (a) design some distribution over random restrictions or random projections, (b) show that AC⁰ circuits simplify to shallow decision trees under these restrictions/projections, and finally (c) show that after applying the restriction/projection, h is moderately hard for shallow decision trees with respect to an appropriate distribution. We show that (roughly speaking) if h can be proven to be moderately hard by a proof with that structure, then XORing multiple copies of h amplifies its hardness. Our analysis involves a new kind of XOR lemma for decision trees, which might be of independent interest.

Cite as

William M. Hoza. A Technique for Hardness Amplification Against AC⁰. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 1:1-1:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{hoza:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.1,
  author =	{Hoza, William M.},
  title =	{{A Technique for Hardness Amplification Against AC⁰}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-203977},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Bounded-depth circuits, average-case lower bounds, hardness amplification, XOR lemmas}
}
Document
Explicit Time and Space Efficient Encoders Exist Only with Random Access

Authors: Joshua Cook and Dana Moshkovitz

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We give the first explicit constant rate, constant relative distance, linear codes with an encoder that runs in time n^{1 + o(1)} and space polylog(n) provided random access to the message. Prior to this work, the only such codes were non-explicit, for instance repeat accumulate codes [Divsalar et al., 1998] and the codes described in [Gál et al., 2013]. To construct our codes, we also give explicit, efficiently invertible, lossless condensers with constant entropy gap and polylogarithmic seed length. In contrast to encoders with random access to the message, we show that encoders with sequential access to the message can not run in almost linear time and polylogarithmic space. Our notion of sequential access is much stronger than streaming access.

Cite as

Joshua Cook and Dana Moshkovitz. Explicit Time and Space Efficient Encoders Exist Only with Random Access. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 5:1-5:54, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{cook_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.5,
  author =	{Cook, Joshua and Moshkovitz, Dana},
  title =	{{Explicit Time and Space Efficient Encoders Exist Only with Random Access}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:54},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204015},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Time-Space Trade Offs, Error Correcting Codes, Encoders, Explicit Constructions, Streaming Lower Bounds, Sequential Access, Time-Space Lower Bounds, Lossless Condensers, Invertible Condensers, Condensers}
}
Document
Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy

Authors: Sepehr Assadi, Prantar Ghosh, Bruno Loff, Parth Mittal, and Sagnik Mukhopadhyay

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
The following question arises naturally in the study of graph streaming algorithms: Is there any graph problem which is "not too hard", in that it can be solved efficiently with total communication (nearly) linear in the number n of vertices, and for which, nonetheless, any streaming algorithm with Õ(n) space (i.e., a semi-streaming algorithm) needs a polynomial n^Ω(1) number of passes? Assadi, Chen, and Khanna [STOC 2019] were the first to prove that this is indeed the case. However, the lower bounds that they obtained are for rather non-standard graph problems. Our first main contribution is to present the first polynomial-pass lower bounds for natural "not too hard" graph problems studied previously in the streaming model: k-cores and degeneracy. We devise a novel communication protocol for both problems with near-linear communication, thus showing that k-cores and degeneracy are natural examples of "not too hard" problems. Indeed, previous work have developed single-pass semi-streaming algorithms for approximating these problems. In contrast, we prove that any semi-streaming algorithm for exactly solving these problems requires (almost) Ω(n^{1/3}) passes. The lower bound follows by a reduction from a generalization of the hidden pointer chasing (HPC) problem of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna, which is also the basis of their earlier semi-streaming lower bounds. Our second main contribution is improved round-communication lower bounds for the underlying communication problems at the basis of these reductions: - We improve the previous lower bound of Assadi, Chen, and Khanna for HPC to achieve optimal bounds for this problem. - We further observe that all current reductions from HPC can also work with a generalized version of this problem that we call MultiHPC, and prove an even stronger and optimal lower bound for this generalization. These two results collectively allow us to improve the resulting pass lower bounds for semi-streaming algorithms by a polynomial factor, namely, from n^{1/5} to n^{1/3} passes.

Cite as

Sepehr Assadi, Prantar Ghosh, Bruno Loff, Parth Mittal, and Sagnik Mukhopadhyay. Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{assadi_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7,
  author =	{Assadi, Sepehr and Ghosh, Prantar and Loff, Bruno and Mittal, Parth and Mukhopadhyay, Sagnik},
  title =	{{Polynomial Pass Semi-Streaming Lower Bounds for K-Cores and Degeneracy}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204035},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph streaming, Lower bounds, Communication complexity, k-Cores and degeneracy}
}
Document
Lifting Dichotomies

Authors: Yaroslav Alekseev, Yuval Filmus, and Alexander Smal

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Lifting theorems are used for transferring lower bounds between Boolean function complexity measures. Given a lower bound on a complexity measure A for some function f, we compose f with a carefully chosen gadget function g and get essentially the same lower bound on a complexity measure B for the lifted function f ⋄ g. Lifting theorems have a number of applications in many different areas such as circuit complexity, communication complexity, proof complexity, etc. One of the main question in the context of lifting is how to choose a suitable gadget g. Generally, to get better results, i.e., to minimize the losses when transferring lower bounds, we need the gadget to be of a constant size (number of inputs). Unfortunately, in many settings we know lifting results only for gadgets of size that grows with the size of f, and it is unclear whether it can be improved to a constant size gadget. This motivates us to identify the properties of gadgets that make lifting possible. In this paper, we systematically study the question "For which gadgets does the lifting result hold?" in the following four settings: lifting from decision tree depth to decision tree size, lifting from conjunction DAG width to conjunction DAG size, lifting from decision tree depth to parity decision tree depth and size, and lifting from block sensitivity to deterministic and randomized communication complexities. In all the cases, we prove the complete classification of gadgets by exposing the properties of gadgets that make lifting results hold. The structure of the results shows that there is no intermediate cases - for every gadget there is either a polynomial lifting or no lifting at all. As a byproduct of our studies, we prove the log-rank conjecture for the class of functions that can be represented as f ⋄ OR ⋄ XOR for some function f. In this extended abstract, the proofs are omitted. Full proofs are given in the full version [Yaroslav Alekseev et al., 2024].

Cite as

Yaroslav Alekseev, Yuval Filmus, and Alexander Smal. Lifting Dichotomies. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 9:1-9:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{alekseev_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.9,
  author =	{Alekseev, Yaroslav and Filmus, Yuval and Smal, Alexander},
  title =	{{Lifting Dichotomies}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204051},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: decision trees, log-rank conjecture, lifting, parity decision trees}
}
Document
Explicit Directional Affine Extractors and Improved Hardness for Linear Branching Programs

Authors: Xin Li and Yan Zhong

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Affine extractors give some of the best-known lower bounds for various computational models, such as AC⁰ circuits, parity decision trees, and general Boolean circuits. However, they are not known to give strong lower bounds for read-once branching programs (ROBPs). In a recent work, Gryaznov, Pudlák, and Talebanfard (CCC' 22) introduced a stronger version of affine extractors known as directional affine extractors, together with a generalization of ROBPs where each node can make linear queries, and showed that the former implies strong lower bound for a certain type of the latter known as strongly read-once linear branching programs (SROLBPs). Their main result gives explicit constructions of directional affine extractors for entropy k > 2n/3, which implies average-case complexity 2^{n/3-o(n)} against SROLBPs with exponentially small correlation. A follow-up work by Chattopadhyay and Liao (CCC' 23) improves the hardness to 2^{n-o(n)} at the price of increasing the correlation to polynomially large, via a new connection to sumset extractors introduced by Chattopadhyay and Li (STOC' 16) and explicit constructions of such extractors by Chattopadhyay and Liao (STOC' 22). Both works left open the questions of better constructions of directional affine extractors and improved average-case complexity against SROLBPs in the regime of small correlation. This paper provides a much more in-depth study of directional affine extractors, SROLBPs, and ROBPs. Our main results include: - An explicit construction of directional affine extractors with k = o(n) and exponentially small error, which gives average-case complexity 2^{n-o(n)} against SROLBPs with exponentially small correlation, thus answering the two open questions raised in previous works. - An explicit function in AC⁰ that gives average-case complexity 2^{(1-δ)n} against ROBPs with negligible correlation, for any constant δ > 0. Previously, no such average-case hardness is known, and the best size lower bound for any function in AC⁰ against ROBPs is 2^Ω(n). One of the key ingredients in our constructions is a new linear somewhere condenser for affine sources, which is based on dimension expanders. The condenser also leads to an unconditional improvement of the entropy requirement of explicit affine extractors with negligible error. We further show that the condenser also works for general weak random sources, under the Polynomial Freiman-Ruzsa Theorem in 𝖥₂ⁿ, recently proved by Gowers, Green, Manners, and Tao (arXiv' 23).

Cite as

Xin Li and Yan Zhong. Explicit Directional Affine Extractors and Improved Hardness for Linear Branching Programs. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 10:1-10:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.10,
  author =	{Li, Xin and Zhong, Yan},
  title =	{{Explicit Directional Affine Extractors and Improved Hardness for Linear Branching Programs}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204060},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Randomness Extractors, Affine, Read-once Linear Branching Programs, Low-degree polynomials, AC⁰ circuits}
}
Document
Local Enumeration and Majority Lower Bounds

Authors: Mohit Gurumukhani, Ramamohan Paturi, Pavel Pudlák, Michael Saks, and Navid Talebanfard

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Depth-3 circuit lower bounds and k-SAT algorithms are intimately related; the state-of-the-art Σ^k_3-circuit lower bound (Or-And-Or circuits with bottom fan-in at most k) and the k-SAT algorithm of Paturi, Pudlák, Saks, and Zane (J. ACM'05) are based on the same combinatorial theorem regarding k-CNFs. In this paper we define a problem which reveals new interactions between the two, and suggests a concrete approach to significantly stronger circuit lower bounds and improved k-SAT algorithms. For a natural number k and a parameter t, we consider the Enum(k, t) problem defined as follows: given an n-variable k-CNF and an initial assignment α, output all satisfying assignments at Hamming distance t(n) of α, assuming that there are no satisfying assignments of Hamming distance less than t(n) of α. We observe that an upper bound b(n, k, t) on the complexity of Enum(k, t) simultaneously implies depth-3 circuit lower bounds and k-SAT algorithms: - Depth-3 circuits: Any Σ^k_3 circuit computing the Majority function has size at least binom(n,n/2)/b(n, k, n/2). - k-SAT: There exists an algorithm solving k-SAT in time O(∑_{t=1}^{n/2}b(n, k, t)). A simple construction shows that b(n, k, n/2) ≥ 2^{(1 - O(log(k)/k))n}. Thus, matching upper bounds for b(n, k, n/2) would imply a Σ^k_3-circuit lower bound of 2^Ω(log(k)n/k) and a k-SAT upper bound of 2^{(1 - Ω(log(k)/k))n}. The former yields an unrestricted depth-3 lower bound of 2^ω(√n) solving a long standing open problem, and the latter breaks the Super Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. In this paper, we propose a randomized algorithm for Enum(k, t) and introduce new ideas to analyze it. We demonstrate the power of our ideas by considering the first non-trivial instance of the problem, i.e., Enum(3, n/2). We show that the expected running time of our algorithm is 1.598ⁿ, substantially improving on the trivial bound of 3^{n/2} ≃ 1.732ⁿ. This already improves Σ^3_3 lower bounds for Majority function to 1.251ⁿ. The previous bound was 1.154ⁿ which follows from the work of Håstad, Jukna, and Pudlák (Comput. Complex.'95). By restricting ourselves to monotone CNFs, Enum(k, t) immediately becomes a hypergraph Turán problem. Therefore our techniques might be of independent interest in extremal combinatorics.

Cite as

Mohit Gurumukhani, Ramamohan Paturi, Pavel Pudlák, Michael Saks, and Navid Talebanfard. Local Enumeration and Majority Lower Bounds. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 17:1-17:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{gurumukhani_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.17,
  author =	{Gurumukhani, Mohit and Paturi, Ramamohan and Pudl\'{a}k, Pavel and Saks, Michael and Talebanfard, Navid},
  title =	{{Local Enumeration and Majority Lower Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204136},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Depth 3 circuits, k-CNF satisfiability, Circuit lower bounds, Majority function}
}
Document
Pseudorandomness, Symmetry, Smoothing: I

Authors: Harm Derksen, Peter Ivanov, Chin Ho Lee, and Emanuele Viola

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We prove several new results about bounded uniform and small-bias distributions. A main message is that, small-bias, even perturbed with noise, does not fool several classes of tests better than bounded uniformity. We prove this for threshold tests, small-space algorithms, and small-depth circuits. In particular, we obtain small-bias distributions that - achieve an optimal lower bound on their statistical distance to any bounded-uniform distribution. This closes a line of research initiated by Alon, Goldreich, and Mansour in 2003, and improves on a result by O'Donnell and Zhao. - have heavier tail mass than the uniform distribution. This answers a question posed by several researchers including Bun and Steinke. - rule out a popular paradigm for constructing pseudorandom generators, originating in a 1989 work by Ajtai and Wigderson. This again answers a question raised by several researchers. For branching programs, our result matches a bound by Forbes and Kelley. Our small-bias distributions above are symmetric. We show that the xor of any two symmetric small-bias distributions fools any bounded function. Hence our examples cannot be extended to the xor of two small-bias distributions, another popular paradigm whose power remains unknown. We also generalize and simplify the proof of a result of Bazzi.

Cite as

Harm Derksen, Peter Ivanov, Chin Ho Lee, and Emanuele Viola. Pseudorandomness, Symmetry, Smoothing: I. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 18:1-18:27, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{derksen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.18,
  author =	{Derksen, Harm and Ivanov, Peter and Lee, Chin Ho and Viola, Emanuele},
  title =	{{Pseudorandomness, Symmetry, Smoothing: I}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:27},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204144},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: pseudorandomness, k-wise uniform distributions, small-bias distributions, noise, symmetric tests, thresholds, Krawtchouk polynomials}
}
Document
Exact Search-To-Decision Reductions for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity

Authors: Shuichi Hirahara, Valentine Kabanets, Zhenjian Lu, and Igor C. Oliveira

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
A search-to-decision reduction is a procedure that allows one to find a solution to a problem from the mere ability to decide when a solution exists. The existence of a search-to-decision reduction for time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, i.e., the problem of checking if a string x can be generated by a t-time bounded program of description length s, is a long-standing open problem that dates back to the 1960s. In this work, we obtain new average-case and worst-case search-to-decision reductions for the complexity measure 𝖪^t and its randomized analogue rK^t: 1) (Conditional Errorless and Error-Prone Reductions for 𝖪^t) Under the assumption that 𝖤 requires exponential size circuits, we design polynomial-time average-case search-to-decision reductions for 𝖪^t in both errorless and error-prone settings. In fact, under the easiness of deciding 𝖪^t under the uniform distribution, we obtain a search algorithm for any given polynomial-time samplable distribution. In the error-prone reduction, the search algorithm works in the more general setting of conditional 𝖪^t complexity, i.e., it finds a minimum length t-time bound program for generating x given a string y. 2) (Unconditional Errorless Reduction for rK^t) We obtain an unconditional polynomial-time average-case search-to-decision reduction for rK^t in the errorless setting. Similarly to the results described above, we obtain a search algorithm for each polynomial-time samplable distribution, assuming the existence of a decision algorithm under the uniform distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first unconditional sub-exponential time search-to-decision reduction among the measures 𝖪^t and rK^t that works with respect to any given polynomial-time samplable distribution. 3) (Worst-Case to Average-Case Reductions) Under the errorless average-case easiness of deciding rK^t, we design a worst-case search algorithm running in time 2^O(n/log n) that produces a minimum length randomized t-time program for every input string x ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, with the caveat that it only succeeds on some explicitly computed sub-exponential time bound t ≤ 2^{n^ε} that depends on x. A similar result holds for 𝖪^t, under the assumption that 𝖤 requires exponential size circuits. In these results, the corresponding search problem is solved exactly, i.e., a successful run of the search algorithm outputs a t-time bounded program for x of minimum length, as opposed to an approximately optimal program of slightly larger description length or running time.

Cite as

Shuichi Hirahara, Valentine Kabanets, Zhenjian Lu, and Igor C. Oliveira. Exact Search-To-Decision Reductions for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 29:1-29:56, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{hirahara_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.29,
  author =	{Hirahara, Shuichi and Kabanets, Valentine and Lu, Zhenjian and Oliveira, Igor C.},
  title =	{{Exact Search-To-Decision Reductions for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:56},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204256},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: average-case complexity, Kolmogorov complexity, search-to-decision reductions}
}
Document
The Computational Advantage of MIP^∗ Vanishes in the Presence of Noise

Authors: Yangjing Dong, Honghao Fu, Anand Natarajan, Minglong Qin, Haochen Xu, and Penghui Yao

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
The class MIP^* of quantum multiprover interactive proof systems with entanglement is much more powerful than its classical counterpart MIP [Babai et al., 1991; Zhengfeng Ji et al., 2020; Zhengfeng Ji et al., 2020]: while MIP = NEXP, the quantum class MIP^* is equal to RE, a class including the halting problem. This is because the provers in MIP^* can share unbounded quantum entanglement. However, recent works [Qin and Yao, 2021; Qin and Yao, 2023] have shown that this advantage is significantly reduced if the provers' shared state contains noise. This paper attempts to exactly characterize the effect of noise on the computational power of quantum multiprover interactive proof systems. We investigate the quantum two-prover one-round interactive system MIP^*[poly,O(1)], where the verifier sends polynomially many bits to the provers and the provers send back constantly many bits. We show noise completely destroys the computational advantage given by shared entanglement in this model. Specifically, we show that if the provers are allowed to share arbitrarily many EPR states, where each EPR state is affected by an arbitrarily small constant amount of noise, the resulting complexity class is equivalent to NEXP = MIP. This improves significantly on the previous best-known bound of NEEEXP (nondeterministic triply exponential time) [Qin and Yao, 2021]. We also show that this collapse in power is due to the noise, rather than the O(1) answer size, by showing that allowing for noiseless EPR states gives the class the full power of RE = MIP^*[poly, poly]. Along the way, we develop two technical tools of independent interest. First, we give a new, deterministic tester for the positivity of an exponentially large matrix, provided it has a low-degree Fourier decomposition in terms of Pauli matrices. Secondly, we develop a new invariance principle for smooth matrix functions having bounded third-order Fréchet derivatives or which are Lipschitz continuous.

Cite as

Yangjing Dong, Honghao Fu, Anand Natarajan, Minglong Qin, Haochen Xu, and Penghui Yao. The Computational Advantage of MIP^∗ Vanishes in the Presence of Noise. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 30:1-30:71, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{dong_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.30,
  author =	{Dong, Yangjing and Fu, Honghao and Natarajan, Anand and Qin, Minglong and Xu, Haochen and Yao, Penghui},
  title =	{{The Computational Advantage of MIP^∗ Vanishes in the Presence of Noise}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{30:1--30:71},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.30},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204263},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.30},
  annote =	{Keywords: Interactive proofs, Quantum complexity theory, Quantum entanglement, Fourier analysis, Matrix analysis, Invariance principle, Derandomization, PCP, Locally testable code, Positivity testing}
}
Document
BPL ⊆ L-AC¹

Authors: Kuan Cheng and Yichuan Wang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
Whether BPL = 𝖫 (which is conjectured to be equal) or even whether BPL ⊆ NL, is a big open problem in theoretical computer science. It is well known that 𝖫 ⊆ NL ⊆ L-AC¹. In this work we show that BPL ⊆ L-AC¹ also holds. Our proof is based on a new iteration method for boosting precision in approximating matrix powering, which is inspired by the Richardson Iteration method developed in a recent line of work [AmirMahdi Ahmadinejad et al., 2020; Edward Pyne and Salil P. Vadhan, 2021; Gil Cohen et al., 2021; William M. Hoza, 2021; Gil Cohen et al., 2023; Aaron (Louie) Putterman and Edward Pyne, 2023; Lijie Chen et al., 2023]. We also improve the algorithm for approximate counting in low-depth L-AC circuits from an additive error setting to a multiplicative error setting.

Cite as

Kuan Cheng and Yichuan Wang. BPL ⊆ L-AC¹. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 32:1-32:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{cheng_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.32,
  author =	{Cheng, Kuan and Wang, Yichuan},
  title =	{{BPL ⊆ L-AC¹}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204282},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: Randomized Space Complexity, Circuit Complexity, Derandomization}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
List Update with Delays or Time Windows

Authors: Yossi Azar, Shahar Lewkowicz, and Danny Vainstein

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We address the problem of List Update, which is considered one of the fundamental problems in online algorithms and competitive analysis. In this context, we are presented with a list of elements and receive requests for these elements over time. Our objective is to fulfill these requests, incurring a cost proportional to their position in the list. Additionally, we can swap any two consecutive elements at a cost of 1. The renowned "Move to Front" algorithm, introduced by Sleator and Tarjan, immediately moves any requested element to the front of the list. They demonstrated that this algorithm achieves a competitive ratio of 2. While this bound is impressive, the actual cost of the algorithm’s solution can be excessively high. For example, if we request the last half of the list, the resulting solution cost becomes quadratic in the list’s length. To address this issue, we consider a more generalized problem called List Update with Time Windows. In this variant, each request arrives with a specific deadline by which it must be served, rather than being served immediately. Moreover, we allow the algorithm to process multiple requests simultaneously, accessing the corresponding elements in a single pass. The cost incurred in this case is determined by the position of the furthest element accessed, leading to a significant reduction in the total solution cost. We introduce this problem to explore lower solution costs, but it necessitates the development of new algorithms. For instance, Move-to-Front fails when handling the simple scenario of requesting the last half of the list with overlapping time windows. In our work, we present a natural O(1) competitive algorithm for this problem. While the algorithm itself is intuitive, its analysis is intricate, requiring the use of a novel potential function. Additionally, we delve into a more general problem called List Update with Delays, where the fixed deadlines are replaced with arbitrary delay functions. In this case, the cost includes not only the access and swapping costs, but also penalties for the delays incurred until the requests are served. This problem encompasses a special case known as the prize collecting version, where a request may go unserved up to a given deadline, resulting in a specified penalty. For this more comprehensive problem, we establish an O(1) competitive algorithm. However, the algorithm for the delay version is more complex, and its analysis involves significantly more intricate considerations.

Cite as

Yossi Azar, Shahar Lewkowicz, and Danny Vainstein. List Update with Delays or Time Windows. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 15:1-15:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{azar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.15,
  author =	{Azar, Yossi and Lewkowicz, Shahar and Vainstein, Danny},
  title =	{{List Update with Delays or Time Windows}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201583},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Online, List Update, Delay, Time Window, Deadline}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials

Authors: Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
An s-sparse polynomial has at most s monomials with nonzero coefficients. The Equivalence Testing problem for sparse polynomials (ETsparse) asks to decide if a given polynomial f is equivalent to (i.e., in the orbit of) some s-sparse polynomial. In other words, given f ∈ 𝔽[𝐱] and s ∈ ℕ, ETsparse asks to check if there exist A ∈ GL(|𝐱|, 𝔽) and 𝐛 ∈ 𝔽^|𝐱| such that f(A𝐱 + 𝐛) is s-sparse. We show that ETsparse is NP-hard over any field 𝔽, if f is given in the sparse representation, i.e., as a list of nonzero coefficients and exponent vectors. This answers a question posed by Gupta, Saha and Thankey (SODA 2023) and also, more explicitly, by Baraskar, Dewan and Saha (STACS 2024). The result implies that the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) is NP-hard for a dense subclass of depth-3 arithmetic circuits if the input is given in sparse representation. We also show that approximating the smallest s₀ such that a given s-sparse polynomial f is in the orbit of some s₀-sparse polynomial to within a factor of s^{1/3 - ε} is NP-hard for any ε > 0; observe that s-factor approximation is trivial as the input is s-sparse. Finally, we show that for any constant σ ≥ 6, checking if a polynomial (given in sparse representation) is in the orbit of some support-σ polynomial is NP-hard. Support of a polynomial f is the maximum number of variables present in any monomial of f. These results are obtained via direct reductions from the 3-SAT problem.

Cite as

Omkar Baraskar, Agrim Dewan, Chandan Saha, and Pulkit Sinha. NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 16:1-16:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{baraskar_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16,
  author =	{Baraskar, Omkar and Dewan, Agrim and Saha, Chandan and Sinha, Pulkit},
  title =	{{NP-Hardness of Testing Equivalence to Sparse Polynomials and to Constant-Support Polynomials}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201598},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Equivalence testing, MCSP, sparse polynomials, 3SAT}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Two-Source and Affine Non-Malleable Extractors for Small Entropy

Authors: Xin Li and Yan Zhong

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
Non-malleable extractors are generalizations and strengthening of standard randomness extractors, that are resilient to adversarial tampering. Such extractors have wide applications in cryptography and have become important cornerstones in recent breakthroughs of explicit constructions of two-source extractors and affine extractors for small entropy. However, explicit constructions of non-malleable extractors appear to be much harder than standard extractors. Indeed, in the well-studied models of two-source and affine non-malleable extractors, the previous best constructions only work for entropy rate > 2/3 and 1-γ for some small constant γ > 0 respectively by Li (FOCS' 23). In this paper, we present explicit constructions of two-source and affine non-malleable extractors that match the state-of-the-art constructions of standard ones for small entropy. Our main results include: - Two-source and affine non-malleable extractors (over 𝖥₂) for sources on n bits with min-entropy k ≥ log^C n and polynomially small error, matching the parameters of standard extractors by Chattopadhyay and Zuckerman (STOC' 16, Annals of Mathematics' 19) and Li (FOCS' 16). - Two-source and affine non-malleable extractors (over 𝖥₂) for sources on n bits with min-entropy k = O(log n) and constant error, matching the parameters of standard extractors by Li (FOCS' 23). Our constructions significantly improve previous results, and the parameters (entropy requirement and error) are the best possible without first improving the constructions of standard extractors. In addition, our improved affine non-malleable extractors give strong lower bounds for a certain kind of read-once linear branching programs, recently introduced by Gryaznov, Pudlák, and Talebanfard (CCC' 22) as a generalization of several well studied computational models. These bounds match the previously best-known average-case hardness results given by Chattopadhyay and Liao (CCC' 23) and Li (FOCS' 23), where the branching program size lower bounds are close to optimal, but the explicit functions we use here are different. Our results also suggest a possible deeper connection between non-malleable extractors and standard ones.

Cite as

Xin Li and Yan Zhong. Two-Source and Affine Non-Malleable Extractors for Small Entropy. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 108:1-108:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.108,
  author =	{Li, Xin and Zhong, Yan},
  title =	{{Two-Source and Affine Non-Malleable Extractors for Small Entropy}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{108:1--108:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.108},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202512},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.108},
  annote =	{Keywords: Randomness Extractors, Non-malleable, Two-source, Affine}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Optimal PSPACE-Hardness of Approximating Set Cover Reconfiguration

Authors: Shuichi Hirahara and Naoto Ohsaka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
In the Minmax Set Cover Reconfiguration problem, given a set system ℱ over a universe 𝒰 and its two covers 𝒞^start and 𝒞^goal of size k, we wish to transform 𝒞^start into 𝒞^goal by repeatedly adding or removing a single set of ℱ while covering the universe 𝒰 in any intermediate state. Then, the objective is to minimize the maximum size of any intermediate cover during transformation. We prove that Minmax Set Cover Reconfiguration and Minmax Dominating Set Reconfiguration are PSPACE-hard to approximate within a factor of 2-(1/polyloglog N), where N is the size of the universe and the number of vertices in a graph, respectively, improving upon Ohsaka (SODA 2024) [Ohsaka, 2024] and Karthik C. S. and Manurangsi (2023) [Karthik C. S. and Manurangsi, 2023]. This is the first result that exhibits a sharp threshold for the approximation factor of any reconfiguration problem because both problems admit a 2-factor approximation algorithm as per Ito, Demaine, Harvey, Papadimitriou, Sideri, Uehara, and Uno (Theor. Comput. Sci., 2011) [Takehiro Ito et al., 2011]. Our proof is based on a reconfiguration analogue of the FGLSS reduction [Feige et al., 1996] from Probabilistically Checkable Reconfiguration Proofs of Hirahara and Ohsaka (STOC 2024) [Hirahara and Ohsaka, 2024]. We also prove that for any constant ε ∈ (0,1), Minmax Hypergraph Vertex Cover Reconfiguration on poly(ε^-1)-uniform hypergraphs is PSPACE-hard to approximate within a factor of 2-ε.

Cite as

Shuichi Hirahara and Naoto Ohsaka. Optimal PSPACE-Hardness of Approximating Set Cover Reconfiguration. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 85:1-85:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{hirahara_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.85,
  author =	{Hirahara, Shuichi and Ohsaka, Naoto},
  title =	{{Optimal PSPACE-Hardness of Approximating Set Cover Reconfiguration}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{85:1--85:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.85},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202283},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.85},
  annote =	{Keywords: reconfiguration problems, hardness of approximation, probabilistic proof systems, FGLSS reduction}
}
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