Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 227

18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)



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Event

SWAT 2022, June 27-29, 2022, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands

Editors

Artur Czumaj
  • University of Warwick, UK
Qin Xin
  • University of the Faroe Islands, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands

Publication Details

  • published at: 2022-06-22
  • Publisher: Schloss-Dagstuhl - Leibniz Zentrum für Informatik
  • ISBN: 978-3-95977-236-5
  • DBLP: db/conf/swat/swat2022

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Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 227, SWAT 2022, Complete Volume

Authors: Artur Czumaj and Qin Xin


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 227, SWAT 2022, Complete Volume

Cite as

Artur Czumaj and Qin Xin. LIPIcs, Volume 227, SWAT 2022, Complete Volume. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 1-558, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@Proceedings{czumaj_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 227, SWAT 2022, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{1--558},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161599},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022},
  annote =	{Keywords: LIPIcs, Volume 227, SWAT 2022, Complete Volume}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Authors: Artur Czumaj and Qin Xin


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Cite as

Artur Czumaj and Qin Xin. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 0:i-0:x, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{czumaj_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.0,
  author =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:x},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161602},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}
}
Document
Invited Paper
On Realizing a Single Degree Sequence by a Bipartite Graph (Invited Paper)

Authors: Amotz Bar-Noy, Toni Böhnlein, David Peleg, and Dror Rawitz


Abstract
This paper addresses the classical problem of characterizing degree sequences that can be realized by a bipartite graph. For the simpler variant of the problem, where a partition of the sequence into the two sides of the bipartite graph is given as part of the input, a complete characterization was given by Gale and Ryser over 60 years ago. However, the general question, in which both the partition and the realizing graph need to be determined, is still open. This paper provides an overview of some of the known results on this problem in interesting special cases, including realizations by bipartite graphs and bipartite multigraphs.

Cite as

Amotz Bar-Noy, Toni Böhnlein, David Peleg, and Dror Rawitz. On Realizing a Single Degree Sequence by a Bipartite Graph (Invited Paper). In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 1:1-1:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{barnoy_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.1,
  author =	{Bar-Noy, Amotz and B\"{o}hnlein, Toni and Peleg, David and Rawitz, Dror},
  title =	{{On Realizing a Single Degree Sequence by a Bipartite Graph}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161618},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Degree Sequences, Graph Realization, Bipartite Graphs, Graphic Sequences, Bigraphic Sequences, Multigraph Realization}
}
Document
Invited Paper
Time, Clocks and Efficiency of Population Protocols (Invited Paper)

Authors: Leszek Gąsieniec and Grzegorz Stachowiak


Abstract
The model of population protocols is used to study distributed processes based on pairwise interactions between simple anonymous agents drawn from a large population of size n. The order in which agents meet in pairs is determined by the random scheduler, s.t., each consecutive pair is chosen uniformly at random. After each interaction the state of the relevant agents are amended according to the predefined transition function (the actual code of the algorithm) which governs the considered process. The state space of agents is often fixed and the size n is not known in advance, i.e., not hard-coded in the transition function. We assume that a population protocol starts in the predefined initial configuration of agents' states representing the input. And if successful, the protocol stabilises in a final configuration of states forming the output representing the solution to the considered problem. The time complexity of a population protocol refers to the number of interactions required to stabilise this protocol in a final configuration. We also define parallel time as the time complexity divided by n. Note that the parallel time of the system and the expected local time of each agent, i.e., the number of interactions observed by each agent, are correlated. Several mechanisms, known as phase clocks, have been developed to measure parallel time more accurately than counting local interactions. Most of the clocks target counting Θ(log n) parallel time required to fully synchronise all agents in the population. There are leader (and junta) based phase clocks which utilise a fixed number of states [D. Angluin et al., 2008; L. Gąsieniec and G. Stachowiak, 2021]. This type of clocks allows also counting any poly-logarithmic time while preserving fix state utilisation. The other type refers to leaderless clocks utilising Θ(log n) states [D. Alistarh et al., 2018; D. Doty et al., 2021]. This type allows approximate counting of parallel time as fixed resolution clocks [D. Doty et al., 2021] or oscillators [D. Alistarh et al., 2018]. Another clock type introduced recently in [L. Gąsieniec et al., 2021] enables counting Θ(nlog n) parallel time utilising a fixed number of states and either leaders or connections in the network constructor model. We also discuss parallel efficiency of population protocols referring to protocols operating in Θ(polylog n) parallel time, we propose extensions of the population protocol model leading to further improvement in state and time utilisation, and we state some open problems.

Cite as

Leszek Gąsieniec and Grzegorz Stachowiak. Time, Clocks and Efficiency of Population Protocols (Invited Paper). In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 2:1-2:2, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{gasieniec_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.2,
  author =	{G\k{a}sieniec, Leszek and Stachowiak, Grzegorz},
  title =	{{Time, Clocks and Efficiency of Population Protocols}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:2},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161624},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Population protocols, phase clocks, oscillators, parallel time and efficiency}
}
Document
Invited Paper
Reconstructing the Tree of Life (Fitting Distances by Tree Metrics) (Invited Paper)

Authors: Mikkel Thorup


Abstract
We consider the numerical taxonomy problem of fitting an S× S distance matrix D with a tree metric T. Here T is a weighted tree spanning S where the path lengths in T induce a metric on S. If there is a tree metric matching D exactly, then it is easily found. If there is no exact match, then for some k, we want to minimize the L_k norm of the errors, that is, pick T so as to minimize ‖D-T‖_k = (∑_{i,j ∈ S} |D(i,j)-T(i,j)|^k) ^{1/k}. This problem was raised in biology in the 1960s for k = 1,2. The biological interpretation is that T represents a possible evolution behind the species in S matching some measured distances in D. Sometimes, it is required that T is an ultrametric, meaning that all species are at the same distance from the root. An evolutionary tree induces a hierarchical classification of species and this is not just tied to biology. Medicine, ecology and linguistics are just some of the fields where this concept appears, and it is even an integral part of machine learning and data science. Fundamentally, if we can approximate distances with a tree, then they are much easier to reason about: many questions that are NP-hard for general metrics can be answered in linear time on tree metrics. In fact, humans have appreciated hierarchical classifications at least since Plato and Aristotle (350 BC). The numerical taxonomy problem is important in practice and many heuristics have been proposed. In this talk we will review the basic algorithmic theory, results and techniques, for the problem, including the most recent result from FOCS'21 [Vincent Cohen-Addad et al., 2021]. They paint a varied landscape with big differences between different moments, and with some very nice open problems remaining. - At STOC'93, Farach, Kannan, and Warnow [Martin Farach et al., 1995] proved that under L_∞, we can find the optimal ultrametric. Almost all other variants of the problem are APX-hard. - At SODA'96, Agarwala, Bafna, Farach, Paterson, and Thorup [Richa Agarwala et al., 1999] showed that for any norm L_k, k ≥ 1, if the best ultrametric can be α-approximated, then the best tree metric can be 3α-approximated. In particular, this implied a 3-approximation for tree metrics under L_∞. - At FOCS'05, Ailon and Charikar [Nir Ailon and Moses Charikar, 2011] showed that for any L_k, k ≥ 1, we can get an approximation factor of O(((log n)(log log n))^{1/k}) for both tree and ultrametrics. Their paper was focused on the L₁ norm, and they wrote "Determining whether an O(1) approximation can be obtained is a fascinating question". - At FOCS'21, Cohen-Addad, Das, Kipouridis, Parotsidis, and Thorup [Vincent Cohen-Addad et al., 2021] showed that indeed a constant factor is possible for L₁ for both tree and ultrametrics. This uses the special structure of L₁ in relation to hierarchies. - The status of L_k is wide open for 1 < k < ∞. All we know is that the approximation factor is between Ω(1) and O((log n)(log log n)).

Cite as

Mikkel Thorup. Reconstructing the Tree of Life (Fitting Distances by Tree Metrics) (Invited Paper). In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 3:1-3:2, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{thorup:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.3,
  author =	{Thorup, Mikkel},
  title =	{{Reconstructing the Tree of Life (Fitting Distances by Tree Metrics)}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:2},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161631},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Numerical taxonomy, computational phylogenetics, hierarchical clustering}
}
Document
Compacting Squares: Input-Sensitive In-Place Reconfiguration of Sliding Squares

Authors: Hugo A. Akitaya, Erik D. Demaine, Matias Korman, Irina Kostitsyna, Irene Parada, Willem Sonke, Bettina Speckmann, Ryuhei Uehara, and Jules Wulms


Abstract
Edge-connected configurations of square modules, which can reconfigure through so-called sliding moves, are a well-established theoretical model for modular robots in two dimensions. Dumitrescu and Pach [Graphs and Combinatorics, 2006] proved that it is always possible to reconfigure one edge-connected configuration of n squares into any other using at most O(n²) sliding moves, while keeping the configuration connected at all times. For certain pairs of configurations, reconfiguration may require Ω(n²) sliding moves. However, significantly fewer moves may be sufficient. We prove that it is NP-hard to minimize the number of sliding moves for a given pair of edge-connected configurations. On the positive side we present Gather&Compact, an input-sensitive in-place algorithm that requires only O( ̄P n) sliding moves to transform one configuration into the other, where ̄P is the maximum perimeter of the two bounding boxes. The squares move within the bounding boxes only, with the exception of at most one square at a time which may move through the positions adjacent to the bounding boxes. The O( ̄P n) bound never exceeds O(n²), and is optimal (up to constant factors) among all bounds parameterized by just n and ̄P. Our algorithm is built on the basic principle that well-connected components of modular robots can be transformed efficiently. Hence we iteratively increase the connectivity within a configuration, to finally arrive at a single solid xy-monotone component. We implemented Gather&Compact and compared it experimentally to the in-place modification by Moreno and Sacristán [EuroCG 2020] of the Dumitrescu and Pach algorithm (MSDP). Our experiments show that Gather&Compact consistently outperforms MSDP by a significant margin, on all types of square configurations.

Cite as

Hugo A. Akitaya, Erik D. Demaine, Matias Korman, Irina Kostitsyna, Irene Parada, Willem Sonke, Bettina Speckmann, Ryuhei Uehara, and Jules Wulms. Compacting Squares: Input-Sensitive In-Place Reconfiguration of Sliding Squares. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 4:1-4:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{a.akitaya_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.4,
  author =	{A. Akitaya, Hugo and Demaine, Erik D. and Korman, Matias and Kostitsyna, Irina and Parada, Irene and Sonke, Willem and Speckmann, Bettina and Uehara, Ryuhei and Wulms, Jules},
  title =	{{Compacting Squares: Input-Sensitive In-Place Reconfiguration of Sliding Squares}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161644},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sliding cubes, Reconfiguration, Modular robots, NP-hardness}
}
Document
Fault-Tolerant Edge-Disjoint s-t Paths - Beyond Uniform Faults

Authors: David Adjiashvili, Felix Hommelsheim, Moritz Mühlenthaler, and Oliver Schaudt


Abstract
The Edge-disjoint s-t Paths Problem (s-t EDP) is a classical network design problem whose goal is to connect for some k ≥ 1 two given vertices of a graph under the condition that any k-1 edges of the graph may fail. We extend the simple uniform failure model of the s-t EDP as follows: the edge set of the graph is partitioned into vulnerable, and safe edges, and a set of at most k vulnerable edges may fail, while safe edges do not fail. In particular we study the Fault-Tolerant Path (FTP) problem, the counterpart of the Shortest s-t Path problem in this non-uniform failure model as well as the Fault-Tolerant Flow (FTF) problem, the counterpart of s-t EDP. We present complexity results alongside exact and approximation algorithms for both problems. We emphasize the vast increase in complexity of the problems compared to s-t EDP.

Cite as

David Adjiashvili, Felix Hommelsheim, Moritz Mühlenthaler, and Oliver Schaudt. Fault-Tolerant Edge-Disjoint s-t Paths - Beyond Uniform Faults. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 5:1-5:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{adjiashvili_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.5,
  author =	{Adjiashvili, David and Hommelsheim, Felix and M\"{u}hlenthaler, Moritz and Schaudt, Oliver},
  title =	{{Fault-Tolerant Edge-Disjoint s-t Paths - Beyond Uniform Faults}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161659},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph algorithms, network design, fault tolerance, approximation algorithms}
}
Document
An Improved ε-Approximation Algorithm for Geometric Bipartite Matching

Authors: Pankaj K. Agarwal, Sharath Raghvendra, Pouyan Shirzadian, and Rachita Sowle


Abstract
For two point sets A, B ⊂ ℝ^d, with |A| = |B| = n and d > 1 a constant, and for a parameter ε > 0, we present a randomized algorithm that, with probability at least 1/2, computes in O(n(ε^{-O(d³)}log log n + ε^{-O(d)}log⁴ nlog⁵log n)) time, an ε-approximate minimum-cost perfect matching under any L_p-metric. All previous algorithms take n(ε^{-1}log n)^{Ω(d)} time. We use a randomly-shifted tree, with a polynomial branching factor and O(log log n) height, to define a tree-based distance function that ε-approximates the L_p metric as well as to compute the matching hierarchically. Then, we apply the primal-dual framework on a compressed representation of the residual graph to obtain an efficient implementation of the Hungarian-search and augment operations.

Cite as

Pankaj K. Agarwal, Sharath Raghvendra, Pouyan Shirzadian, and Rachita Sowle. An Improved ε-Approximation Algorithm for Geometric Bipartite Matching. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 6:1-6:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{agarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.6,
  author =	{Agarwal, Pankaj K. and Raghvendra, Sharath and Shirzadian, Pouyan and Sowle, Rachita},
  title =	{{An Improved \epsilon-Approximation Algorithm for Geometric Bipartite Matching}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161660},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Euclidean bipartite matching, approximation algorithms, primal dual method}
}
Document
On the Visibility Graphs of Pseudo-Polygons: Recognition and Reconstruction

Authors: Safwa Ameer, Matt Gibson-Lopez, Erik Krohn, and Qing Wang


Abstract
We give polynomial-time algorithms that solve the pseudo-polygon visibility graph recognition and reconstruction problems. Our algorithms are based on a new characterization of the visibility graphs of pseudo-polygons.

Cite as

Safwa Ameer, Matt Gibson-Lopez, Erik Krohn, and Qing Wang. On the Visibility Graphs of Pseudo-Polygons: Recognition and Reconstruction. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 7:1-7:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{ameer_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.7,
  author =	{Ameer, Safwa and Gibson-Lopez, Matt and Krohn, Erik and Wang, Qing},
  title =	{{On the Visibility Graphs of Pseudo-Polygons: Recognition and Reconstruction}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161673},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Pseudo-Polygons, Visibility Graph Recognition, Visibility Graph Reconstruction}
}
Document
Recognizing Map Graphs of Bounded Treewidth

Authors: Patrizio Angelini, Michael A. Bekos, Giordano Da Lozzo, Martin Gronemann, Fabrizio Montecchiani, and Alessandra Tappini


Abstract
A map graph is one admitting a representation in which vertices are nations on a spherical map and edges are shared curve segments or points between nations. We present an explicit fixed-parameter tractable algorithm for recognizing map graphs parameterized by treewidth. The algorithm has time complexity that is linear in the size of the graph and, if the input is a yes-instance, it reports a certificate in the form of a so-called witness. Furthermore, this result is developed within a more general algorithmic framework that allows to test, for any k, if the input graph admits a k-map (where at most k nations meet at a common point) or a hole-free k-map (where each point is covered by at least one nation). We point out that, although bounding the treewidth of the input graph also bounds the size of its largest clique, the latter alone does not seem to be a strong enough structural limitation to obtain an efficient time complexity. In fact, while the largest clique in a k-map graph is ⌊ 3k/2 ⌋, the recognition of k-map graphs is still open for any fixed k ≥ 5.

Cite as

Patrizio Angelini, Michael A. Bekos, Giordano Da Lozzo, Martin Gronemann, Fabrizio Montecchiani, and Alessandra Tappini. Recognizing Map Graphs of Bounded Treewidth. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 8:1-8:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{angelini_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.8,
  author =	{Angelini, Patrizio and Bekos, Michael A. and Da Lozzo, Giordano and Gronemann, Martin and Montecchiani, Fabrizio and Tappini, Alessandra},
  title =	{{Recognizing Map Graphs of Bounded Treewidth}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161681},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Map graphs, Recognition, Parameterized complexity}
}
Document
A Novel Prediction Setup for Online Speed-Scaling

Authors: Antonios Antoniadis, Peyman Jabbarzade, and Golnoosh Shahkarami


Abstract
Given the rapid rise in energy demand by data centers and computing systems in general, it is fundamental to incorporate energy considerations when designing (scheduling) algorithms. Machine learning can be a useful approach in practice by predicting the future load of the system based on, for example, historical data. However, the effectiveness of such an approach highly depends on the quality of the predictions and can be quite far from optimal when predictions are sub-par. On the other hand, while providing a worst-case guarantee, classical online algorithms can be pessimistic for large classes of inputs arising in practice. This paper, in the spirit of the new area of machine learning augmented algorithms, attempts to obtain the best of both worlds for the classical, deadline based, online speed-scaling problem: Based on the introduction of a novel prediction setup, we develop algorithms that (i) obtain provably low energy-consumption in the presence of adequate predictions, and (ii) are robust against inadequate predictions, and (iii) are smooth, i.e., their performance gradually degrades as the prediction error increases.

Cite as

Antonios Antoniadis, Peyman Jabbarzade, and Golnoosh Shahkarami. A Novel Prediction Setup for Online Speed-Scaling. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 9:1-9:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{antoniadis_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.9,
  author =	{Antoniadis, Antonios and Jabbarzade, Peyman and Shahkarami, Golnoosh},
  title =	{{A Novel Prediction Setup for Online Speed-Scaling}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161693},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: learning augmented algorithms, speed-scaling, energy-efficiency, scheduling theory, online algorithms}
}
Document
On the Approximability of the Traveling Salesman Problem with Line Neighborhoods

Authors: Antonios Antoniadis, Sándor Kisfaludi-Bak, Bundit Laekhanukit, and Daniel Vaz


Abstract
We study the variant of the Euclidean Traveling Salesman problem where instead of a set of points, we are given a set of lines as input, and the goal is to find the shortest tour that visits each line. The best known upper and lower bounds for the problem in ℝ^d, with d ≥ 3, are NP-hardness and an O(log³ n)-approximation algorithm which is based on a reduction to the group Steiner tree problem. We show that TSP with lines in ℝ^d is APX-hard for any d ≥ 3. More generally, this implies that TSP with k-dimensional flats does not admit a PTAS for any 1 ≤ k ≤ d-2 unless P = NP, which gives a complete classification regarding the existence of polynomial time approximation schemes for these problems, as there are known PTASes for k = 0 (i.e., points) and k = d-1 (hyperplanes). We are able to give a stronger inapproximability factor for d = O(log n) by showing that TSP with lines does not admit a (2-ε)-approximation in d dimensions under the Unique Games Conjecture. On the positive side, we leverage recent results on restricted variants of the group Steiner tree problem in order to give an O(log² n)-approximation algorithm for the problem, albeit with a running time of n^{O(log log n)}.

Cite as

Antonios Antoniadis, Sándor Kisfaludi-Bak, Bundit Laekhanukit, and Daniel Vaz. On the Approximability of the Traveling Salesman Problem with Line Neighborhoods. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 10:1-10:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{antoniadis_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.10,
  author =	{Antoniadis, Antonios and Kisfaludi-Bak, S\'{a}ndor and Laekhanukit, Bundit and Vaz, Daniel},
  title =	{{On the Approximability of the Traveling Salesman Problem with Line Neighborhoods}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161706},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Traveling Salesman with neighborhoods, Group Steiner Tree, Geometric approximation algorithms}
}
Document
Dynamic Approximate Multiplicatively-Weighted Nearest Neighbors

Authors: Boris Aronov and Matthew J. Katz


Abstract
We describe a dynamic data structure for approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) queries with respect to multiplicatively weighted distances with additive offsets. Queries take polylogarithmic time, while the cost of updates is amortized polylogarithmic. The data structure requires near-linear space and construction time. The approach works not only for the Euclidean norm, but for other norms in ℝ^d, for any fixed d. We employ our ANN data structure to construct a faster dynamic structure for approximate SINR queries, ensuring polylogarithmic query and polylogarithmic amortized update for the case of non-uniform power transmitters, thus closing a gap in previous state of the art. To obtain the latter result, we needed a data structure for dynamic approximate halfplane range counting in the plane. Since we could not find such a data structure in the literature, we also show how to dynamize one of the known static data structures.

Cite as

Boris Aronov and Matthew J. Katz. Dynamic Approximate Multiplicatively-Weighted Nearest Neighbors. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 11:1-11:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{aronov_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.11,
  author =	{Aronov, Boris and Katz, Matthew J.},
  title =	{{Dynamic Approximate Multiplicatively-Weighted Nearest Neighbors}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161710},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: Nearest neighbors, Approximate nearest neighbors, Weighted nearest neighbors, Nearest neighbor queries, SINR queries, Dynamic data structures}
}
Document
MaxSAT with Absolute Value Functions: A Parameterized Perspective

Authors: Max Bannach, Pamela Fleischmann, and Malte Skambath


Abstract
The natural generalization of the Boolean satisfiability problem to optimization problems is the task of determining the maximum number of clauses that can simultaneously be satisfied in a propositional formula in conjunctive normal form. In the weighted maximum satisfiability problem each clause has a positive weight and one seeks an assignment of maximum weight. The literature almost solely considers the case of positive weights. While the general case of the problem is only restricted slightly by this constraint, many special cases become trivial in the absence of negative weights. In this work we study the problem with negative weights and observe that the problem becomes computationally harder - which we formalize from a parameterized perspective in the sense that various variations of the problem become W[1]-hard if negative weights are present. Allowing negative weights also introduces new variants of the problem: Instead of maximizing the sum of weights of satisfied clauses, we can maximize the absolute value of that sum. This turns out to be surprisingly expressive even restricted to monotone formulas in disjunctive normal form with at most two literals per clause. In contrast to the versions without the absolute value, however, we prove that these variants are fixed-parameter tractable. As technical contribution we present a kernelization for an auxiliary problem on hypergraphs in which we seek, given an edge-weighted hypergraph, an induced subgraph that maximizes the absolute value of the sum of edge-weights.

Cite as

Max Bannach, Pamela Fleischmann, and Malte Skambath. MaxSAT with Absolute Value Functions: A Parameterized Perspective. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 12:1-12:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{bannach_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.12,
  author =	{Bannach, Max and Fleischmann, Pamela and Skambath, Malte},
  title =	{{MaxSAT with Absolute Value Functions: A Parameterized Perspective}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161728},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: parameterized complexity, kernelization, weighted maximum satisfiability, absolute value maximization}
}
Document
Dense Graph Partitioning on Sparse and Dense Graphs

Authors: Cristina Bazgan, Katrin Casel, and Pierre Cazals


Abstract
We consider the problem of partitioning a graph into a non-fixed number of non-overlapping subgraphs of maximum density. The density of a partition is the sum of the densities of the subgraphs, where the density of a subgraph is half its average degree, that is, the ratio of its number of edges and its number of vertices. This problem, called Dense Graph Partition, is known to be NP-hard on general graphs and polynomial-time solvable on trees, and polynomial-time 2-approximable. In this paper we study the restriction of Dense Graph Partition to particular sparse and dense graph classes. In particular, we prove that it is NP-hard on dense bipartite graphs as well as on cubic graphs. On dense graphs on n vertices, it is polynomial-time solvable on graphs with minimum degree n-3 and NP-hard on (n-4)-regular graphs. We prove that it is polynomial-time 4/3-approximable on cubic graphs and admits an efficient polynomial-time approximation scheme on graphs of minimum degree n-t for any constant t ≥ 4.

Cite as

Cristina Bazgan, Katrin Casel, and Pierre Cazals. Dense Graph Partitioning on Sparse and Dense Graphs. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{bazgan_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.13,
  author =	{Bazgan, Cristina and Casel, Katrin and Cazals, Pierre},
  title =	{{Dense Graph Partitioning on Sparse and Dense Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161732},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: NP-hardness, approximation, density, graph partitioning, bipartite graphs, cubic graphs, dense graphs}
}
Document
The Diameter of Caterpillar Associahedra

Authors: Benjamin Aram Berendsohn


Abstract
The caterpillar associahedron 𝒜(G) is a polytope arising from the rotation graph of search trees on a caterpillar tree G, generalizing the rotation graph of binary search trees (BSTs) and thus the conventional associahedron. We show that the diameter of 𝒜(G) is Θ(n + m ⋅ (H+1)), where n is the number of vertices, m is the number of leaves, and H is the entropy of the leaf distribution of G. Our proofs reveal a strong connection between caterpillar associahedra and searching in BSTs. We prove the lower bound using Wilber’s first lower bound for dynamic BSTs, and the upper bound by reducing the problem to searching in static BSTs.

Cite as

Benjamin Aram Berendsohn. The Diameter of Caterpillar Associahedra. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 14:1-14:12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{berendsohn:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.14,
  author =	{Berendsohn, Benjamin Aram},
  title =	{{The Diameter of Caterpillar Associahedra}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161743},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph Associahedra, Binary Search Trees, Elimination Trees}
}
Document
Stable Approximation Algorithms for the Dynamic Broadcast Range-Assignment Problem

Authors: Mark de Berg, Arpan Sadhukhan, and Frits Spieksma


Abstract
Let P be a set of points in ℝ^d (or some other metric space), where each point p ∈ P has an associated transmission range, denoted ρ(p). The range assignment ρ induces a directed communication graph G_{ρ}(P) on P, which contains an edge (p,q) iff |pq| ⩽ ρ(p). In the broadcast range-assignment problem, the goal is to assign the ranges such that G_{ρ}(P) contains an arborescence rooted at a designated root node and the cost ∑_{p ∈ P} ρ(p)² of the assignment is minimized. We study the dynamic version of this problem. In particular, we study trade-offs between the stability of the solution - the number of ranges that are modified when a point is inserted into or deleted from P - and its approximation ratio. To this end we introduce the concept of k-stable algorithms, which are algorithms that modify the range of at most k points when they update the solution. We also introduce the concept of a stable approximation scheme, or SAS for short. A SAS is an update algorithm alg that, for any given fixed parameter ε > 0, is k(ε)-stable and that maintains a solution with approximation ratio 1+ε, where the stability parameter k(ε) only depends on ε and not on the size of P. We study such trade-offs in three settings. - For the problem in ℝ¹, we present a SAS with k(ε) = O(1/ε). Furthermore, we prove that this is tight in the worst case: any SAS for the problem must have k(ε) = Ω(1/ε). We also present algorithms with very small stability parameters: a 1-stable (6+2√5)-approximation algorithm - this algorithm can only handle insertions - a (trivial) 2-stable 2-approximation algorithm, and a 3-stable 1.97-approximation algorithm. - For the problem in 𝕊¹ (that is, when the underlying space is a circle) we prove that no SAS exists. This is in spite of the fact that, for the static problem in 𝕊¹, we prove that an optimal solution can always be obtained by cutting the circle at an appropriate point and solving the resulting problem in ℝ¹. - For the problem in ℝ², we also prove that no SAS exists, and we present a O(1)-stable O(1)-approximation algorithm. Most results generalize to when the range-assignment cost is ∑_{p ∈ P} ρ(p)^{α}, for some constant α > 1. All omitted theorems and proofs are available in the full version of the paper [Mark de Berg et al., 2021].

Cite as

Mark de Berg, Arpan Sadhukhan, and Frits Spieksma. Stable Approximation Algorithms for the Dynamic Broadcast Range-Assignment Problem. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 15:1-15:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{deberg_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.15,
  author =	{de Berg, Mark and Sadhukhan, Arpan and Spieksma, Frits},
  title =	{{Stable Approximation Algorithms for the Dynamic Broadcast Range-Assignment Problem}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161756},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Computational geometry, online algorithms, broadcast range assignment, stable approximation schemes}
}
Document
Well-Separation and Hyperplane Transversals in High Dimensions

Authors: Helena Bergold, Daniel Bertschinger, Nicolas Grelier, Wolfgang Mulzer, and Patrick Schnider


Abstract
A family of k point sets in d dimensions is well-separated if the convex hulls of any two disjoint subfamilies can be separated by a hyperplane. Well-separation is a strong assumption that allows us to conclude that certain kinds of generalized ham-sandwich cuts for the point sets exist. But how hard is it to check if a given family of high-dimensional point sets has this property? Starting from this question, we study several algorithmic aspects of the existence of transversals and separations in high-dimensions. First, we give an explicit proof that k point sets are well-separated if and only if their convex hulls admit no (k - 2)-transversal, i.e., if there exists no (k - 2)-dimensional flat that intersects the convex hulls of all k sets. It follows that the task of checking well-separation lies in the complexity class coNP. Next, we show that it is NP-hard to decide whether there is a hyperplane-transversal (that is, a (d - 1)-transversal) of a family of d + 1 line segments in ℝ^d, where d is part of the input. As a consequence, it follows that the general problem of testing well-separation is coNP-complete. Furthermore, we show that finding a hyperplane that maximizes the number of intersected sets is NP-hard, but allows for an Ω((log k)/(k log log k))-approximation algorithm that is polynomial in d and k, when each set consists of a single point. When all point sets are finite, we show that checking whether there exists a (k - 2)-transversal is in fact strongly NP-complete. Finally, we take the viewpoint of parametrized complexity, using the dimension d as a parameter: given k convex sets in ℝ^d, checking whether there is a (k-2)-transversal is FPT with respect to d. On the other hand, for k ≥ d+1 finite point sets in ℝ^d, it turns out that checking whether there is a (d-1)-transversal is W[1]-hard with respect to d.

Cite as

Helena Bergold, Daniel Bertschinger, Nicolas Grelier, Wolfgang Mulzer, and Patrick Schnider. Well-Separation and Hyperplane Transversals in High Dimensions. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 16:1-16:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{bergold_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.16,
  author =	{Bergold, Helena and Bertschinger, Daniel and Grelier, Nicolas and Mulzer, Wolfgang and Schnider, Patrick},
  title =	{{Well-Separation and Hyperplane Transversals in High Dimensions}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161766},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: hyperplane transversal, high-dimension, hardness}
}
Document
Lions and Contamination: Monotone Clearings

Authors: Daniel Bertschinger, Meghana M. Reddy, and Enrico Mann


Abstract
We consider a special variant of a pursuit-evasion game called lions and contamination. In a graph whose vertices are originally contaminated, a set of lions walk around the graph and clear the contamination from every vertex they visit. The contamination, however, simultaneously spreads to any adjacent vertex not occupied by a lion. We study the relationship between different types of clearings of graphs, such as clearings which do not allow recontamination, clearings where at most one lion moves at each time step and clearings where lions are forbidden to be stacked on the same vertex. We answer several questions raised by Adams et al. [H. Adams et al., 2020].

Cite as

Daniel Bertschinger, Meghana M. Reddy, and Enrico Mann. Lions and Contamination: Monotone Clearings. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 17:1-17:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{bertschinger_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.17,
  author =	{Bertschinger, Daniel and M. Reddy, Meghana and Mann, Enrico},
  title =	{{Lions and Contamination: Monotone Clearings}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161778},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Algorithmic Games, Pursuit-Evasion Games, Graph Contamination, Clearings}
}
Document
Predecessor on the Ultra-Wide Word RAM

Authors: Philip Bille, Inge Li Gørtz, and Tord Stordalen


Abstract
We consider the predecessor problem on the ultra-wide word RAM model of computation, which extends the word RAM model with ultrawords consisting of w² bits [TAMC, 2015]. The model supports arithmetic and boolean operations on ultrawords, in addition to scattered memory operations that access or modify w (potentially non-contiguous) memory addresses simultaneously. The ultra-wide word RAM model captures (and idealizes) modern vector processor architectures. Our main result is a simple, linear space data structure that supports predecessor in constant time and updates in amortized, expected constant time. This improves the space of the previous constant time solution that uses space in the order of the size of the universe. Our result is based on a new implementation of the classic x-fast trie data structure of Willard [Inform. Process. Lett. 17(2), 1983] combined with a new dictionary data structure that supports fast parallel lookups.

Cite as

Philip Bille, Inge Li Gørtz, and Tord Stordalen. Predecessor on the Ultra-Wide Word RAM. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 18:1-18:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{bille_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.18,
  author =	{Bille, Philip and G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Stordalen, Tord},
  title =	{{Predecessor on the Ultra-Wide Word RAM}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161786},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: Ultra-wide word RAM model, predecessor, word-level parallelism}
}
Document
An Optimal Algorithm for Product Structure in Planar Graphs

Authors: Prosenjit Bose, Pat Morin, and Saeed Odak


Abstract
The Product Structure Theorem for planar graphs (Dujmović et al. JACM, 67(4):22) states that any planar graph is contained in the strong product of a planar 3-tree, a path, and a 3-cycle. We give a simple linear-time algorithm for finding this decomposition as well as several related decompositions. This improves on the previous O(nlog n) time algorithm (Morin. Algorithmica, 85(5):1544-1558).

Cite as

Prosenjit Bose, Pat Morin, and Saeed Odak. An Optimal Algorithm for Product Structure in Planar Graphs. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 19:1-19:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{bose_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.19,
  author =	{Bose, Prosenjit and Morin, Pat and Odak, Saeed},
  title =	{{An Optimal Algorithm for Product Structure in Planar Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161797},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Planar graphs, product structure}
}
Document
Online Unit Profit Knapsack with Untrusted Predictions

Authors: Joan Boyar, Lene M. Favrholdt, and Kim S. Larsen


Abstract
A variant of the online knapsack problem is considered in the settings of trusted and untrusted predictions. In Unit Profit Knapsack, the items have unit profit, and it is easy to find an optimal solution offline: Pack as many of the smallest items as possible into the knapsack. For Online Unit Profit Knapsack, the competitive ratio is unbounded. In contrast, previous work on online algorithms with untrusted predictions generally studied problems where an online algorithm with a constant competitive ratio is known. The prediction, possibly obtained from a machine learning source, that our algorithm uses is the average size of those smallest items that fit in the knapsack. For the prediction error in this hard online problem, we use the ratio r = a/â where a is the actual value for this average size and â is the prediction. The algorithm presented achieves a competitive ratio of 1/(2r) for r ≥ 1 and r/2 for r ≤ 1. Using an adversary technique, we show that this is optimal in some sense, giving a trade-off in the competitive ratio attainable for different values of r. Note that the result for accurate advice, r = 1, is only 1/2, but we show that no deterministic algorithm knowing the value a can achieve a competitive ratio better than (e-1)/e ≈ 0.6321 and present an algorithm with a matching upper bound. We also show that this latter algorithm attains a competitive ratio of r (e-1)/e for r ≤ 1 and (e-r)/e for 1 ≤ r < e, and no deterministic algorithm can be better for both r < 1 and 1 < r < e.

Cite as

Joan Boyar, Lene M. Favrholdt, and Kim S. Larsen. Online Unit Profit Knapsack with Untrusted Predictions. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 20:1-20:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{boyar_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.20,
  author =	{Boyar, Joan and Favrholdt, Lene M. and Larsen, Kim S.},
  title =	{{Online Unit Profit Knapsack with Untrusted Predictions}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161800},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: online algorithms, untrusted predictions, knapsack problem, competitive analysis}
}
Document
Nearest-Neighbor Decompositions of Drawings

Authors: Jonas Cleve, Nicolas Grelier, Kristin Knorr, Maarten Löffler, Wolfgang Mulzer, and Daniel Perz


Abstract
Let 𝒟 be a set of straight-line segments in the plane, potentially crossing, and let c be a positive integer. We denote by P the union of the endpoints of the straight-line segments of 𝒟 and of the intersection points between pairs of segments. We say that 𝒟 has a nearest-neighbor decomposition into c parts if we can partition P into c point sets P₁, … , P_c such that 𝒟 is the union of the nearest neighbor graphs on P₁, … , P_c. We show that it is NP-complete to decide whether 𝒟 can be drawn as the union of c ≥ 3 nearest-neighbor graphs, even when no two segments cross. We show that for c = 2, it is NP-complete in the general setting and polynomial-time solvable when no two segments cross. We show the existence of an O(log n)-approximation algorithm running in subexponential time for partitioning 𝒟 into a minimum number of nearest-neighbor graphs. As a main tool in our analysis, we establish the notion of the conflict graph for a drawing 𝒟. The vertices of the conflict graph are the connected components of 𝒟, with the assumption that each connected component is the nearest neighbor graph of its vertices, and there is an edge between two components U and V if and only if the nearest neighbor graph of U ∪ V contains an edge between a vertex in U and a vertex in V. We show that string graphs are conflict graphs of certain planar drawings. For planar graphs and complete k-partite graphs, we give additional, more efficient constructions. We furthermore show that there are subdivisions of non-planar graphs that are not conflict graphs. Lastly, we show a separator lemma for conflict graphs.

Cite as

Jonas Cleve, Nicolas Grelier, Kristin Knorr, Maarten Löffler, Wolfgang Mulzer, and Daniel Perz. Nearest-Neighbor Decompositions of Drawings. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 21:1-21:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{cleve_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.21,
  author =	{Cleve, Jonas and Grelier, Nicolas and Knorr, Kristin and L\"{o}ffler, Maarten and Mulzer, Wolfgang and Perz, Daniel},
  title =	{{Nearest-Neighbor Decompositions of Drawings}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161812},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: nearest-neighbors, decompositions, drawing}
}
Document
Approximation Metatheorems for Classes with Bounded Expansion

Authors: Zdeněk Dvořák


Abstract
We give a number of approximation metatheorems for monotone maximization problems expressible in the first-order logic, in substantially more general settings than previously known. We obtain - a constant-factor approximation algorithm in any class of graphs with bounded expansion, - a QPTAS in any class with strongly sublinear separators, and - a PTAS in any fractionally treewidth-fragile class (which includes all common classes with strongly sublinear separators). Moreover, our tools also give an exact subexponential-time algorithm in any class with strongly sublinear separators.

Cite as

Zdeněk Dvořák. Approximation Metatheorems for Classes with Bounded Expansion. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 22:1-22:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{dvorak:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.22,
  author =	{Dvo\v{r}\'{a}k, Zden\v{e}k},
  title =	{{Approximation Metatheorems for Classes with Bounded Expansion}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161823},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: bounded expansion, approximation, meta-algorithms}
}
Document
Almost Shortest Paths with Near-Additive Error in Weighted Graphs

Authors: Michael Elkin, Yuval Gitlitz, and Ofer Neiman


Abstract
Let G = (V,E,w) be a weighted undirected graph with n vertices and m edges, and fix a set of s sources S ⊆ V. We study the problem of computing almost shortest paths (ASP) for all pairs in S × V in both classical centralized and parallel (PRAM) models of computation. Consider the regime of multiplicative approximation of 1+ε, for an arbitrarily small constant ε > 0 (henceforth (1+ε)-ASP for S × V). In this regime existing centralized algorithms require Ω(min{|E|s,n^ω}) time, where ω < 2.372 is the matrix multiplication exponent. Existing PRAM algorithms with polylogarithmic depth (aka time) require work Ω(min{|E|s,n^ω}). In a bold attempt to achieve centralized time close to the lower bound of m + n s, Cohen [Edith Cohen, 2000] devised an algorithm which, in addition to the multiplicative stretch of 1+ε, allows also additive error of β ⋅ W_{max}, where W_{max} is the maximum edge weight in G (assuming that the minimum edge weight is 1), and β = (log n)^{O((log 1/ρ)/ρ)} is polylogarithmic in n. It also depends on the (possibly) arbitrarily small parameter ρ > 0 that determines the running time O((m + ns)n^ρ) of the algorithm. The tradeoff of [Edith Cohen, 2000] was improved in [M. Elkin, 2001], whose algorithm has similar approximation guarantee and running time, but its β is (1/ρ)^{O((log 1/ρ)/ρ)}. However, the latter algorithm produces distance estimates rather than actual approximate shortest paths. Also, the additive terms in [Edith Cohen, 2000; M. Elkin, 2001] depend linearly on a possibly quite large global maximum edge weight W_{max}. In the current paper we significantly improve this state of affairs. Our centralized algorithm has running time O((m+ ns)n^ρ), and its PRAM counterpart has polylogarithmic depth and work O((m + ns)n^ρ), for an arbitrarily small constant ρ > 0. For a pair (s,v) ∈ S× V, it provides a path of length d̂(s,v) that satisfies d̂(s,v) ≤ (1+ε)d_G(s,v) + β ⋅ W(s,v), where W(s,v) is the weight of the heaviest edge on some shortest s-v path. Hence our additive term depends linearly on a local maximum edge weight, as opposed to the global maximum edge weight in [Edith Cohen, 2000; M. Elkin, 2001]. Finally, our β = (1/ρ)^{O(1/ρ)}, i.e., it is significantly smaller than in [Edith Cohen, 2000; M. Elkin, 2001]. We also extend a centralized algorithm of Dor et al. [D. Dor et al., 2000]. For a parameter κ = 1,2,…, this algorithm provides for unweighted graphs a purely additive approximation of 2(κ -1) for all pairs shortest paths (APASP) in time Õ(n^{2+1/κ}). Within the same running time, our algorithm for weighted graphs provides a purely additive error of 2(κ - 1) W(u,v), for every vertex pair (u,v) ∈ binom(V,2), with W(u,v) defined as above. On the way to these results we devise a suite of novel constructions of spanners, emulators and hopsets.

Cite as

Michael Elkin, Yuval Gitlitz, and Ofer Neiman. Almost Shortest Paths with Near-Additive Error in Weighted Graphs. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 23:1-23:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{elkin_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.23,
  author =	{Elkin, Michael and Gitlitz, Yuval and Neiman, Ofer},
  title =	{{Almost Shortest Paths with Near-Additive Error in Weighted Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161833},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: spanners, hopset, shortest paths, PRAM, distance oracles}
}
Document
Complexity of Finding Maximum Locally Irregular Induced Subgraphs

Authors: Foivos Fioravantes, Nikolaos Melissinos, and Theofilos Triommatis


Abstract
If a graph G is such that no two adjacent vertices of G have the same degree, we say that G is locally irregular. In this work we introduce and study the problem of identifying a largest induced subgraph of a given graph G that is locally irregular. Equivalently, given a graph G, find a subset S of V(G) with minimum order, such that by deleting the vertices of S from G results in a locally irregular graph; we denote with I(G) the order of such a set S. We first examine some easy graph families, namely paths, cycles, trees, complete bipartite and complete graphs. However, we show that the decision version of the introduced problem is NP-Complete, even for restricted families of graphs, such as subcubic planar bipartite, or cubic bipartite graphs. We then show that we can not even approximate an optimal solution within a ratio of 𝒪(n^{1-1/k}), where k ≥ 1 and n is the order the graph, unless 𝒫=NP, even when the input graph is bipartite. Then, looking for more positive results, we turn our attention towards computing I(G) through the lens of parameterised complexity. In particular, we provide two algorithms that compute I(G), each one considering different parameters. The first one considers the size of the solution k and the maximum degree Δ of G with running time (2Δ)^kn^{𝒪(1)}, while the second one considers the treewidth tw and Δ of G, and has running time Δ^{2tw}n^{𝒪(1)}. Therefore, we show that the problem is FPT by both k and tw if the graph has bounded maximum degree Δ. Since these algorithms are not FPT for graphs with unbounded maximum degree (unless we consider Δ + k or Δ + tw as the parameter), it is natural to wonder if there exists an algorithm that does not include additional parameters (other than k or tw) in its dependency. We answer negatively, to this question, by showing that our algorithms are essentially optimal. In particular, we prove that there is no algorithm that computes I(G) with dependence f(k)n^{o(k)} or f(tw)n^{o(tw)}, unless the ETH fails.

Cite as

Foivos Fioravantes, Nikolaos Melissinos, and Theofilos Triommatis. Complexity of Finding Maximum Locally Irregular Induced Subgraphs. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 24:1-24:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{fioravantes_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.24,
  author =	{Fioravantes, Foivos and Melissinos, Nikolaos and Triommatis, Theofilos},
  title =	{{Complexity of Finding Maximum Locally Irregular Induced Subgraphs}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161842},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: Locally irregular, largest induced subgraph, FPT, treewidth, W-hardness, approximability}
}
Document
An Almost Optimal Algorithm for Unbounded Search with Noisy Information

Authors: Junhao Gan, Anthony Wirth, and Xin Zhang


Abstract
Given a sequence of integers, 𝒮 = s₁, s₂,… in ascending order, called the search domain, and an integer t, called the target, the predecessor problem asks for the target index N such that s_N is the largest integer in 𝒮 satisfying s_N ≤ t. We consider solving the predecessor problem with the least number of queries to a binary comparison oracle. For each query index i, the oracle returns whether s_i ≤ t or s_i > t. In particular, we study the predecessor problem under the UnboundedNoisy setting, where (i) the search domain 𝒮 is unbounded, i.e., n = |𝒮| is unknown or infinite, and (ii) the binary comparison oracle is noisy. We denote the former setting by Unbounded and the latter by Noisy. In Noisy, the oracle, for each query, independently returns a wrong answer with a fixed constant probability 0 < p < 1/2. In particular, even for two queries on the same index i, the answers from the oracle may be different. Furthermore, with a noisy oracle, the goal is to correctly return the target index with probability at least 1- Q, where 0 < Q < 1/2 is the failure probability. Our first result is an algorithm, called NoS, for Noisy that improves the previous result by Ben-Or and Hassidim [FOCS 2008] from an expected query complexity bound to a worst-case bound. We also achieve an expected query complexity bound, whose leading term has an optimal constant factor, matching the lower bound of Ben-Or and Hassidim. Building on NoS, we propose our NoSU algorithm, which correctly solves the predecessor problem in the UnboundedNoisy setting. We prove that the query complexity of NoSU is ∑_{i = 1}^k (log^{(i)} N) /(1-H(p))+ o(log N) when log Q^{-1} ∈ o(log N), where N is the target index, k = log^* N, the iterated logarithm, and H(p) is the entropy function. This improves the previous bound of O(log (N/Q) / (1-H(p))) by reducing the coefficient of the leading term from a large constant to 1. Moreover, we show that this upper bound can be further improved to (1 - Q) ∑_{i = 1}^k (log^{(i)} N) /(1-H(p))+ o(log N) in expectation, with the constant in the leading term reduced to 1 - Q. Finally, we show that an information-theoretic lower bound on the expected query cost of the predecessor problem in UnboundedNoisy is at least (1 - Q)(∑_{i = 1}^k log^{(i)} N - 2k)/(1-H(p)) - 10. This implies the constant factor in the leading term of our expected upper bound is indeed optimal.

Cite as

Junhao Gan, Anthony Wirth, and Xin Zhang. An Almost Optimal Algorithm for Unbounded Search with Noisy Information. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 25:1-25:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{gan_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.25,
  author =	{Gan, Junhao and Wirth, Anthony and Zhang, Xin},
  title =	{{An Almost Optimal Algorithm for Unbounded Search with Noisy Information}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161854},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fault-tolerant search, noisy binary search, query complexity}
}
Document
Optimal Bounds for Weak Consistent Digital Rays in 2D

Authors: Matt Gibson-Lopez and Serge Zamarripa


Abstract
Representation of Euclidean objects in a digital space has been a focus of research for over 30 years. Digital line segments are particularly important as other digital objects depend on their definition (e.g., digital convex objects or digital star-shaped objects). It may be desirable for the digital line segment systems to satisfy some nice properties that their Euclidean counterparts also satisfy. The system is a consistent digital line segment system (CDS) if it satisfies five properties, most notably the subsegment property (the intersection of any two digital line segments should be connected) and the prolongation property (any digital line segment should be able to be extended into a digital line). It is known that any CDS must have Ω(log n) Hausdorff distance to their Euclidean counterparts, where n is the number of grid points on a segment. In fact this lower bound even applies to consistent digital rays (CDR) where for a fixed p ∈ ℤ², we consider the digital segments from p to q for each q ∈ ℤ². In this paper, we consider families of weak consistent digital rays (WCDR) where we maintain four of the CDR properties but exclude the prolongation property. In this paper, we give a WCDR construction that has optimal Hausdorff distance to the exact constant. That is, we give a construction whose Hausdorff distance is 1.5 under the L_∞ metric, and we show that for every ε > 0, it is not possible to have a WCDR with Hausdorff distance at most 1.5 - ε.

Cite as

Matt Gibson-Lopez and Serge Zamarripa. Optimal Bounds for Weak Consistent Digital Rays in 2D. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 26:1-26:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{gibsonlopez_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.26,
  author =	{Gibson-Lopez, Matt and Zamarripa, Serge},
  title =	{{Optimal Bounds for Weak Consistent Digital Rays in 2D}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161862},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: Digital Geometry, Consistent Digital Rays}
}
Document
Matroid-Constrained Maximum Vertex Cover: Approximate Kernels and Streaming Algorithms

Authors: Chien-Chung Huang and François Sellier


Abstract
Given a graph with weights on the edges and a matroid imposed on the vertices, our problem is to choose a subset of vertices that is independent in the matroid, with the objective of maximizing the total weight of covered edges. This problem is a generalization of the much studied max k-vertex cover problem, where the matroid is the simple uniform matroid, and it is also a special case of maximizing a monotone submodular function under a matroid constraint. In this work, we give a Fixed Parameter Tractable Approximation Scheme (FPT-AS) when the given matroid is a partition matroid, a laminar matroid, or a transversal matroid. Precisely, if k is the rank of the matroid, we obtain (1 - ε) approximation using (1/(ε))^{O(k)}n^{O(1)} time for partition and laminar matroids and using (1/(ε)+k)^{O(k)}n^{O(1)} time for transversal matroids. This extends a result of Manurangsi for uniform matroids [Pasin Manurangsi, 2018]. We also show that these ideas can be applied in the context of (single-pass) streaming algorithms. Our FPT-AS introduces a new technique based on matroid union, which may be of independent interest in extremal combinatorics.

Cite as

Chien-Chung Huang and François Sellier. Matroid-Constrained Maximum Vertex Cover: Approximate Kernels and Streaming Algorithms. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 27:1-27:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{huang_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.27,
  author =	{Huang, Chien-Chung and Sellier, Fran\c{c}ois},
  title =	{{Matroid-Constrained Maximum Vertex Cover: Approximate Kernels and Streaming Algorithms}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161874},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Maximum vertex cover, matroid, approximate kernel, streaming}
}
Document
Non-Uniform k-Center and Greedy Clustering

Authors: Tanmay Inamdar and Kasturi Varadarajan


Abstract
In the Non-Uniform k-Center (NUkC) problem, a generalization of the famous k-center clustering problem, we want to cover the given set of points in a metric space by finding a placement of balls with specified radii. In t-NUkC, we assume that the number of distinct radii is equal to t, and we are allowed to use k_i balls of radius r_i, for 1 ≤ i ≤ t. This problem was introduced by Chakrabarty et al. [ACM Trans. Alg. 16(4):46:1-46:19], who showed that a constant approximation for t-NUkC is not possible if t is unbounded, assuming 𝖯 ≠ NP. On the other hand, they gave a bicriteria approximation that violates the number of allowed balls as well as the given radii by a constant factor. They also conjectured that a constant approximation for t-NUkC should be possible if t is a fixed constant. Since then, there has been steady progress towards resolving this conjecture - currently, a constant approximation for 3-NUkC is known via the results of Chakrabarty and Negahbani [IPCO 2021], and Jia et al. [SOSA 2022]. We push the horizon by giving an O(1)-approximation for the Non-Uniform k-Center for 4 distinct types of radii. Our result is obtained via a novel combination of tools and techniques from the k-center literature, which also demonstrates that the different generalizations of k-center involving non-uniform radii, and multiple coverage constraints (i.e., colorful k-center), are closely interlinked with each other. We hope that our ideas will contribute towards a deeper understanding of the t-NUkC problem, eventually bringing us closer to the resolution of the CGK conjecture.

Cite as

Tanmay Inamdar and Kasturi Varadarajan. Non-Uniform k-Center and Greedy Clustering. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 28:1-28:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{inamdar_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.28,
  author =	{Inamdar, Tanmay and Varadarajan, Kasturi},
  title =	{{Non-Uniform k-Center and Greedy Clustering}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161881},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: k-center, approximation algorithms, non-uniform k-center, clustering}
}
Document
Most Classic Problems Remain NP-Hard on Relative Neighborhood Graphs and Their Relatives

Authors: Pascal Kunz, Till Fluschnik, Rolf Niedermeier, and Malte Renken


Abstract
Proximity graphs have been studied for several decades, motivated by applications in computational geometry, geography, data mining, and many other fields. However, the computational complexity of classic graph problems on proximity graphs mostly remained open. We study 3-Colorability, Dominating Set, Feedback Vertex Set, Hamiltonian Cycle, and Independent Set on the following classes of proximity graphs: relative neighborhood graphs, Gabriel graphs, and relatively closest graphs. We prove that all of the aforementioned problems remain NP-hard on these graphs, except for 3-Colorability and Hamiltonian Cycle on relatively closest graphs, where the former is trivial and the latter is left open. Moreover, for every NP-hard case we additionally show that no 2^{o(n^{1/4})}-time algorithm exists unless the Exponential-Time Hypothesis (ETH) fails, where n denotes the number of vertices.

Cite as

Pascal Kunz, Till Fluschnik, Rolf Niedermeier, and Malte Renken. Most Classic Problems Remain NP-Hard on Relative Neighborhood Graphs and Their Relatives. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 29:1-29:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{kunz_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.29,
  author =	{Kunz, Pascal and Fluschnik, Till and Niedermeier, Rolf and Renken, Malte},
  title =	{{Most Classic Problems Remain NP-Hard on Relative Neighborhood Graphs and Their Relatives}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161891},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Proximity Graphs, Relatively Closest Graphs, Gabriel Graphs, 3-Colorability, Dominating Set, Feedback Vertex Set, Hamiltonian Cycle, Independent Set, Exponential-Time Hypothesis}
}
Document
A Scalable Work Function Algorithm for the k-Server Problem

Authors: Sharath Raghvendra and Rachita Sowle


Abstract
We provide a novel implementation of the classical Work Function Algorithm (WFA) for the k-server problem. In our implementation, processing a request takes O(n²+k²) time per request; where n is the total number of requests and k is the total number of servers. All prior implementations take Ω(kn² +k³) time per request. Previous approaches process a request by solving a min-cost flow problem. Instead, we show that processing a request can be reduced to an execution of the Dijkstra’s shortest-path algorithm on a carefully computed weighted graph leading to the speed-up.

Cite as

Sharath Raghvendra and Rachita Sowle. A Scalable Work Function Algorithm for the k-Server Problem. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 30:1-30:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{raghvendra_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.30,
  author =	{Raghvendra, Sharath and Sowle, Rachita},
  title =	{{A Scalable Work Function Algorithm for the k-Server Problem}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{30:1--30:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.30},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161906},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.30},
  annote =	{Keywords: k-server, Work Function Algorithm, Minimum-cost Flow}
}
Document
Erdős-Selfridge Theorem for Nonmonotone CNFs

Authors: Md Lutfar Rahman and Thomas Watson


Abstract
In an influential paper, Erdős and Selfridge introduced the Maker-Breaker game played on a hypergraph, or equivalently, on a monotone CNF. The players take turns assigning values to variables of their choosing, and Breaker’s goal is to satisfy the CNF, while Maker’s goal is to falsify it. The Erdős-Selfridge Theorem says that the least number of clauses in any monotone CNF with k literals per clause where Maker has a winning strategy is Θ(2^k). We study the analogous question when the CNF is not necessarily monotone. We prove bounds of Θ(√2 ^k) when Maker plays last, and Ω(1.5^k) and O(r^k) when Breaker plays last, where r = (1+√5)/2≈ 1.618 is the golden ratio.

Cite as

Md Lutfar Rahman and Thomas Watson. Erdős-Selfridge Theorem for Nonmonotone CNFs. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 31:1-31:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{rahman_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.31,
  author =	{Rahman, Md Lutfar and Watson, Thomas},
  title =	{{Erd\H{o}s-Selfridge Theorem for Nonmonotone CNFs}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161916},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: Game, nonmonotone, CNFs}
}
Document
Unit-Disk Range Searching and Applications

Authors: Haitao Wang


Abstract
Given a set P of n points in the plane, we consider the problem of computing the number of points of P in a query unit disk (i.e., all query disks have the same radius). We show that the main techniques for simplex range searching can be adapted to this problem. For example, by adapting Matoušek’s results, we can build a data structure of O(n) space so that each query can be answered in O(√n) time; alternatively, we can build a data structure of O(n²/log² n) space with O(log n) query time. Our techniques lead to improvements for several other classical problems in computational geometry. 1) Given a set of n unit disks and a set of n points in the plane, the batched unit-disk range counting problem is to compute for each disk the number of points in it. Previous work [Katz and Sharir, 1997] solved the problem in O(n^{4/3}log n) time. We give a new algorithm of O(n^{4/3}) time, which is optimal as it matches an Ω(n^{4/3})-time lower bound. For small χ, where χ is the number of pairs of unit disks that intersect, we further improve the algorithm to O(n^{2/3}χ^{1/3}+n^{1+δ}) time, for any δ > 0. 2) The above result immediately leads to an O(n^{4/3}) time optimal algorithm for counting the intersecting pairs of circles for a set of n unit circles in the plane. The previous best algorithms solve the problem in O(n^{4/3}log n) deterministic time [Katz and Sharir, 1997] or in O(n^{4/3}log^{2/3} n) expected time by a randomized algorithm [Agarwal, Pellegrini, and Sharir, 1993]. 3) Given a set P of n points in the plane and an integer k, the distance selection problem is to find the k-th smallest distance among all pairwise distances of P. The problem can be solved in O(n^{4/3}log² n) deterministic time [Katz and Sharir, 1997] or in O(nlog n+n^{2/3}k^{1/3}log^{5/3}n) expected time by a randomized algorithm [Chan, 2001]. Our new randomized algorithm runs in O(nlog n +n^{2/3}k^{1/3}log n) expected time. 4) Given a set P of n points in the plane, the discrete 2-center problem is to compute two smallest congruent disks whose centers are in P and whose union covers P. An O(n^{4/3}log⁵ n)-time algorithm was known [Agarwal, Sharir, and Welzl, 1998]. Our techniques yield a deterministic algorithm of O(n^{4/3}log^{10/3} n⋅ (log log n)^{O(1)}) time and a randomized algorithm of O(n^{4/3}log³ n⋅ (log log n)^{1/3}) expected time.

Cite as

Haitao Wang. Unit-Disk Range Searching and Applications. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 32:1-32:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{wang:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.32,
  author =	{Wang, Haitao},
  title =	{{Unit-Disk Range Searching and Applications}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161926},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: Unit disks, disk range searching, batched range searching, distance selection, discrete 2-center, arrangements, cuttings}
}
Document
Space-Efficient Data Structure for Posets with Applications

Authors: Tatsuya Yanagita, Sankardeep Chakraborty, Kunihiko Sadakane, and Srinivasa Rao Satti


Abstract
Space efficient data structures for partial ordered sets or posets are well-researched field. It is known that a poset with n elements can be represented in n²/4 + o(n²) bits [Munro and Nicholson, 2016] and can also be represented in (1 + ε)n log n + 2nk + o(nk) bits [Farzan and Fischer, 2011] where k is width of the poset. In this paper, we make the latter data structure occupy 2n(k-1) + o(nk) bits by considering topological labeling on the elements of posets. Also considering the topological labeling, we propose a new data structure that calculates queries on transitive reduction graphs of posets faster though queries on transitive closure graphs are computed slower. Moreover, we propose an alternative data structure for topological labeled posets that calculates both of the queries faster though it uses 3nk - 2n + o(nk) bits of space. Additionally, we discuss the advantage of these data structures from the perspective of an application for BlockDAG, which is a more scalable version of Blockchain.

Cite as

Tatsuya Yanagita, Sankardeep Chakraborty, Kunihiko Sadakane, and Srinivasa Rao Satti. Space-Efficient Data Structure for Posets with Applications. In 18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 227, pp. 33:1-33:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{yanagita_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.33,
  author =	{Yanagita, Tatsuya and Chakraborty, Sankardeep and Sadakane, Kunihiko and Satti, Srinivasa Rao},
  title =	{{Space-Efficient Data Structure for Posets with Applications}},
  booktitle =	{18th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2022)},
  pages =	{33:1--33:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-236-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{227},
  editor =	{Czumaj, Artur and Xin, Qin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.33},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161931},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2022.33},
  annote =	{Keywords: Succinct Data Structures, Posets, Blockchain}
}

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