34 Search Results for "Parter, Merav"


Document
Spanning Adjacency Oracles in Sublinear Time

Authors: Greg Bodwin and Henry Fleischmann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Suppose we are given an n-node, m-edge input graph G, and the goal is to compute a spanning subgraph H on O(n) edges. This can be achieved in linear O(m + n) time via breadth-first search. But can we hope for sublinear runtime in some range of parameters - for example, perhaps O(n^{1.9}) worst-case runtime, even when the input graph has n² edges? If the goal is to return H as an adjacency list, there are simple lower bounds showing that Ω(m + n) runtime is necessary. If the goal is to return H as an adjacency matrix, then we need Ω(n²) time just to write down the entries of the output matrix. However, we show that neither of these lower bounds still apply if instead the goal is to return H as an implicit adjacency matrix, which we call an adjacency oracle. An adjacency oracle is a data structure that gives a user the illusion that an adjacency matrix has been computed: it accepts edge queries (u, v), and it returns in near-constant time a bit indicating whether or not (u, v) ∈ E(H). Our main result is that, for any 0 < ε < 1, one can construct an adjacency oracle for a spanning subgraph on at most (1+ε)n edges, in Õ(n ε^{-1}) time (hence sublinear time on input graphs with m ≫ n edges), and that this construction time is near-optimal. Additional results include constructions of adjacency oracles for k-connectivity certificates and spanners, which are similarly sublinear on dense-enough input graphs. Our adjacency oracles are closely related to Local Computation Algorithms (LCAs) for graph sparsifiers; they can be viewed as LCAs with some computation moved to a preprocessing step, in order to speed up queries. Our oracles imply the first LCAs for computing sparse spanning subgraphs of general input graphs in Õ(n) query time, which works by constructing our adjacency oracle, querying it once, and then throwing the rest of the oracle away. This addresses an open problem of Rubinfeld [CSR '17].

Cite as

Greg Bodwin and Henry Fleischmann. Spanning Adjacency Oracles in Sublinear Time. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 19:1-19:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bodwin_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.19,
  author =	{Bodwin, Greg and Fleischmann, Henry},
  title =	{{Spanning Adjacency Oracles in Sublinear Time}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195475},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph algorithms, Sublinear algorithms, Data structures, Graph theory}
}
Document
Color Fault-Tolerant Spanners

Authors: Asaf Petruschka, Shay Sapir, and Elad Tzalik

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
We initiate the study of spanners in arbitrarily vertex- or edge-colored graphs (with no "legality" restrictions), that are resilient to failures of entire color classes. When a color fails, all vertices/edges of that color crash. An f-color fault-tolerant (f-CFT) t-spanner of an n-vertex colored graph G is a subgraph H that preserves distances up to factor t, even in the presence of at most f color faults. This notion generalizes the well-studied f-vertex/edge fault-tolerant (f-V/EFT) spanners. The size (number of edges) of an f-V/EFT spanner crucially depends on the number f of vertex/edge faults to be tolerated. In the colored variants, even a single color fault can correspond to an unbounded number of vertex/edge faults. The key conceptual contribution of this work is in showing that the size required by an f-CFT spanner is in fact comparable to its uncolored counterpart, with no dependency on the size of color classes. We provide optimal bounds on the size required by f-CFT (2k-1)-spanners, as follows: - When vertices have colors, we show an upper bound of O(f^{1-1/k} n^{1+1/k}) edges. This precisely matches the (tight) bounds for (2k-1)-spanners resilient to f individual vertex faults [Bodwin et al., SODA 2018; Bodwin and Patel, PODC 2019]. - For colored edges, we show that O(f n^{1+1/k}) edges are always sufficient. Further, we prove this is tight, i.e., we provide an Ω(f n^{1+1/k}) (worst-case) lower bound. The state-of-the-art bounds known for the corresponding uncolored setting of edge faults are (roughly) Θ(f^{1/2} n^{1+1/k}) [Bodwin et al., SODA 2018; Bodwin, Dinitz and Robelle, SODA 2022]. - We also consider a mixed model where both vertices and edges are colored. In this case, we show tight Θ(f^{2-1/k} n^{1+1/k}) bounds. Thus, CFT spanners exhibit an interesting phenomenon: while (individual) edge faults are "easier" than vertex faults, edge-color faults are "harder" than vertex-color faults. Our upper bounds are based on a generalization of the blocking set technique of [Bodwin and Patel, PODC 2019] for analyzing the (exponential-time) greedy algorithm for FT spanners. We complement them by providing efficient constructions of CFT spanners with similar size guarantees, based on the algorithm of [Dinitz and Robelle, PODC 2020].

Cite as

Asaf Petruschka, Shay Sapir, and Elad Tzalik. Color Fault-Tolerant Spanners. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 88:1-88:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{petruschka_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.88,
  author =	{Petruschka, Asaf and Sapir, Shay and Tzalik, Elad},
  title =	{{Color Fault-Tolerant Spanners}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{88:1--88:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.88},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196160},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.88},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fault tolerance, Graph spanners}
}
Document
Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts

Authors: Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
For a given (possibly directed) graph G, a hopset (a.k.a. shortcut set) is a (small) set of edges whose addition reduces the graph diameter while preserving desired properties from the given graph G, such as, reachability and shortest-path distances. The key objective is in optimizing the tradeoff between the achieved diameter and the size of the shortcut set (possibly also, the distance distortion). Despite the centrality of these objects and their thorough study over the years, there are still significant gaps between the known upper and lower bound results. A common property shared by almost all known shortcut lower bounds is that they hold for the seemingly simpler task of reducing the diameter of the given graph, D_G, by a constant additive term, in fact, even by just one! We denote such restricted structures by (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets. In this paper we show that this relaxation can be leveraged to narrow the current gaps, and in certain cases to also bypass the known lower bound results, when restricting to sparse graphs (with O(n) edges): - {Hopsets for Directed Weighted Sparse Graphs.} For every n-vertex directed and weighted sparse graph G with D_G ≥ n^{1/4}, one can compute an exact (D_G-1)-diameter hopset of linear size. Combining this with known lower bound results for dense graphs, we get a separation between dense and sparse graphs, hence shortcutting sparse graphs is provably easier. For reachability hopsets, we can provide (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets of linear size, for sparse DAGs, already for D_G ≥ n^{1/5}. This should be compared with the diameter bound of Õ(n^{1/3}) [Kogan and Parter, SODA 2022], and the lower bound of D_G = n^{1/6} by [Huang and Pettie, {SIAM} J. Discret. Math. 2018]. - {Additive Hopsets for Undirected and Unweighted Graphs.} We show a construction of +24 additive (D_G-1)-diameter hopsets with linear number of edges for D_G ≥ n^{1/12} for sparse graphs. This bypasses the current lower bound of D_G = n^{1/6} obtained for exact (D_G-1)-diameter hopset by [HP'18]. For general graphs, the bound becomes D_G ≥ n^{1/6} which matches the lower bound of exact (D_G-1) hopsets implied by [HP'18]. We also provide new additive D-diameter hopsets with linear size, for any given diameter D. Altogether, we show that the current lower bounds can be bypassed by restricting to sparse graphs (with O(n) edges). Moreover, the gaps are narrowed significantly for any graph by allowing for a constant additive stretch.

Cite as

Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter. Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 73:1-73:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{kogan_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73,
  author =	{Kogan, Shimon and Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{Towards Bypassing Lower Bounds for Graph Shortcuts}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{73:1--73:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187264},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.73},
  annote =	{Keywords: Directed Shortcuts, Hopsets, Emulators}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
New Additive Emulators

Authors: Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
For a given (possibly weighted) graph G = (V,E), an additive emulator H is a weighted graph in V × V that preserves the (all pairs) G-distances up to a small additive stretch. In their breakthrough result, [Abboud and Bodwin, STOC 2016] ruled out the possibility of obtaining o(n^{4/3})-size emulator with n^{o(1)} additive stretch. The focus of our paper is in the following question that has been explicitly stated in many of the prior work on this topic: What is the minimal additive stretch attainable with linear size emulators? The only known upper bound for this problem is given by an implicit construction of [Pettie, ICALP 2007] that provides a linear-size emulator with +Õ(n^{1/4}) stretch. No improvement on this problem has been shown since then. In this work we improve upon the long standing additive stretch of Õ(n^{1/4}), by presenting constructions of linear-size emulators with Õ(n^{0.222}) additive stretch. Our constructions improve the state-of-the-art size vs. stretch tradeoff in the entire regime. For example, for every ε > 1/7, we provide +n^{f(ε)} emulators of size Õ(n^{1+ε}), for f(ε) = 1/5-3ε/5. This should be compared with the current bound of f(ε) = 1/4-3ε/4 by [Pettie, ICALP 2007]. The new emulators are based on an extended and optimized toolkit for computing weighted additive emulators with sublinear distance error. Our key construction provides a weighted modification of the well-known Thorup and Zwick emulators [SODA 2006]. We believe that this TZ variant might be of independent interest, especially for providing improved stretch for distant pairs.

Cite as

Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter. New Additive Emulators. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 85:1-85:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{kogan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.85,
  author =	{Kogan, Shimon and Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{New Additive Emulators}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{85:1--85:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.85},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181377},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.85},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spanners, Emulators, Distance Preservers}
}
Document
Secure Distributed Network Optimization Against Eavesdroppers

Authors: Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Eylon Yogev

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
We present a new algorithmic framework for distributed network optimization in the presence of eavesdropper adversaries, also known as passive wiretappers. In this setting, the adversary is listening to the traffic exchanged over a fixed set of edges in the graph, trying to extract information on the private input and output of the vertices. A distributed algorithm is denoted as f-secure, if it guarantees that the adversary learns nothing on the input and output for the vertices, provided that it controls at most f graph edges. Recent work has presented general simulation results for f-secure algorithms, with a round overhead of D^Θ(f), where D is the diameter of the graph. In this paper, we present a completely different white-box, and yet quite general, approach for obtaining f-secure algorithms for fundamental network optimization tasks. Specifically, for n-vertex D-diameter graphs with (unweighted) edge-connectivity Ω(f), there are f-secure congest algorithms for computing MST, partwise aggregation, and (1+ε) (weighted) minimum cut approximation, within Õ(D+f √n) congest rounds, hence nearly tight for f = Õ(1). Our algorithms are based on designing a secure algorithmic-toolkit that leverages the special structure of congest algorithms for global optimization graph problems. One of these tools is a general secure compiler that simulates light-weight distributed algorithms in a congestion-sensitive manner. We believe that these tools set the ground for designing additional secure solutions in the congest model and beyond.

Cite as

Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Eylon Yogev. Secure Distributed Network Optimization Against Eavesdroppers. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 71:1-71:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.71,
  author =	{Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav and Yogev, Eylon},
  title =	{{Secure Distributed Network Optimization Against Eavesdroppers}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{71:1--71:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.71},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175746},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.71},
  annote =	{Keywords: congest, secure computation, network optimization}
}
Document
Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms Against Eavesdroppers

Authors: Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Eylon Yogev

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)


Abstract
An eavesdropper is a passive adversary that aims at extracting private information on the input and output values of the network’s participants, by listening to the traffic exchanged over a subset of edges in the graph. We consider secure congest algorithms for the basic broadcast task, in the presence of eavesdropper (edge) adversaries. For D-diameter n-vertex graphs with edge connectivity Θ(f), we present f-secure broadcast algorithms that run in Õ(D+√{f n}) rounds. These algorithms transmit some broadcast message m^* to all the vertices in the graph, in a way that is information-theoretically secure against an eavesdropper controlling any subset of at most f edges in the graph. While our algorithms are heavily based on network coding (secret sharing), we also show that this is essential. For the basic problem of secure unicast we demonstrate a network coding gap of Ω(n) rounds. In the presence of vertex adversaries, known as semi-honest, we introduce the Forbidden-Set Broadcast problem: In this problem, the vertices of the graph are partitioned into two sets, trusted and untrusted, denoted as R, F ⊆ V, respectively, such that G[R] is connected. It is then desired to exchange a secret message m^* between all the trusted vertices while leaking no information to the untrusted set F. Our algorithm works in Õ(D+√|R|) rounds and its security guarantees hold even when all the untrusted vertices F are controlled by a (centralized) adversary.

Cite as

Yael Hitron, Merav Parter, and Eylon Yogev. Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms Against Eavesdroppers. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 27:1-27:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.27,
  author =	{Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav and Yogev, Eylon},
  title =	{{Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms Against Eavesdroppers}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-255-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{246},
  editor =	{Scheideler, Christian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172186},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: congest, edge-connectivity, secret sharing}
}
Document
Near-Optimal Distributed Computation of Small Vertex Cuts

Authors: Merav Parter and Asaf Petruschka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)


Abstract
We present near-optimal algorithms for detecting small vertex cuts in the {CONGEST} model of distributed computing. Despite extensive research in this area, our understanding of the vertex connectivity of a graph is still incomplete, especially in the distributed setting. To this date, all distributed algorithms for detecting cut vertices suffer from an inherent dependency in the maximum degree of the graph, Δ. Hence, in particular, there is no truly sub-linear time algorithm for this problem, not even for detecting a single cut vertex. We take a new algorithmic approach for vertex connectivity which allows us to bypass the existing Δ barrier. - As a warm-up to our approach, we show a simple Õ(D)-round randomized algorithm for computing all cut vertices in a D-diameter n-vertex graph. This improves upon the O(D+Δ/log n)-round algorithm of [Pritchard and Thurimella, ICALP 2008]. - Our key technical contribution is an Õ(D)-round randomized algorithm for computing all cut pairs in the graph, improving upon the state-of-the-art O(Δ ⋅ D)⁴-round algorithm by [Parter, DISC '19]. Note that even for the considerably simpler setting of edge cuts, currently Õ(D)-round algorithms are currently known only for detecting pairs of cut edges. Our approach is based on employing the well-known linear graph sketching technique [Ahn, Guha and McGregor, SODA 2012] along with the heavy-light tree decomposition of [Sleator and Tarjan, STOC 1981] . Combining this with a careful characterization of the survivable subgraphs, allows us to determine the connectivity of G ⧵ {x,y} for every pair x,y ∈ V, using Õ(D)-rounds. We believe that the tools provided in this paper are useful for omitting the Δ-dependency even for larger cut values.

Cite as

Merav Parter and Asaf Petruschka. Near-Optimal Distributed Computation of Small Vertex Cuts. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 31:1-31:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.31,
  author =	{Parter, Merav and Petruschka, Asaf},
  title =	{{Near-Optimal Distributed Computation of Small Vertex Cuts}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-255-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{246},
  editor =	{Scheideler, Christian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172223},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: Vertex-connectivity, Congest, Graph Sketches}
}
Document
Õptimal Dual Vertex Failure Connectivity Labels

Authors: Merav Parter and Asaf Petruschka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)


Abstract
In this paper we present succinct labeling schemes for supporting connectivity queries under vertex faults. For a given n-vertex graph G, an f-VFT (resp., EFT) connectivity labeling scheme is a distributed data structure that assigns each of the graph edges and vertices a short label, such that given the labels of a vertex pair u and v, and the labels of at most f failing vertices (resp., edges) F, one can determine if u and v are connected in G ⧵ F. The primary complexity measure is the length of the individual labels. Since their introduction by [Courcelle, Twigg, STACS '07], FT labeling schemes have been devised only for a limited collection of graph families. A recent work [Dory and Parter, PODC 2021] provided EFT labeling schemes for general graphs under edge failures, leaving the vertex failure case fairly open. We provide the first sublinear f-VFT labeling schemes for f ≥ 2 for any n-vertex graph. Our key result is 2-VFT connectivity labels with O(log³ n) bits. Our constructions are based on analyzing the structure of dual failure replacement paths on top of the well-known heavy-light tree decomposition technique of [Sleator and Tarjan, STOC 1981]. We also provide f-VFT labels with sub-linear length (in |V|) for any f = o(log log n), that are based on a reduction to the existing EFT labels.

Cite as

Merav Parter and Asaf Petruschka. Õptimal Dual Vertex Failure Connectivity Labels. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 32:1-32:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{parter_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.32,
  author =	{Parter, Merav and Petruschka, Asaf},
  title =	{{\~{O}ptimal Dual Vertex Failure Connectivity Labels}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)},
  pages =	{32:1--32:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-255-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{246},
  editor =	{Scheideler, Christian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.32},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172239},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.32},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fault-Tolerance, Heavy-Light Decomposition, Labeling Schemes}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Beating Matrix Multiplication for n^{1/3}-Directed Shortcuts

Authors: Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
For an n-vertex digraph G = (V,E) and integer parameter D, a D-shortcut is a small set H of directed edges taken from the transitive closure of G, satisfying that the diameter of G ∪ H is at most D. A recent work [Kogan and Parter, SODA 2022] presented shortcutting algorithms with improved diameter vs. size tradeoffs. Most notably, obtaining linear size D-shortcuts for D = Õ(n^{1/3}), breaking the √n-diameter barrier. These algorithms run in O(n^{ω}) time, as they are based on the computation of the transitive closure of the graph. We present a new algorithmic approach for D-shortcuts, that matches the bounds of [Kogan and Parter, SODA 2022], while running in o(n^{ω}) time for every D ≥ n^{1/3}. Our approach is based on a reduction to the min-cost max-flow problem, which can be solved in Õ(m+n^{3/2}) time due to the recent breakthrough result of [Brand et al., STOC 2021]. We also demonstrate the applicability of our techniques to computing the minimal chain covers and dipath decompositions for directed acyclic graphs. For an n-vertex m-edge digraph G = (V,E), our key results are: - An Õ(n^{1/3}⋅ m+n^{3/2})-time algorithm for computing D-shortcuts of linear size for D = Õ(n^{1/3}), and an Õ(n^{1/4}⋅ m+n^{7/4})-time algorithm for computing D-shortcuts of Õ(n^{3/4}) edges for D = Õ(n^{1/2}). - For a DAG G, we provide Õ(m+n^{3/2})-time algorithms for computing its minimum chain covers, maximum antichain, and decomposition into dipaths and independent sets. This improves considerably over the state-of-the-art bounds by [Caceres et al., SODA 2022] and [Grandoni et al., SODA 2021]. Our results also provide a new connection between shortcutting sets and the seemingly less related problems of minimum chain covers and the maximum antichains in DAGs.

Cite as

Shimon Kogan and Merav Parter. Beating Matrix Multiplication for n^{1/3}-Directed Shortcuts. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 82:1-82:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{kogan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.82,
  author =	{Kogan, Shimon and Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{Beating Matrix Multiplication for n^\{1/3\}-Directed Shortcuts}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{82:1--82:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.82},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164230},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.82},
  annote =	{Keywords: Directed Shortcuts, Transitive Closure, Width}
}
Document
An Improved Random Shift Algorithm for Spanners and Low Diameter Decompositions

Authors: Sebastian Forster, Martin Grösbacher, and Tijn de Vos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 217, 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)


Abstract
Spanners have been shown to be a powerful tool in graph algorithms. Many spanner constructions use a certain type of clustering at their core, where each cluster has small diameter and there are relatively few spanner edges between clusters. In this paper, we provide a clustering algorithm that, given k ≥ 2, can be used to compute a spanner of stretch 2k-1 and expected size O(n^{1+1/k}) in k rounds in the CONGEST model. This improves upon the state of the art (by Elkin, and Neiman [TALG'19]) by making the bounds on both running time and stretch independent of the random choices of the algorithm, whereas they only hold with high probability in previous results. Spanners are used in certain synchronizers, thus our improvement directly carries over to such synchronizers. Furthermore, for keeping the total number of inter-cluster edges small in low diameter decompositions, our clustering algorithm provides the following guarantees. Given β ∈ (0,1], we compute a low diameter decomposition with diameter bound O((log n)/β) such that each edge e ∈ E is an inter-cluster edge with probability at most β⋅ w(e) in O((log n)/β) rounds in the CONGEST model. Again, this improves upon the state of the art (by Miller, Peng, and Xu [SPAA'13]) by making the bounds on both running time and diameter independent of the random choices of the algorithm, whereas they only hold with high probability in previous results.

Cite as

Sebastian Forster, Martin Grösbacher, and Tijn de Vos. An Improved Random Shift Algorithm for Spanners and Low Diameter Decompositions. In 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 217, pp. 16:1-16:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{forster_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.16,
  author =	{Forster, Sebastian and Gr\"{o}sbacher, Martin and de Vos, Tijn},
  title =	{{An Improved Random Shift Algorithm for Spanners and Low Diameter Decompositions}},
  booktitle =	{25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-219-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{217},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Gramoli, Vincent and Milani, Alessia},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.16},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-157914},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spanner, low diameter decomposition, synchronizer, distributed graph algorithms}
}
Document
Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms against Adversarial Edges

Authors: Yael Hitron and Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)


Abstract
We consider the corner-stone broadcast task with an adaptive adversary that controls a fixed number of t edges in the input communication graph. In this model, the adversary sees the entire communication in the network and the random coins of the nodes, while maliciously manipulating the messages sent through a set of t edges (unknown to the nodes). Since the influential work of [Pease, Shostak and Lamport, JACM'80], broadcast algorithms against plentiful adversarial models have been studied in both theory and practice for over more than four decades. Despite this extensive research, there is no round efficient broadcast algorithm for general graphs in the CONGEST model of distributed computing. Even for a single adversarial edge (i.e., t = 1), the state-of-the-art round complexity is polynomial in the number of nodes. We provide the first round-efficient broadcast algorithms against adaptive edge adversaries. Our two key results for n-node graphs of diameter D are as follows: - For t = 1, there is a deterministic algorithm that solves the problem within Õ(D²) rounds, provided that the graph is 3 edge-connected. This round complexity beats the natural barrier of O(D³) rounds, the existential lower bound on the maximal length of 3 edge-disjoint paths between a given pair of nodes in G. This algorithm can be extended to a Õ((tD)^{O(t)})-round algorithm against t adversarial edges in (2t+1) edge-connected graphs. - For expander graphs with edge connectivity of Ω(t²log n), there is a considerably improved broadcast algorithm with O(t log ² n) rounds against t adversarial edges. This algorithm exploits the connectivity and conductance properties of G-subgraphs obtained by employing the Karger’s edge sampling technique. Our algorithms mark a new connection between the areas of fault-tolerant network design and reliable distributed communication.

Cite as

Yael Hitron and Merav Parter. Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms against Adversarial Edges. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 23:1-23:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.23,
  author =	{Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{Broadcast CONGEST Algorithms against Adversarial Edges}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-210-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{209},
  editor =	{Gilbert, Seth},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148256},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: CONGEST, Fault-Tolerant Network Design, Edge Connectivity}
}
Document
General CONGEST Compilers against Adversarial Edges

Authors: Yael Hitron and Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)


Abstract
We consider the adversarial CONGEST model of distributed computing in which a fixed number of edges (or nodes) in the graph are controlled by a computationally unbounded adversary that corrupts the computation by sending malicious messages over these (a-priori unknown) controlled edges. As in the standard CONGEST model, communication is synchronous, where per round each processor can send O(log n) bits to each of its neighbors. This paper is concerned with distributed algorithms that are both time efficient (in terms of the number of rounds), as well as, robust against a fixed number of adversarial edges. Unfortunately, the existing algorithms in this setting usually assume that the communication graph is complete (n-clique), and very little is known for graphs with arbitrary topologies. We fill in this gap by extending the methodology of [Parter and Yogev, SODA 2019] and provide a compiler that simulates any CONGEST algorithm 𝒜 (in the reliable setting) into an equivalent algorithm 𝒜' in the adversarial CONGEST model. Specifically, we show the following for every (2f+1) edge-connected graph of diameter D: - For f = 1, there is a general compiler against a single adversarial edge with a compilation overhead of Ô(D³) rounds. This improves upon the Ô(D⁵) round overhead of [Parter and Yogev, SODA 2019] and omits their assumption regarding a fault-free preprocessing phase. - For any constant f, there is a general compiler against f adversarial edges with a compilation overhead of Ô(D^{O(f)}) rounds. The prior compilers of [Parter and Yogev, SODA 2019] were limited to a single adversarial edge. Our compilers are based on a new notion of fault-tolerant cycle covers. The computation of these cycles in the adversarial CONGEST model constitutes the key technical contribution of the paper.

Cite as

Yael Hitron and Merav Parter. General CONGEST Compilers against Adversarial Edges. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 24:1-24:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.24,
  author =	{Hitron, Yael and Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{General CONGEST Compilers against Adversarial Edges}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)},
  pages =	{24:1--24:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-210-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{209},
  editor =	{Gilbert, Seth},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.24},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148266},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.24},
  annote =	{Keywords: CONGEST, Cycle Covers, Byzantine Adversaries}
}
Document
Spiking Neural Networks Through the Lens of Streaming Algorithms

Authors: Yael Hitron, Cameron Musco, and Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)


Abstract
We initiate the study of biologically-inspired spiking neural networks from the perspective of streaming algorithms. Like computers, human brains face memory limitations, which pose a significant obstacle when processing large scale and dynamically changing data. In computer science, these challenges are captured by the well-known streaming model, which can be traced back to Munro and Paterson `78 and has had significant impact in theory and beyond. In the classical streaming setting, one must compute a function f of a stream of updates 𝒮 = {u₁,…,u_m}, given restricted single-pass access to the stream. The primary complexity measure is the space used by the algorithm. In contrast to the large body of work on streaming algorithms, relatively little is known about the computational aspects of data processing in spiking neural networks. In this work, we seek to connect these two models, leveraging techniques developed for streaming algorithms to better understand neural computation. Our primary goal is to design networks for various computational tasks using as few auxiliary (non-input or output) neurons as possible. The number of auxiliary neurons can be thought of as the "space" required by the network. Previous algorithmic work in spiking neural networks has many similarities with streaming algorithms. However, the connection between these two space-limited models has not been formally addressed. We take the first steps towards understanding this connection. On the upper bound side, we design neural algorithms based on known streaming algorithms for fundamental tasks, including distinct elements, approximate median, and heavy hitters. The number of neurons in our solutions almost match the space bounds of the corresponding streaming algorithms. As a general algorithmic primitive, we show how to implement the important streaming technique of linear sketching efficiently in spiking neural networks. On the lower bound side, we give a generic reduction, showing that any space-efficient spiking neural network can be simulated by a space-efficient streaming algorithm. This reduction lets us translate streaming-space lower bounds into nearly matching neural-space lower bounds, establishing a close connection between the two models.

Cite as

Yael Hitron, Cameron Musco, and Merav Parter. Spiking Neural Networks Through the Lens of Streaming Algorithms. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 10:1-10:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{hitron_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.10,
  author =	{Hitron, Yael and Musco, Cameron and Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{Spiking Neural Networks Through the Lens of Streaming Algorithms}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-168-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{179},
  editor =	{Attiya, Hagit},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130882},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Biological distributed algorithms, Spiking neural networks, Streaming algorithms}
}
Document
Distributed Constructions of Dual-Failure Fault-Tolerant Distance Preservers

Authors: Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)


Abstract
Fault tolerant distance preservers (spanners) are sparse subgraphs that preserve (approximate) distances between given pairs of vertices under edge or vertex failures. So-far, these structures have been studied thoroughly mainly from a centralized viewpoint. Despite the fact fault tolerant preservers are mainly motivated by the error-prone nature of distributed networks, not much is known on the distributed computational aspects of these structures. In this paper, we present distributed algorithms for constructing fault tolerant distance preservers and +2 additive spanners that are resilient to at most two edge faults. Prior to our work, the only non-trivial constructions known were for the single fault and single source setting by [Ghaffari and Parter SPAA'16]. Our key technical contribution is a distributed algorithm for computing distance preservers w.r.t. a subset S of source vertices, resilient to two edge faults. The output structure contains a BFS tree BFS(s,G ⧵ {e₁,e₂}) for every s ∈ S and every e₁,e₂ ∈ G. The distributed construction of this structure is based on a delicate balance between the edge congestion (formed by running multiple BFS trees simultaneously) and the sparsity of the output subgraph. No sublinear-round algorithms for constructing these structures have been known before.

Cite as

Merav Parter. Distributed Constructions of Dual-Failure Fault-Tolerant Distance Preservers. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 21:1-21:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{parter:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.21,
  author =	{Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{Distributed Constructions of Dual-Failure Fault-Tolerant Distance Preservers}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-168-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{179},
  editor =	{Attiya, Hagit},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-130992},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fault Tolerance, Distance Preservers, CONGEST}
}
Document
Distributed Planar Reachability in Nearly Optimal Time

Authors: Merav Parter

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)


Abstract
We present nearly optimal distributed algorithms for fundamental reachability problems in planar graphs. In the single-source reachability problem given is an n-vertex directed graph G = (V,E) and a source node s, it is required to determine the subset of nodes that are reachable from s in G. We present the first distributed reachability algorithm for planar graphs that runs in nearly optimal time of Õ(D) rounds, where D is the undirected diameter of the graph. This improves the complexity of Õ(D²) rounds implied by the recent work of [Li and Parter, STOC'19]. We also consider the more general reachability problem of identifying the strongly connected components (SCCs) of the graph. We present an Õ(D)-round algorithm that computes for each node in the graph an identifier of its strongly connected component in G. No non-trivial upper bound for this problem (even in general graphs) has been known before. Our algorithms are based on characterizing the structural interactions between balanced cycle separators. We show that the reachability relations between separator nodes can be compressed due to a Monge-like property of their directed shortest paths. The algorithmic results are obtained by combining this structural characterization with the recursive graph partitioning machinery of [Li and Parter, STOC'19].

Cite as

Merav Parter. Distributed Planar Reachability in Nearly Optimal Time. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 38:1-38:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{parter:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.38,
  author =	{Parter, Merav},
  title =	{{Distributed Planar Reachability in Nearly Optimal Time}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)},
  pages =	{38:1--38:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-168-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{179},
  editor =	{Attiya, Hagit},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.38},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131160},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.38},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Graph Algorithms, Planar Graphs, Reachability}
}
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