Volume

LIPIcs, Volume 184

24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)



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Event

OPODIS 2020, December 14-16, 2020, Strasbourg, France (Virtual Conference)

Editors

Quentin Bramas
  • University of Strasbourg, ICUBE, CNRS, Strasbourg, France
Rotem Oshman
  • Tel Aviv University, Israel
Paolo Romano
  • Lisbon University $&$ INESC-ID, Portugal

Publication Details

  • published at: 2021-01-25
  • Publisher: Schloss-Dagstuhl - Leibniz Zentrum für Informatik
  • ISBN: 978-3-95977-176-4
  • DBLP: db/conf/opodis/opodis2020

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Document
Complete Volume
LIPIcs, Volume 184, OPODIS 2020, Complete Volume

Authors: Quentin Bramas, Rotem Oshman, and Paolo Romano


Abstract
LIPIcs, Volume 184, OPODIS 2020, Complete Volume

Cite as

Quentin Bramas, Rotem Oshman, and Paolo Romano. LIPIcs, Volume 184, OPODIS 2020, Complete Volume. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 1-514, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@Proceedings{bramas_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020,
  title =	{{LIPIcs, Volume 184, OPODIS 2020, Complete Volume}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{1--514},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134842},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020},
  annote =	{Keywords: LIPIcs, Volume 184, OPODIS 2020, Complete Volume}
}
Document
Front Matter
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Authors: Quentin Bramas, Rotem Oshman, and Paolo Romano


Abstract
Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Cite as

Quentin Bramas, Rotem Oshman, and Paolo Romano. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 0:i-0:xvi, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{bramas_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.0,
  author =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  title =	{{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{0:i--0:xvi},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.0},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134854},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.0},
  annote =	{Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Big Data Processing: Security and Scalability Challenges (Invited Talk)

Authors: Pascal Felber


Abstract
The processing of large amonts of data requires significant computing power and scalable architectures. This trend makes the use of Cloud computing and off-premises data centres particularly attractive, but exposes companies to the risk of data theft. This is a key challenge toward exploiting public Clouds, as data represents for many companies their most valuable asset. In this talk, we will discuss about mechanisms to ensure secure and privacy-preserving Big Data processing on computing architectures supporting horizontal and vertical scalability.

Cite as

Pascal Felber. Big Data Processing: Security and Scalability Challenges (Invited Talk). In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, p. 1:1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{felber:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.1,
  author =	{Felber, Pascal},
  title =	{{Big Data Processing: Security and Scalability Challenges}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134863},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Big Data}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Byzantine Agreement and SMR with Sub-Quadratic Message Complexity (Invited Talk)

Authors: Idit Keidar


Abstract
Byzantine Agreement (BA) has been studied for four decades by now, but until recently, has been considered at a fairly small scale. In recent years, however, we begin to see practical use-cases of BA in large-scale systems, which motivates a push for reduced communication complexity. Dolev and Reischuk’s well-known lower bound stipulates that any deterministic algorithm requires Ω(n²) communication in the worst-case, and until fairly recently, almost all randomized algorithms have had at least quadratic complexity as well. This talk will present two new algorithms breaking this barrier. The first part of the talk will consider a fully asynchronous setting, focusing on randomized BA whose safety and liveness guarantees hold with high probability. It will present the first asynchronous Byzantine Agreement algorithm with sub-quadratic communication complexity. This algorithm exploits VRF-based committee sampling, which it adapts for the asynchronous model. The second part of the talk will consider the eventually synchronous model, where BA and State Machine Replication (SMR) can be solved with deterministic safety and liveness guarantees. In this context, randomization is used in order to reduce the expected communication complexity. The talk will present an algorithm for round synchronization, which is a building block for BA and SMR and constitutes the main performance bottleneck therein. It will present an algorithm that, for the first time, achieves round synchronization with expected linear message complexity and expected constant latency. Existing protocols can use this round synchronization algorithm to solve Byzantine SMR with the same asymptotic performance. The first part of the talk is based on joint work with Shir Cohen and Alexander Spiegelman, and the second part of the talk is based on joint work with Oded Naor.

Cite as

Idit Keidar. Byzantine Agreement and SMR with Sub-Quadratic Message Complexity (Invited Talk). In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, p. 2:1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{keidar:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.2,
  author =	{Keidar, Idit},
  title =	{{Byzantine Agreement and SMR with Sub-Quadratic Message Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134874},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Computing, Byzantine Agreement}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Can We Automate Our Own Work - or Show That It Is Hard? (Invited Talk)

Authors: Jukka Suomela


Abstract
Computer scientists seek to understand what can be automated, but what do we know about automating our own work? Can we outsource our own research questions to computers? In this talk I will discuss this question from the perspective of the theory of distributed computing. I will present not only recent examples of human-computer-collaborations that have resulted in major breakthroughs in our understanding of distributed computing, but I will also explore the fundamental limits of such approaches.

Cite as

Jukka Suomela. Can We Automate Our Own Work - or Show That It Is Hard? (Invited Talk). In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, p. 3:1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{suomela:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.3,
  author =	{Suomela, Jukka},
  title =	{{Can We Automate Our Own Work - or Show That It Is Hard?}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134881},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Computing}
}
Document
Byzantine Lattice Agreement in Asynchronous Systems

Authors: Xiong Zheng and Vijay Garg


Abstract
We study the Byzantine lattice agreement (BLA) problem in asynchronous distributed message passing systems. In the BLA problem, each process proposes a value from a join semi-lattice and needs to output a value also in the lattice such that all output values of correct processes lie on a chain despite the presence of Byzantine processes. We present an algorithm for this problem with round complexity of O(log f) which tolerates f < n/5 Byzantine failures in the asynchronous setting without digital signatures, where n is the number of processes. This is the first algorithm which has logarithmic round complexity for this problem in asynchronous setting. Before our work, Di Luna et al give an algorithm for this problem which takes O(f) rounds and tolerates f < n/3 Byzantine failures. We also show how this algorithm can be modified to work in the authenticated setting (i.e., with digital signatures) to tolerate f < n/3 Byzantine failures.

Cite as

Xiong Zheng and Vijay Garg. Byzantine Lattice Agreement in Asynchronous Systems. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 4:1-4:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{zheng_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.4,
  author =	{Zheng, Xiong and Garg, Vijay},
  title =	{{Byzantine Lattice Agreement in Asynchronous Systems}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134894},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Byzantine Lattice Agreement, Asynchronous}
}
Document
Heterogeneous Paxos

Authors: Isaac Sheff, Xinwen Wang, Robbert van Renesse, and Andrew C. Myers


Abstract
In distributed systems, a group of learners achieve consensus when, by observing the output of some acceptors, they all arrive at the same value. Consensus is crucial for ordering transactions in failure-tolerant systems. Traditional consensus algorithms are homogeneous in three ways: - all learners are treated equally, - all acceptors are treated equally, and - all failures are treated equally. These assumptions, however, are unsuitable for cross-domain applications, including blockchains, where not all acceptors are equally trustworthy, and not all learners have the same assumptions and priorities. We present the first consensus algorithm to be heterogeneous in all three respects. Learners set their own mixed failure tolerances over differently trusted sets of acceptors. We express these assumptions in a novel Learner Graph, and demonstrate sufficient conditions for consensus. We present Heterogeneous Paxos, an extension of Byzantine Paxos. Heterogeneous Paxos achieves consensus for any viable Learner Graph in best-case three message sends, which is optimal. We present a proof-of-concept implementation and demonstrate how tailoring for heterogeneous scenarios can save resources and reduce latency.

Cite as

Isaac Sheff, Xinwen Wang, Robbert van Renesse, and Andrew C. Myers. Heterogeneous Paxos. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 5:1-5:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{sheff_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.5,
  author =	{Sheff, Isaac and Wang, Xinwen and van Renesse, Robbert and Myers, Andrew C.},
  title =	{{Heterogeneous Paxos}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{5:1--5:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134909},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Consensus, Trust, Heterogeneous Trust}
}
Document
Multi-Threshold Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast and Consensus

Authors: Martin Hirt, Ard Kastrati, and Chen-Da Liu-Zhang


Abstract
Classical protocols for reliable broadcast and consensus provide security guarantees as long as the number of corrupted parties f is bounded by a single given threshold t. If f > t, these protocols are completely deemed insecure. We consider the relaxed notion of multi-threshold reliable broadcast and consensus where validity, consistency and termination are guaranteed as long as f ≤ t_v, f ≤ t_c and f ≤ t_t respectively. For consensus, we consider both variants of (1-ε)-consensus and almost-surely terminating consensus, where termination is guaranteed with probability (1-ε) and 1, respectively. We give a very complete characterization for these primitives in the asynchronous setting and with no signatures: - Multi-threshold reliable broadcast is possible if and only if max{t_c,t_v} + 2t_t < n. - Multi-threshold almost-surely consensus is possible if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n, 2t_v + t_t < n and t_t < n/3. Assuming a global coin, it is possible if and only if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n and 2t_v + t_t < n. - Multi-threshold (1-ε)-consensus is possible if and only if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n and 2t_v + t_t < n.

Cite as

Martin Hirt, Ard Kastrati, and Chen-Da Liu-Zhang. Multi-Threshold Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast and Consensus. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{hirt_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.6,
  author =	{Hirt, Martin and Kastrati, Ard and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da},
  title =	{{Multi-Threshold Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast and Consensus}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134917},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: broadcast, byzantine agreement, multi-threshold}
}
Document
Echo-CGC: A Communication-Efficient Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Machine Learning Algorithm in Single-Hop Radio Network

Authors: Qinzi Zhang and Lewis Tseng


Abstract
In the past few years, many Byzantine-tolerant distributed machine learning (DML) algorithms have been proposed in the point-to-point communication model. In this paper, we focus on a popular DML framework - the parameter server computation paradigm and iterative learning algorithms that proceed in rounds, e.g., [Gupta and Vaidya, 2020; El-Mhamdi et al., 2020; Chen et al., 2017]. One limitation of prior algorithms in this domain is the high communication complexity. All the Byzantine-tolerant DML algorithms that we are aware of need to send n d-dimensional vectors from worker nodes to the parameter server in each round, where n is the number of workers and d is the number of dimensions of the feature space (which may be in the order of millions). In a wireless network, power consumption is proportional to the number of bits transmitted. Consequently, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to deploy these algorithms in power-limited wireless devices. Motivated by this observation, we aim to reduce the communication complexity of Byzantine-tolerant DML algorithms in the single-hop radio network [Alistarh et al., 2010; Bhandari and Vaidya, 2005; Koo, 2004]. Inspired by the CGC filter developed by Gupta and Vaidya, PODC 2020 [Gupta and Vaidya, 2020], we propose a gradient descent-based algorithm, Echo-CGC. Our main novelty is a mechanism to utilize the broadcast properties of the radio network to avoid transmitting the raw gradients (full d-dimensional vectors). In the radio network, each worker is able to overhear previous gradients that were transmitted to the parameter server. Roughly speaking, in Echo-CGC, if a worker "agrees" with a combination of prior gradients, it will broadcast the "echo message" instead of the its raw local gradient. The echo message contains a vector of coefficients (of size at most n) and the ratio of the magnitude between two gradients (a float). In comparison, the traditional approaches need to send n local gradients in each round, where each gradient is typically a vector in a ultra-high dimensional space (d ≫ n). The improvement on communication complexity of our algorithm depends on multiple factors, including number of nodes, number of faulty workers in an execution, and the cost function. We numerically analyze the improvement, and show that with a large number of nodes, Echo-CGC reduces 80% of the communication under standard assumptions.

Cite as

Qinzi Zhang and Lewis Tseng. Echo-CGC: A Communication-Efficient Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Machine Learning Algorithm in Single-Hop Radio Network. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{zhang_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.7,
  author =	{Zhang, Qinzi and Tseng, Lewis},
  title =	{{Echo-CGC: A Communication-Efficient Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Machine Learning Algorithm in Single-Hop Radio Network}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134927},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Machine Learning, Single-hop Radio Network, Byzantine Fault, Communication Complexity, Wireless Communication, Parameter Server}
}
Document
AKSEL: Fast Byzantine SGD

Authors: Amine Boussetta, El-Mahdi El-Mhamdi, Rachid Guerraoui, Alexandre Maurer, and Sébastien Rouault


Abstract
Modern machine learning architectures distinguish servers and workers. Typically, a d-dimensional model is hosted by a server and trained by n workers, using a distributed stochastic gradient descent (SGD) optimization scheme. At each SGD step, the goal is to estimate the gradient of a cost function. The simplest way to do this is to average the gradients estimated by the workers. However, averaging is not resilient to even one single Byzantine failure of a worker. Many alternative gradient aggregation rules (GARs) have recently been proposed to tolerate a maximum number f of Byzantine workers. These GARs differ according to (1) the complexity of their computation time, (2) the maximal number of Byzantine workers despite which convergence can still be ensured (breakdown point), and (3) their accuracy, which can be captured by (3.1) their angular error, namely the angle with the true gradient, as well as (3.2) their ability to aggregate full gradients. In particular, many are not full gradients for they operate on each dimension separately, which results in a coordinate-wise blended gradient, leading to low accuracy in practical situations where the number (s) of workers that are actually Byzantine in an execution is small (s < < f). We propose Aksel, a new scalable median-based GAR with optimal time complexity (𝒪(nd)), optimal breakdown point (n > 2f) and the lowest upper bound on the expected angular error (𝒪(√d)) among full gradient approaches. We also study the actual angular error of Aksel when the gradient distribution is normal and show that it only grows in 𝒪(√dlog{n}), which is the first logarithmic upper bound ever proven on the number of workers n assuming an optimal breakdown point. We also report on an empirical evaluation of Aksel on various classification tasks, which we compare to alternative GARs against state-of-the-art attacks. Aksel is the only GAR reaching top accuracy when there is actually none or few Byzantine workers while maintaining a good defense even under the extreme case (s = f). For simplicity of presentation, we consider a scheme with a single server. However, as we explain in the paper, Aksel can also easily be adapted to multi-server architectures that tolerate the Byzantine behavior of a fraction of the servers.

Cite as

Amine Boussetta, El-Mahdi El-Mhamdi, Rachid Guerraoui, Alexandre Maurer, and Sébastien Rouault. AKSEL: Fast Byzantine SGD. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 8:1-8:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{boussetta_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.8,
  author =	{Boussetta, Amine and El-Mhamdi, El-Mahdi and Guerraoui, Rachid and Maurer, Alexandre and Rouault, S\'{e}bastien},
  title =	{{AKSEL: Fast Byzantine SGD}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{8:1--8:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134931},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Machine learning, Stochastic gradient descent, Byzantine failures}
}
Document
ACE: Abstract Consensus Encapsulation for Liveness Boosting of State Machine Replication

Authors: Alexander Spiegelman, Arik Rinberg, and Dahlia Malkhi


Abstract
With the emergence of attack-prone cross-organization systems, providing asynchronous state machine replication (SMR) solutions is no longer a theoretical concern. This paper presents ACE, a framework for the design of such fault tolerant systems. Leveraging a known paradigm for randomized consensus solutions, ACE wraps existing practical solutions and real-life systems, boosting their liveness under adversarial conditions and, at the same time, promoting load balancing and fairness. Boosting is achieved without modifying the overall design or the engineering of these solutions. ACE is aimed at boosting the prevailing approach for practical fault tolerance. This approach, often named partial synchrony, is based on a leader-based paradigm: a good leader makes progress and a bad leader does no harm. The partial synchrony approach focuses on safety and forgoes liveness under targeted and dynamic attacks. Specifically, an attacker might block specific leaders, e.g., through a denial of service, to prevent progress. ACE provides boosting by running waves of parallel leaders and selecting a winning leader only retroactively, achieving boosting at a linear communication cost increase. ACE is agnostic to the fault model, inheriting it s failure model from the wrapped solution assumptions. As our evaluation shows, an asynchronous Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) replication system built with ACE around an existing partially synchronous BFT protocol demonstrates reasonable slow-down compared with the base BFT protocol during faultless synchronous scenarios, yet exhibits significant speedup while the system is under attack.

Cite as

Alexander Spiegelman, Arik Rinberg, and Dahlia Malkhi. ACE: Abstract Consensus Encapsulation for Liveness Boosting of State Machine Replication. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 9:1-9:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{spiegelman_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.9,
  author =	{Spiegelman, Alexander and Rinberg, Arik and Malkhi, Dahlia},
  title =	{{ACE: Abstract Consensus Encapsulation for Liveness Boosting of State Machine Replication}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{9:1--9:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134948},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Framework, Asynchronous, Consensus boosting, State Machine Replication}
}
Document
Security Analysis of Ripple Consensus

Authors: Ignacio Amores-Sesar, Christian Cachin, and Jovana Mićić


Abstract
The Ripple network is one of the most prominent blockchain platforms and its native XRP token currently has one of the highest cryptocurrency market capitalizations. The Ripple consensus protocol powers this network and is generally considered to a Byzantine fault-tolerant agreement protocol, which can reach consensus in the presence of faulty or malicious nodes. In contrast to traditional Byzantine agreement protocols, there is no global knowledge of all participating nodes in Ripple consensus; instead, each node declares a list of other nodes that it trusts and from which it considers votes. Previous work has brought up concerns about the liveness and safety of the consensus protocol under the general assumptions stated initially by Ripple, and there is currently no appropriate understanding of its workings and its properties in the literature. This paper closes this gap and makes two contributions. It first provides a detailed, abstract description of the protocol, which has been derived from the source code. Second, the paper points out that the abstract protocol may violate safety and liveness in several simple executions under relatively benign network assumptions.

Cite as

Ignacio Amores-Sesar, Christian Cachin, and Jovana Mićić. Security Analysis of Ripple Consensus. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 10:1-10:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{amoressesar_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.10,
  author =	{Amores-Sesar, Ignacio and Cachin, Christian and Mi\'{c}i\'{c}, Jovana},
  title =	{{Security Analysis of Ripple Consensus}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134956},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Ripple, Blockchain, Quorums, Consensus}
}
Document
Information Theoretic HotStuff

Authors: Ittai Abraham and Gilad Stern


Abstract
This work presents Information Theoretic HotStuff (IT-HS), a new optimally resilient protocol for solving Byzantine Agreement in partial synchrony with information theoretic security guarantees. In particular, IT-HS does not depend on any PKI or common setup assumptions and is resilient to computationally unbounded adversaries. IT-HS is based on the Primary-Backup view-based paradigm. In IT-HS, in each view, and in each view change, each party sends only a constant number of words to every other party. This yields an O(n²) word and message complexity in each view. In addition, IT-HS requires just O(1) persistent local storage and O(n) transient local storage. Finally, like all Primary-Backup view-based protocols in partial synchrony, after the system becomes synchronous, all nonfaulty parties decide on a value in the first view a nonfaulty leader is chosen. Moreover, like PBFT and HotStuff, IT-HS is optimistically responsive: with a nonfaulty leader, parties decide as quickly as the network allows them to do so, without regard for the known upper bound on network delay. Our work improves in multiple dimensions upon the information theoretic version of PBFT presented by Miguel Castro, and can be seen as an information theoretic variant of the HotStuff paradigm.

Cite as

Ittai Abraham and Gilad Stern. Information Theoretic HotStuff. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 11:1-11:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{abraham_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.11,
  author =	{Abraham, Ittai and Stern, Gilad},
  title =	{{Information Theoretic HotStuff}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{11:1--11:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.11},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134969},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.11},
  annote =	{Keywords: byzantine agreement, partial synchrony, bounded space}
}
Document
Rational Behaviors in Committee-Based Blockchains

Authors: Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou, Bruno Biais, Maria Potop-Butucaru, and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni


Abstract
We study the rational behaviors of participants in committee-based blockchains. Committee-based blockchains rely on specific blockchain consensus that must be guaranteed in presence of rational participants. We consider a simplified blockchain consensus algorithm based on existing or proposed committee-based blockchains that encapsulate the main actions of the participants: voting for a block, and checking its validity. Knowing that those actions have costs, and achieving the consensus gives rewards to committee members, we study using game theory how strategic participants behave while trying to maximize their gains. We consider different reward schemes, and found that in each setting, there exist equilibria where blockchain consensus is guaranteed; in some settings however, there can be coordination failures hindering consensus. Moreover, we study equilibria with trembling participants, which is a novelty in the context of committee-based blockchains. Trembling participants are rational that can do unintended actions with a low probability. We found that in presence of trembling participants, there exist equilibria where blockchain consensus is guaranteed; however, when only voters are rewarded, there also exist equilibria where validity can be violated.

Cite as

Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou, Bruno Biais, Maria Potop-Butucaru, and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni. Rational Behaviors in Committee-Based Blockchains. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 12:1-12:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{amoussouguenou_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.12,
  author =	{Amoussou-Guenou, Yackolley and Biais, Bruno and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara},
  title =	{{Rational Behaviors in Committee-Based Blockchains}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134973},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: BFT Consensus, Blockchains, Game Theory}
}
Document
Relaxed Queues and Stacks from Read/Write Operations

Authors: Armando Castañeda, Sergio Rajsbaum, and Michel Raynal


Abstract
Considering asynchronous shared memory systems in which any number of processes may crash, this work identifies and formally defines relaxations of queues and stacks that can be non-blocking or wait-free while being implemented using only read/write operations. Set-linearizability and Interval-linearizability are used to specify the relaxations formally, and precisely identify the subset of executions which preserve the original sequential behavior. The relaxations allow for an item to be returned more than once by different operations, but only in case of concurrency; we call such a property multiplicity. The stack implementation is wait-free, while the queue implementation is non-blocking. Interval-linearizability is used to describe a queue with multiplicity, with the additional relaxation that a dequeue operation can return weak-empty, which means that the queue might be empty. We present a read/write wait-free interval-linearizable algorithm of a concurrent queue. As far as we know, this work is the first that provides formalizations of the notions of multiplicity and weak-emptiness, which can be implemented on top of read/write registers only.

Cite as

Armando Castañeda, Sergio Rajsbaum, and Michel Raynal. Relaxed Queues and Stacks from Read/Write Operations. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 13:1-13:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{castaneda_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.13,
  author =	{Casta\~{n}eda, Armando and Rajsbaum, Sergio and Raynal, Michel},
  title =	{{Relaxed Queues and Stacks from Read/Write Operations}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134983},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Asynchrony, Correctness condition, Linearizability, Nonblocking, Process crash, Relaxed data type, Set-linearizability, Wait-freedom, Work-stealing}
}
Document
Fast and Space-Efficient Queues via Relaxation

Authors: Dempsey Wade and Edward Talmage


Abstract
Efficient message-passing implementations of shared data types are a vital component of practical distributed systems, enabling them to work on shared data in predictable ways, but there is a long history of results showing that many of the most useful types of access to shared data are necessarily slow. A variety of approaches attempt to circumvent these bounds, notably weakening consistency guarantees and relaxing the sequential specification of the provided data type. These trade behavioral guarantees for performance. We focus on relaxing the sequential specification of a first-in, first-out queue type, which has been shown to allow faster linearizable implementations than are possible for traditional FIFO queues without relaxation. The algorithms which showed these improvements in operation time tracked a complete execution history, storing complete object state at all n processes in the system, leading to n copies of every stored data element. In this paper, we consider the question of reducing the space complexity of linearizable implementations of shared data types, which provide intuitive behavior through strong consistency guarantees. We improve the existing algorithm for a relaxed queue, showing that it is possible to store only one copy of each element in a shared queue, while still having a low amortized time cost. This is one of several important steps towards making these data types practical in real world systems.

Cite as

Dempsey Wade and Edward Talmage. Fast and Space-Efficient Queues via Relaxation. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 14:1-14:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{wade_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.14,
  author =	{Wade, Dempsey and Talmage, Edward},
  title =	{{Fast and Space-Efficient Queues via Relaxation}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.14},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134994},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: Shared Data Structures, Message Passing, Relaxed Data Types, Space Complexity}
}
Document
Recoverable, Abortable, and Adaptive Mutual Exclusion with Sublogarithmic RMR Complexity

Authors: Daniel Katzan and Adam Morrison


Abstract
We present the first recoverable mutual exclusion (RME) algorithm that is simultaneously abortable, adaptive to point contention, and with sublogarithmic RMR complexity. Our algorithm has O(min(K,log_W N)) RMR passage complexity and O(F + min(K,log_W N)) RMR super-passage complexity, where K is the number of concurrent processes (point contention), W is the size (in bits) of registers, and F is the number of crashes in a super-passage. Under the standard assumption that W = Θ(log N), these bounds translate to worst-case O((log N)/(log log N)) passage complexity and O(F + (log N)/(log log N)) super-passage complexity. Our key building blocks are: - A D-process abortable RME algorithm, for D ≤ W, with O(1) passage complexity and O(1+F) super-passage complexity. We obtain this algorithm by using the Fetch-And-Add (FAA) primitive, unlike prior work on RME that uses Fetch-And-Store (FAS/SWAP). - A generic transformation that transforms any abortable RME algorithm with passage complexity of B < W, into an abortable RME lock with passage complexity of O(min(K,B)).

Cite as

Daniel Katzan and Adam Morrison. Recoverable, Abortable, and Adaptive Mutual Exclusion with Sublogarithmic RMR Complexity. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 15:1-15:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{katzan_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.15,
  author =	{Katzan, Daniel and Morrison, Adam},
  title =	{{Recoverable, Abortable, and Adaptive Mutual Exclusion with Sublogarithmic RMR Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{15:1--15:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.15},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135004},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.15},
  annote =	{Keywords: Mutual exclusion, recovery, non-volatile memory}
}
Document
Optimal Resilience in Systems That Mix Shared Memory and Message Passing

Authors: Hagit Attiya, Sweta Kumari, and Noa Schiller


Abstract
We investigate the minimal number of failures that can partition a system where processes communicate both through shared memory and by message passing. We prove that this number precisely captures the resilience that can be achieved by algorithms that implement a variety of shared objects, like registers and atomic snapshots, and solve common tasks, like randomized consensus, approximate agreement and renaming. This has implications for the m&m-model of [Aguilera et al., 2018] and for the hybrid, cluster-based model of [Damien Imbs and Michel Raynal, 2013; Michel Raynal and Jiannong Cao, 2019].

Cite as

Hagit Attiya, Sweta Kumari, and Noa Schiller. Optimal Resilience in Systems That Mix Shared Memory and Message Passing. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 16:1-16:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{attiya_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.16,
  author =	{Attiya, Hagit and Kumari, Sweta and Schiller, Noa},
  title =	{{Optimal Resilience in Systems That Mix Shared Memory and Message Passing}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135019},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: fault resilience, m\&m model, cluster-based model, randomized consensus, approximate agreement, renaming, register implementations, atomic snapshots}
}
Document
CSR++: A Fast, Scalable, Update-Friendly Graph Data Structure

Authors: Soukaina Firmli, Vasileios Trigonakis, Jean-Pierre Lozi, Iraklis Psaroudakis, Alexander Weld, Dalila Chiadmi, Sungpack Hong, and Hassan Chafi


Abstract
The graph model enables a broad range of analysis, thus graph processing is an invaluable tool in data analytics. At the heart of every graph-processing system lies a concurrent graph data structure storing the graph. Such a data structure needs to be highly efficient for both graph algorithms and queries. Due to the continuous evolution, the sparsity, and the scale-free nature of real-world graphs, graph-processing systems face the challenge of providing an appropriate graph data structure that enables both fast analytical workloads and low-memory graph mutations. Existing graph structures offer a hard trade-off between read-only performance, update friendliness, and memory consumption upon updates. In this paper, we introduce CSR++, a new graph data structure that removes these trade-offs and enables both fast read-only analytics and quick and memory-friendly mutations. CSR++ combines ideas from CSR, the fastest read-only data structure, and adjacency lists to achieve the best of both worlds. We compare CSR++ to CSR, adjacency lists from the Boost Graph Library, and LLAMA, a state-of-the-art update-friendly graph structure. In our evaluation, which is based on popular graph-processing algorithms executed over real-world graphs, we show that CSR++ remains close to CSR in read-only concurrent performance (within 10% on average), while significantly outperforming CSR (by an order of magnitude) and LLAMA (by almost 2×) with frequent updates.

Cite as

Soukaina Firmli, Vasileios Trigonakis, Jean-Pierre Lozi, Iraklis Psaroudakis, Alexander Weld, Dalila Chiadmi, Sungpack Hong, and Hassan Chafi. CSR++: A Fast, Scalable, Update-Friendly Graph Data Structure. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 17:1-17:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{firmli_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.17,
  author =	{Firmli, Soukaina and Trigonakis, Vasileios and Lozi, Jean-Pierre and Psaroudakis, Iraklis and Weld, Alexander and Chiadmi, Dalila and Hong, Sungpack and Chafi, Hassan},
  title =	{{CSR++: A Fast, Scalable, Update-Friendly Graph Data Structure}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{17:1--17:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.17},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135021},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.17},
  annote =	{Keywords: Data Structures, Concurrency, Graph Processing, Graph Mutations}
}
Document
Locally Solvable Tasks and the Limitations of Valency Arguments

Authors: Hagit Attiya, Armando Castañeda, and Sergio Rajsbaum


Abstract
An elegant strategy for proving impossibility results in distributed computing was introduced in the celebrated FLP consensus impossibility proof. This strategy is local in nature as at each stage, one configuration of a hypothetical protocol for consensus is considered, together with future valencies of possible extensions. This proof strategy has been used in numerous situations related to consensus, leading one to wonder why it has not been used in impossibility results of two other well-known tasks: set agreement and renaming. This paper provides an explanation of why impossibility proofs of these tasks have been of a global nature. It shows that a protocol can always solve such tasks locally, in the following sense. Given a configuration and all its future valencies, if a single successor configuration is selected, then the protocol can reveal all decisions in this branch of executions, satisfying the task specification. This result is shown for both set agreement and renaming, implying that there are no local impossibility proofs for these tasks.

Cite as

Hagit Attiya, Armando Castañeda, and Sergio Rajsbaum. Locally Solvable Tasks and the Limitations of Valency Arguments. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 18:1-18:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{attiya_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.18,
  author =	{Attiya, Hagit and Casta\~{n}eda, Armando and Rajsbaum, Sergio},
  title =	{{Locally Solvable Tasks and the Limitations of Valency Arguments}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{18:1--18:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.18},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135037},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.18},
  annote =	{Keywords: Wait-freedom, Set agreement, Weak symmetry breaking, Impossibility proofs}
}
Document
Approximate Majority with Catalytic Inputs

Authors: Talley Amir, James Aspnes, and John Lazarsfeld


Abstract
Population protocols [Dana Angluin et al., 2006] are a class of algorithms for modeling distributed computation in networks of finite-state agents communicating through pairwise interactions. Their suitability for analyzing numerous chemical processes has motivated the adaptation of the original population protocol framework to better model these chemical systems. In this paper, we further the study of two such adaptations in the context of solving approximate majority: persistent-state agents (or catalysts) and spontaneous state changes (or leaks). Based on models considered in recent protocols for populations with persistent-state agents [Bartlomiej Dudek and Adrian Kosowski, 2018; Alistarh et al., 2017; Dan Alistarh et al., 2020], we assume a population with n catalytic input agents and m worker agents, and the goal of the worker agents is to compute some predicate over the states of the catalytic inputs. We call this model the Catalytic Input (CI) model. For m = Θ(n), we show that computing the parity of the input population with high probability requires at least Ω(n²) total interactions, demonstrating a strong separation between the CI model and the standard population protocol model. On the other hand, we show that the simple third-state dynamics [Angluin et al., 2008; Perron et al., 2009] for approximate majority in the standard model can be naturally adapted to the CI model: we present such a constant-state protocol for the CI model that solves approximate majority in O(n log n) total steps with high probability when the input margin is Ω(√{n log n}). We then show the robustness of third-state dynamics protocols to the transient leaks events introduced by [Alistarh et al., 2017; Dan Alistarh et al., 2020]. In both the original and CI models, these protocols successfully compute approximate majority with high probability in the presence of leaks occurring at each step with probability β ≤ O(√{n log n}/n). The resilience of these dynamics to leaks exhibits similarities to previous work involving Byzantine agents, and we define and prove a notion of equivalence between the two.

Cite as

Talley Amir, James Aspnes, and John Lazarsfeld. Approximate Majority with Catalytic Inputs. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 19:1-19:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{amir_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.19,
  author =	{Amir, Talley and Aspnes, James and Lazarsfeld, John},
  title =	{{Approximate Majority with Catalytic Inputs}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135040},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: population protocols, approximate majority, catalysts, leaks, lower bound}
}
Document
Distributed Runtime Verification Under Partial Synchrony

Authors: Ritam Ganguly, Anik Momtaz, and Borzoo Bonakdarpour


Abstract
In this paper, we study the problem of runtime verification of distributed applications that do not share a global clock with respect to specifications in the linear temporal logics (LTL). Our proposed method distinguishes from the existing work in three novel ways. First, we make a practical assumption that the distributed system under scrutiny is augmented with a clock synchronization algorithm that guarantees bounded clock skew among all processes. Second, we do not make any assumption about the structure of predicates that form LTL formulas. This relaxation allows us to monitor a wide range of applications that was not possible before. Subsequently, we propose a distributed monitoring algorithm by employing SMT solving techniques. Third, given the fact that distributed applications nowadays run on massive cloud services, we extend our solution to a parallel monitoring algorithm to utilize the available computing infrastructure. We report on rigorous synthetic as well as real-world case studies and demonstrate that scalable online monitoring of distributed applications is within our reach.

Cite as

Ritam Ganguly, Anik Momtaz, and Borzoo Bonakdarpour. Distributed Runtime Verification Under Partial Synchrony. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 20:1-20:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{ganguly_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.20,
  author =	{Ganguly, Ritam and Momtaz, Anik and Bonakdarpour, Borzoo},
  title =	{{Distributed Runtime Verification Under Partial Synchrony}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{20:1--20:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.20},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135053},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.20},
  annote =	{Keywords: Runtime monitoring, Distributed systems, Formal methods, Cassandra}
}
Document
Decentralized Runtime Enforcement of Message Sequences in Message-Based Systems

Authors: Mahboubeh Samadi, Fatemeh Ghassemi, and Ramtin Khosravi


Abstract
In the new generation of message-based systems such as network-based smart systems, distributed components collaborate via asynchronous message passing. In some cases, particular ordering among the messages may lead to violation of the desired properties such as data confidentiality. Due to the absence of a global clock and usage of off-the-shelf components, there is no control over the order of messages at design time. To make such systems safe, we propose a choreography-based runtime enforcement algorithm that given an automata-based specification of unwanted message sequences, prevents certain messages to be sent, and assures that the unwanted sequences are not formed. Our algorithm is fully decentralized in the sense that each component is equipped with a monitor, as opposed to having a centralized monitor. As there is no global clock in message-based systems, the order of messages cannot be determined exactly. In this way, the monitors behave conservatively in the sense that they prevent a message from being sent, even when the sequence may not be formed. We aim to minimize conservative prevention in our algorithm when the message sequence has not been formed. The efficiency and scalability of our algorithm are evaluated in terms of the communication overhead and the blocking duration through simulation.

Cite as

Mahboubeh Samadi, Fatemeh Ghassemi, and Ramtin Khosravi. Decentralized Runtime Enforcement of Message Sequences in Message-Based Systems. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 21:1-21:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{samadi_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.21,
  author =	{Samadi, Mahboubeh and Ghassemi, Fatemeh and Khosravi, Ramtin},
  title =	{{Decentralized Runtime Enforcement of Message Sequences in Message-Based Systems}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135069},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: Asynchronous Message Passing, Choreography-Based, Runtime Enforcement, Runtime Prevention, Message Ordering}
}
Document
Broadcasting Competitively Against Adaptive Adversary in Multi-Channel Radio Networks

Authors: Haimin Chen and Chaodong Zheng


Abstract
Broadcasting in wireless networks is vulnerable to adversarial jamming. To thwart such behavior, resource competitive analysis is proposed. In this framework, sending, listening, or jamming on one channel for one time slot costs one unit of energy. The adversary can employ arbitrary strategy to disrupt communication, but has a limited energy budget T. The honest nodes, on the other hand, aim to accomplish broadcast while spending only o(T). Previous work has shown, in a C-channels network containing n nodes, for large T values, each node can receive the message in Õ(T/C) time, while spending only Õ(√{T/n}) energy. However, these multi-channel algorithms only work for certain values of n and C, and can only tolerate an oblivious adversary. In this work, we provide new upper and lower bounds for broadcasting in multi-channel radio networks, from the perspective of resource competitiveness. Our algorithms work for arbitrary n,C values, require minimal prior knowledge, and can tolerate a powerful adaptive adversary. More specifically, in our algorithms, for large T values, each node’s runtime is O(T/C), and each node’s energy cost is Õ(√{T/n}). We also complement algorithmic results with lower bounds, proving both the time complexity and the energy complexity of our algorithms are optimal or near-optimal (within a poly-log factor). Our technical contributions lie in using "epidemic broadcast" to achieve time efficiency and resource competitiveness, and employing coupling techniques in the analysis to handle the adaptivity of the adversary. At the lower bound side, we first derive a new energy complexity lower bound for 1-to-1 communication in the multi-channel setting, and then apply simulation and reduction arguments to obtain the desired result.

Cite as

Haimin Chen and Chaodong Zheng. Broadcasting Competitively Against Adaptive Adversary in Multi-Channel Radio Networks. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 22:1-22:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.22,
  author =	{Chen, Haimin and Zheng, Chaodong},
  title =	{{Broadcasting Competitively Against Adaptive Adversary in Multi-Channel Radio Networks}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135076},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: Broadcast, radio networks, resource competitive algorithms}
}
Document
Dynamic Byzantine Reliable Broadcast

Authors: Rachid Guerraoui, Jovan Komatovic, Petr Kuznetsov, Yvonne-Anne Pignolet, Dragos-Adrian Seredinschi, and Andrei Tonkikh


Abstract
Reliable broadcast is a communication primitive guaranteeing, intuitively, that all processes in a distributed system deliver the same set of messages. The reason why this primitive is appealing is twofold: (i) we can implement it deterministically in a completely asynchronous environment, unlike stronger primitives like consensus and total-order broadcast, and yet (ii) reliable broadcast is powerful enough to implement important applications like payment systems. The problem we tackle in this paper is that of dynamic reliable broadcast, i.e., enabling processes to join or leave the system. This property is desirable for long-lived applications (aiming to be highly available), yet has been precluded in previous asynchronous reliable broadcast protocols. We study this property in a general adversarial (i.e., Byzantine) environment. We introduce the first specification of a dynamic Byzantine reliable broadcast (dbrb) primitive that is amenable to an asynchronous implementation. We then present an algorithm implementing this specification in an asynchronous network. Our dbrb algorithm ensures that if any correct process in the system broadcasts a message, then every correct process delivers that message unless it leaves the system. Moreover, if a correct process delivers a message, then every correct process that has not expressed its will to leave the system delivers that message. We assume that more than 2/3 of processes in the system are correct at all times, which is tight in our context. We also show that if only one process in the system can fail - and it can fail only by crashing - then it is impossible to implement a stronger primitive, ensuring that if any correct process in the system broadcasts or delivers a message, then every correct process in the system delivers that message - including those that leave.

Cite as

Rachid Guerraoui, Jovan Komatovic, Petr Kuznetsov, Yvonne-Anne Pignolet, Dragos-Adrian Seredinschi, and Andrei Tonkikh. Dynamic Byzantine Reliable Broadcast. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 23:1-23:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{guerraoui_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.23,
  author =	{Guerraoui, Rachid and Komatovic, Jovan and Kuznetsov, Petr and Pignolet, Yvonne-Anne and Seredinschi, Dragos-Adrian and Tonkikh, Andrei},
  title =	{{Dynamic Byzantine Reliable Broadcast}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135087},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: Byzantine reliable broadcast, deterministic distributed algorithms, dynamic distributed systems}
}
Document
Broadcasting with Mobile Agents in Dynamic Networks

Authors: Shantanu Das, Nikos Giachoudis, Flaminia L. Luccio, and Euripides Markou


Abstract
We study the standard communication problem of broadcast for mobile agents moving in a network. The agents move autonomously in the network and can communicate with other agents only when they meet at a node. In this model, broadcast is a communication primitive for information transfer from one agent, the source, to all other agents. Previous studies of this problem were restricted to static networks while, in this paper, we consider the problem in dynamic networks modelled as an evolving graph. The dynamicity of the graph is unknown to the agents; in each round an adversary selects which edges of the graph are available, and an agent can choose to traverse one of the available edges adjacent to its current location. The only restriction on the adversary is that the subgraph of available edges in each round must span all nodes; in other words the evolving graph is constantly connected. The agents have global visibility allowing them to see the location of other agents in the graph and move accordingly. Depending on the topology of the underlying graph, we determine how many agents are necessary and sufficient to solve the broadcast problem in dynamic networks. While two agents plus the source are sufficient for ring networks, much larger teams of agents are necessary for denser graphs such as grid graphs and hypercubes, and finally for complete graphs of n nodes at least n-2 agents plus the source are necessary and sufficient. We show lower bounds on the number of agents and provide some algorithms for solving broadcast using the minimum number of agents, for various topologies.

Cite as

Shantanu Das, Nikos Giachoudis, Flaminia L. Luccio, and Euripides Markou. Broadcasting with Mobile Agents in Dynamic Networks. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 24:1-24:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{das_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.24,
  author =	{Das, Shantanu and Giachoudis, Nikos and Luccio, Flaminia L. and Markou, Euripides},
  title =	{{Broadcasting with Mobile Agents in Dynamic Networks}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135095},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Algorithm, Dynamic Networks, Mobile Agents, Broadcast, Constantly Connected, Global visibility}
}
Document
On Broadcast in Generalized Network and Adversarial Models

Authors: Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, Varun Maram, and Ueli Maurer


Abstract
Broadcast is a primitive which allows a specific party to distribute a message consistently among n parties, even if up to t parties exhibit malicious behaviour. In the classical model with a complete network of bilateral authenticated channels, the seminal result of Pease et al. [Pease et al., 1980] shows that broadcast is achievable if and only if t < n/3. There are two generalizations suggested for the broadcast problem - with respect to the adversarial model and the communication model. Fitzi and Maurer [Fitzi and Maurer, 1998] consider a (non-threshold) general adversary that is characterized by the subsets of parties that could be corrupted, and show that broadcast can be realized from bilateral channels if and only if the union of no three possible corrupted sets equals the entire set of n parties. On the other hand, Considine et al. [Considine et al., 2005] extend the standard model of bilateral channels with the existence of b-minicast channels that allow to locally broadcast among any subset of b parties; the authors show that in this enhanced model of communication, secure broadcast tolerating up to t corrupted parties is possible if and only if t < (b-1)/(b+1)n. These generalizations are unified in the work by Raykov [Raykov P., 2015], where a tight condition on the possible corrupted sets is presented such that broadcast is achievable from a complete set of b-minicasts. This paper investigates the achievability of broadcast in general networks, i.e., networks where only some subsets of minicast channels may be available, thereby addressing open problems posed in [Jaffe et al., 2012; Raykov P., 2015]. To that end, we propose a hierarchy over all possible general adversaries, and identify for each class of general adversaries 1) a set of minicast channels that are necessary to achieve broadcast and 2) a set of minicast channels that are sufficient to achieve broadcast. In particular, this allows us to derive bounds on the amount of b-minicasts that are necessary and that suffice towards constructing broadcast in general b-minicast networks.

Cite as

Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, Varun Maram, and Ueli Maurer. On Broadcast in Generalized Network and Adversarial Models. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 25:1-25:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{liuzhang_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.25,
  author =	{Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da and Maram, Varun and Maurer, Ueli},
  title =	{{On Broadcast in Generalized Network and Adversarial Models}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135108},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: broadcast, partial broadcast, minicast, general adversary, general network}
}
Document
Maximally Resilient Replacement Paths for a Family of Product Graphs

Authors: Mahmoud Parham, Klaus-Tycho Foerster, Petar Kosic, and Stefan Schmid


Abstract
Modern communication networks support fast path restoration mechanisms which allow to reroute traffic in case of (possibly multiple) link failures, in a completely decentralized manner and without requiring global route reconvergence. However, devising resilient path restoration algorithms is challenging as these algorithms need to be inherently local. Furthermore, the resulting failover paths often have to fulfill additional requirements related to the policy and function implemented by the network, such as the traversal of certain waypoints (e.g., a firewall). This paper presents local algorithms which ensure a maximally resilient path restoration for a large family of product graphs, including the widely used tori and generalized hypercube topologies. Our algorithms provably ensure that even under multiple link failures, traffic is rerouted to the other endpoint of every failed link whenever possible (i.e. detouring failed links), enforcing waypoints and hence accounting for the network policy. The algorithms are particularly well-suited for emerging segment routing networks based on label stacks.

Cite as

Mahmoud Parham, Klaus-Tycho Foerster, Petar Kosic, and Stefan Schmid. Maximally Resilient Replacement Paths for a Family of Product Graphs. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 26:1-26:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{parham_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.26,
  author =	{Parham, Mahmoud and Foerster, Klaus-Tycho and Kosic, Petar and Schmid, Stefan},
  title =	{{Maximally Resilient Replacement Paths for a Family of Product Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{26:1--26:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.26},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135111},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.26},
  annote =	{Keywords: Product Graphs, Resilience, Failures, Routing}
}
Document
Self-Stabilizing Byzantine-Resilient Communication in Dynamic Networks

Authors: Alexandre Maurer


Abstract
We consider the problem of communicating reliably in a dynamic network in the presence of up to k Byzantine failures. It was shown that this problem can be solved if and only if the dynamic graph satisfies a certain condition, that we call "RDC condition". In this paper, we present the first self-stabilizing algorithm for reliable communication in this setting - that is: in addition to permanent Byzantine failures, there can also be an arbitrary number of transient failures. We prove the correctness of this algorithm, provided that the RDC condition is "always eventually satisfied".

Cite as

Alexandre Maurer. Self-Stabilizing Byzantine-Resilient Communication in Dynamic Networks. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 27:1-27:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{maurer:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.27,
  author =	{Maurer, Alexandre},
  title =	{{Self-Stabilizing Byzantine-Resilient Communication in Dynamic Networks}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135126},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Dynamic networks, Self-stabilization, Byzantine failures}
}
Document
Fast Deterministic Algorithms for Highly-Dynamic Networks

Authors: Keren Censor-Hillel, Neta Dafni, Victor I. Kolobov, Ami Paz, and Gregory Schwartzman


Abstract
This paper provides an algorithmic framework for obtaining fast distributed algorithms for a highly-dynamic setting, in which arbitrarily many edge changes may occur in each round. Our algorithm significantly improves upon prior work in its combination of (1) having an O(1) amortized time complexity, (2) using only O(log{n})-bit messages, (3) not posing any restrictions on the dynamic behavior of the environment, (4) being deterministic, (5) having strong guarantees for intermediate solutions, and (6) being applicable for a wide family of tasks. The tasks for which we deduce such an algorithm are maximal matching, (degree+1)-coloring, 2-approximation for minimum weight vertex cover, and maximal independent set (which is the most subtle case). For some of these tasks, node insertions can also be among the allowed topology changes, and for some of them also abrupt node deletions.

Cite as

Keren Censor-Hillel, Neta Dafni, Victor I. Kolobov, Ami Paz, and Gregory Schwartzman. Fast Deterministic Algorithms for Highly-Dynamic Networks. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 28:1-28:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.28,
  author =	{Censor-Hillel, Keren and Dafni, Neta and Kolobov, Victor I. and Paz, Ami and Schwartzman, Gregory},
  title =	{{Fast Deterministic Algorithms for Highly-Dynamic Networks}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{28:1--28:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.28},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135138},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.28},
  annote =	{Keywords: dynamic distributed algorithms}
}
Document
Approximating Bipartite Minimum Vertex Cover in the CONGEST Model

Authors: Salwa Faour and Fabian Kuhn


Abstract
We give efficient distributed algorithms for the minimum vertex cover problem in bipartite graphs in the CONGEST model. From Kőnig’s theorem, it is well known that in bipartite graphs the size of a minimum vertex cover is equal to the size of a maximum matching. We first show that together with an existing O(nlog n)-round algorithm for computing a maximum matching, the constructive proof of Kőnig’s theorem directly leads to a deterministic O(nlog n)-round CONGEST algorithm for computing a minimum vertex cover. We then show that by adapting the construction, we can also convert an approximate maximum matching into an approximate minimum vertex cover. Given a (1-δ)-approximate matching for some δ > 1, we show that a (1+O(δ))-approximate vertex cover can be computed in time O (D+poly((log n)/δ)), where D is the diameter of the graph. When combining with known graph clustering techniques, for any ε ∈ (0,1], this leads to a poly((log n)/ε)-time deterministic and also to a slightly faster and simpler randomized O((log n)/ε³)-round CONGEST algorithm for computing a (1+ε)-approximate vertex cover in bipartite graphs. For constant ε, the randomized time complexity matches the Ω(log n) lower bound for computing a (1+ε)-approximate vertex cover in bipartite graphs even in the LOCAL model. Our results are also in contrast to the situation in general graphs, where it is known that computing an optimal vertex cover requires Ω̃(n²) rounds in the CONGEST model and where it is not even known how to compute any (2-ε)-approximation in time o(n²).

Cite as

Salwa Faour and Fabian Kuhn. Approximating Bipartite Minimum Vertex Cover in the CONGEST Model. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 29:1-29:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{faour_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.29,
  author =	{Faour, Salwa and Kuhn, Fabian},
  title =	{{Approximating Bipartite Minimum Vertex Cover in the CONGEST Model}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135149},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: distributed vertex cover, distributed graph algorithms, distributed optimization, bipartite vertex cover}
}
Document
Distributed Distance Approximation

Authors: Bertie Ancona, Keren Censor-Hillel, Mina Dalirrooyfard, Yuval Efron, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams


Abstract
Diameter, radius and eccentricities are fundamental graph parameters, which are extensively studied in various computational settings. Typically, computing approximate answers can be much more efficient compared with computing exact solutions. In this paper, we give a near complete characterization of the trade-offs between approximation ratios and round complexity of distributed algorithms for approximating these parameters, with a focus on the weighted and directed variants. Furthermore, we study bi-chromatic variants of these parameters defined on a graph whose vertices are colored either red or blue, and one focuses only on distances for pairs of vertices that are colored differently. Motivated by applications in computational geometry, bi-chromatic diameter, radius and eccentricities have been recently studied in the sequential setting [Backurs et al. STOC'18, Dalirrooyfard et al. ICALP'19]. We provide the first distributed upper and lower bounds for such problems. Our technical contributions include introducing the notion of approximate pseudo-center, which extends the pseudo-centers of [Choudhary and Gold SODA'20], and presenting an efficient distributed algorithm for computing approximate pseudo-centers. On the lower bound side, our constructions introduce the usage of new functions into the framework of reductions from 2-party communication complexity to distributed algorithms.

Cite as

Bertie Ancona, Keren Censor-Hillel, Mina Dalirrooyfard, Yuval Efron, and Virginia Vassilevska Williams. Distributed Distance Approximation. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 30:1-30:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{ancona_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.30,
  author =	{Ancona, Bertie and Censor-Hillel, Keren and Dalirrooyfard, Mina and Efron, Yuval and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia},
  title =	{{Distributed Distance Approximation}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{30:1--30:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.30},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135150},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.30},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Computing, Distance Computation, Algorithms, Lower Bounds}
}
Document
Fast Hybrid Network Algorithms for Shortest Paths in Sparse Graphs

Authors: Michael Feldmann, Kristian Hinnenthal, and Christian Scheideler


Abstract
We consider the problem of computing shortest paths in hybrid networks, in which nodes can make use of different communication modes. For example, mobile phones may use ad-hoc connections via Bluetooth or Wi-Fi in addition to the cellular network to solve tasks more efficiently. Like in this case, the different communication modes may differ considerably in range, bandwidth, and flexibility. We build upon the model of Augustine et al. [SODA '20], which captures these differences by a local and a global mode. Specifically, the local edges model a fixed communication network in which O(1) messages of size O(log n) can be sent over every edge in each synchronous round. The global edges form a clique, but nodes are only allowed to send and receive a total of at most O(log n) messages over global edges, which restricts the nodes to use these edges only very sparsely. We demonstrate the power of hybrid networks by presenting algorithms to compute Single-Source Shortest Paths and the diameter very efficiently in sparse graphs. Specifically, we present exact O(log n) time algorithms for cactus graphs (i.e., graphs in which each edge is contained in at most one cycle), and 3-approximations for graphs that have at most n + O(n^{1/3}) edges and arboricity O(log n). For these graph classes, our algorithms provide exponentially faster solutions than the best known algorithms for general graphs in this model. Beyond shortest paths, we also provide a variety of useful tools and techniques for hybrid networks, which may be of independent interest.

Cite as

Michael Feldmann, Kristian Hinnenthal, and Christian Scheideler. Fast Hybrid Network Algorithms for Shortest Paths in Sparse Graphs. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 31:1-31:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{feldmann_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.31,
  author =	{Feldmann, Michael and Hinnenthal, Kristian and Scheideler, Christian},
  title =	{{Fast Hybrid Network Algorithms for Shortest Paths in Sparse Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135165},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: hybrid networks, overlay networks, sparse graphs, cactus graphs}
}
Document
Secured Distributed Algorithms Without Hardness Assumptions

Authors: Leonid Barenboim and Harel Levin


Abstract
We study algorithms in the distributed message-passing model that produce secured output, for an input graph G. Specifically, each vertex computes its part in the output, the entire output is correct, but each vertex cannot discover the output of other vertices, with a certain probability. This is motivated by high-performance processors that are embedded nowadays in a large variety of devices. Furthermore, sensor networks were established to monitor physical areas for scientific research, smart-cities control, and other purposes. In such situations, it no longer makes sense, and in many cases it is not feasible, to leave the whole processing task to a single computer or even a group of central computers. As the extensive research in the distributed algorithms field yielded efficient decentralized algorithms for many classic problems, the discussion about the security of distributed algorithms was somewhat neglected. Nevertheless, many protocols and algorithms were devised in the research area of secure multi-party computation problem (MPC or SMC). However, the notions and terminology of these protocols are quite different than in classic distributed algorithms. As a consequence, the focus in those protocols was to work for every function f at the expense of increasing the round complexity, or the necessity of several computational assumptions. In this work, we present a novel approach, which rather than turning existing algorithms into secure ones, identifies and develops those algorithms that are inherently secure (which means they do not require any further constructions). This approach yields efficient secure algorithms for various locality problems, such as coloring, network decomposition, forest decomposition, and a variety of additional labeling problems. Remarkably, our approach does not require any hardness assumption, but only a private randomness generator in each vertex. This is in contrast to previously known techniques in this setting that are based on public-key encryption schemes.

Cite as

Leonid Barenboim and Harel Levin. Secured Distributed Algorithms Without Hardness Assumptions. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 32:1-32:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{barenboim_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.32,
  author =	{Barenboim, Leonid and Levin, Harel},
  title =	{{Secured Distributed Algorithms Without Hardness Assumptions}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135171},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: distributed algorithms, privacy preserving, graph coloring, generic algorithms, multi-party computation}
}
Document
Uniform Bipartition in the Population Protocol Model with Arbitrary Communication Graphs

Authors: Hiroto Yasumi, Fukuhito Ooshita, Michiko Inoue, and Sébastien Tixeuil


Abstract
In this paper, we focus on the uniform bipartition problem in the population protocol model. This problem aims to divide a population into two groups of equal size. In particular, we consider the problem in the context of arbitrary communication graphs. As a result, we investigate the solvability of the uniform bipartition problem with arbitrary communication graphs when agents in the population have designated initial states, under various assumptions such as the existence of a base station, symmetry of the protocol, and fairness of the execution. When the problem is solvable, we present protocols for uniform bipartition. When global fairness is assumed, the space complexity of our solutions is tight.

Cite as

Hiroto Yasumi, Fukuhito Ooshita, Michiko Inoue, and Sébastien Tixeuil. Uniform Bipartition in the Population Protocol Model with Arbitrary Communication Graphs. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 33:1-33:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{yasumi_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.33,
  author =	{Yasumi, Hiroto and Ooshita, Fukuhito and Inoue, Michiko and Tixeuil, S\'{e}bastien},
  title =	{{Uniform Bipartition in the Population Protocol Model with Arbitrary Communication Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)},
  pages =	{33:1--33:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-176-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{184},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.33},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135182},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.33},
  annote =	{Keywords: population protocol, uniform bipartition, distributed protocol}
}

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