36 Search Results for "Buhrman, Harry"


Document
Derandomizing Logspace with a Small Shared Hard Drive

Authors: Edward Pyne

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We obtain new catalytic algorithms for space-bounded derandomization. In the catalytic computation model introduced by (Buhrman, Cleve, Koucký, Loff, and Speelman STOC 2013), we are given a small worktape, and a larger catalytic tape that has an arbitrary initial configuration. We may edit this tape, but it must be exactly restored to its initial configuration at the completion of the computation. We prove that BPSPACE[S] ⊆ CSPACE[S,S²] where BPSPACE[S] corresponds to randomized space S computation, and CSPACE[S,C] corresponds to catalytic algorithms that use O(S) bits of workspace and O(C) bits of catalytic space. Previously, only BPSPACE[S] ⊆ CSPACE[S,2^O(S)] was known. In fact, we prove a general tradeoff, that for every α ∈ [1,1.5], BPSPACE[S] ⊆ CSPACE[S^α,S^(3-α)]. We do not use the algebraic techniques of prior work on catalytic computation. Instead, we develop an algorithm that branches based on if the catalytic tape is conditionally random, and instantiate this primitive in a recursive framework. Our result gives an alternate proof of the best known time-space tradeoff for BPSPACE[S], due to (Cai, Chakaravarthy, and van Melkebeek, Theory Comput. Sys. 2006). As a final application, we extend our results to solve search problems in CSPACE[S,S²]. As far as we are aware, this constitutes the first study of search problems in the catalytic computing model.

Cite as

Edward Pyne. Derandomizing Logspace with a Small Shared Hard Drive. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 4:1-4:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{pyne:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.4,
  author =	{Pyne, Edward},
  title =	{{Derandomizing Logspace with a Small Shared Hard Drive}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204006},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Catalytic computation, space-bounded computation, derandomization}
}
Document
The Entangled Quantum Polynomial Hierarchy Collapses

Authors: Sabee Grewal and Justin Yirka

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 300, 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)


Abstract
We introduce the entangled quantum polynomial hierarchy, QEPH, as the class of problems that are efficiently verifiable given alternating quantum proofs that may be entangled with each other. We prove QEPH collapses to its second level. In fact, we show that a polynomial number of alternations collapses to just two. As a consequence, QEPH = QRG(1), the class of problems having one-turn quantum refereed games, which is known to be contained in PSPACE. This is in contrast to the unentangled quantum polynomial hierarchy, QPH, which contains QMA(2). We also introduce DistributionQCPH, a generalization of the quantum-classical polynomial hierarchy QCPH where the provers send probability distributions over strings (instead of strings). We prove DistributionQCPH = QCPH, suggesting that only quantum superposition (not classical probability) increases the computational power of these hierarchies. To prove this equality, we generalize a game-theoretic result of Lipton and Young (1994) which says that, without loss of generality, the provers can send uniform distributions over a polynomial-size support. We also prove the analogous result for the polynomial hierarchy, i.e., DistributionPH = PH. Finally, we show that PH and QCPH are contained in QPH, resolving an open question of Gharibian et al. (2022).

Cite as

Sabee Grewal and Justin Yirka. The Entangled Quantum Polynomial Hierarchy Collapses. In 39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 300, pp. 6:1-6:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{grewal_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2024.6,
  author =	{Grewal, Sabee and Yirka, Justin},
  title =	{{The Entangled Quantum Polynomial Hierarchy Collapses}},
  booktitle =	{39th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2024)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-331-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{300},
  editor =	{Santhanam, Rahul},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-204028},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2024.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Polynomial hierarchy, Entangled proofs, Correlated proofs, Minimax}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects

Authors: Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We consider the problem of learning low-degree quantum objects up to ε-error in 𝓁₂-distance. We show the following results: (i) unknown n-qubit degree-d (in the Pauli basis) quantum channels and unitaries can be learned using O(1/ε^d) queries (which is independent of n), (ii) polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] arising from d-query quantum algorithms can be learned from O((1/ε)^d ⋅ log n) many random examples (x,p(x)) (which implies learnability even for d = O(log n)), and (iii) degree-d polynomials p:{-1,1}ⁿ → [-1,1] can be learned through O(1/ε^d) queries to a quantum unitary U_p that block-encodes p. Our main technical contributions are new Bohnenblust-Hille inequalities for quantum channels and completely bounded polynomials.

Cite as

Srinivasan Arunachalam, Arkopal Dutt, Francisco Escudero Gutiérrez, and Carlos Palazuelos. Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 13:1-13:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{arunachalam_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13,
  author =	{Arunachalam, Srinivasan and Dutt, Arkopal and Escudero Guti\'{e}rrez, Francisco and Palazuelos, Carlos},
  title =	{{Learning Low-Degree Quantum Objects}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201563},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: Tomography}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Oracle Separation of QMA and QCMA with Bounded Adaptivity

Authors: Shalev Ben-David and Srijita Kundu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We give an oracle separation between QMA and QCMA for quantum algorithms that have bounded adaptivity in their oracle queries; that is, the number of rounds of oracle calls is small, though each round may involve polynomially many queries in parallel. Our oracle construction is a simplified version of the construction used recently by Li, Liu, Pelecanos, and Yamakawa (2023), who showed an oracle separation between QMA and QCMA when the quantum algorithms are only allowed to access the oracle classically. To prove our results, we introduce a property of relations called slipperiness, which may be useful for getting a fully general classical oracle separation between QMA and QCMA.

Cite as

Shalev Ben-David and Srijita Kundu. Oracle Separation of QMA and QCMA with Bounded Adaptivity. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 21:1-21:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bendavid_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.21,
  author =	{Ben-David, Shalev and Kundu, Srijita},
  title =	{{Oracle Separation of QMA and QCMA with Bounded Adaptivity}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201642},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum computing, computational complexity}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
BQP, Meet NP: Search-To-Decision Reductions and Approximate Counting

Authors: Sevag Gharibian and Jonas Kamminga

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
What is the power of polynomial-time quantum computation with access to an NP oracle? In this work, we focus on two fundamental tasks from the study of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problems: search-to-decision reductions, and approximate counting. We first show that, in strong contrast to the classical setting where a poly-time Turing machine requires Θ(n) queries to an NP oracle to compute a witness to a given SAT formula, quantumly Θ(log n) queries suffice. We then show this is tight in the black-box model - any quantum algorithm with "NP-like" query access to a formula requires Ω(log n) queries to extract a solution with constant probability. Moving to approximate counting of SAT solutions, by exploiting a quantum link between search-to-decision reductions and approximate counting, we show that existing classical approximate counting algorithms are likely optimal. First, we give a lower bound in the "NP-like" black-box query setting: Approximate counting requires Ω(log n) queries, even on a quantum computer. We then give a "white-box" lower bound (i.e. where the input formula is not hidden in the oracle) - if there exists a randomized poly-time classical or quantum algorithm for approximate counting making o(log n) NP queries, then BPP^NP[o(n)] contains a 𝖯^NP-complete problem if the algorithm is classical and FBQP^NP[o(n)] contains an FP^NP-complete problem if the algorithm is quantum.

Cite as

Sevag Gharibian and Jonas Kamminga. BQP, Meet NP: Search-To-Decision Reductions and Approximate Counting. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 70:1-70:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{gharibian_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.70,
  author =	{Gharibian, Sevag and Kamminga, Jonas},
  title =	{{BQP, Meet NP: Search-To-Decision Reductions and Approximate Counting}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{70:1--70:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.70},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202134},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.70},
  annote =	{Keywords: Approximate Counting, Search to Decision Reduction, BQP, NP, Oracle Complexity Class}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
No Polynomial Kernels for Knapsack

Authors: Klaus Heeger, Danny Hermelin, Matthias Mnich, and Dvir Shabtay

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
This paper focuses on kernelization algorithms for the fundamental Knapsack problem. A kernelization algorithm (or kernel) is a polynomial-time reduction from a problem onto itself, where the output size is bounded by a function of some problem-specific parameter. Such algorithms provide a theoretical model for data reduction and preprocessing and are central in the area of parameterized complexity. In this way, a kernel for Knapsack for some parameter k reduces any instance of Knapsack to an equivalent instance of size at most f(k) in polynomial time, for some computable function f. When f(k) = k^{O(1)} then we call such a reduction a polynomial kernel. Our study focuses on two natural parameters for Knapsack: The number w_# of different item weights, and the number p_# of different item profits. Our main technical contribution is a proof showing that Knapsack does not admit a polynomial kernel for any of these two parameters under standard complexity-theoretic assumptions. Our proof discovers an elaborate application of the standard kernelization lower bound framework, and develops along the way novel ideas that should be useful for other problems as well. We complement our lower bounds by showing that Knapsack admits a polynomial kernel for the combined parameter w_# ⋅ p_#.

Cite as

Klaus Heeger, Danny Hermelin, Matthias Mnich, and Dvir Shabtay. No Polynomial Kernels for Knapsack. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 83:1-83:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{heeger_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.83,
  author =	{Heeger, Klaus and Hermelin, Danny and Mnich, Matthias and Shabtay, Dvir},
  title =	{{No Polynomial Kernels for Knapsack}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{83:1--83:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.83},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202261},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.83},
  annote =	{Keywords: Knapsack, polynomial kernels, compositions, number of different weights, number of different profits}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Impagliazzo’s Worlds Through the Lens of Conditional Kolmogorov Complexity

Authors: Zhenjian Lu and Rahul Santhanam

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)


Abstract
We develop new characterizations of Impagliazzo’s worlds Algorithmica, Heuristica and Pessiland by the intractability of conditional Kolmogorov complexity 𝖪 and conditional probabilistic time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity pK^t. In our first set of results, we show that NP ⊆ BPP iff pK^t(x ∣ y) can be computed efficiently in the worst case when t is sublinear in |x| + |y|; DistNP ⊆ HeurBPP iff pK^t(x ∣ y) can be computed efficiently over all polynomial-time samplable distributions when t is sublinear in |x| + |y|; and infinitely-often one-way functions fail to exist iff pK^t(x ∣ y) can be computed efficiently over all polynomial-time samplable distributions for t a sufficiently large polynomial in |x| + |y|. These results characterize Impagliazzo’s worlds Algorithmica, Heuristica and Pessiland purely in terms of the tractability of conditional pK^t. Notably, the results imply that Pessiland fails to exist iff the average-case intractability of conditional pK^t is insensitive to the difference between sublinear and polynomially bounded t. As a corollary, while we prove conditional pK^t to be NP-hard for sublinear t, showing NP-hardness for large enough polynomially bounded t would eliminate Pessiland as a possible world of average-case complexity. In our second set of results, we characterize Impagliazzo’s worlds Algorithmica, Heuristica and Pessiland by the distributional tractability of a natural problem, i.e., approximating the conditional Kolmogorov complexity, that is provably intractable in the worst case. We show that NP ⊆ BPP iff conditional Kolmogorov complexity can be approximated in the semi-worst case; and DistNP ⊆ HeurBPP iff conditional Kolmogorov complexity can be approximated on average over all independent polynomial-time samplable distributions. It follows from a result by Ilango, Ren, and Santhanam (STOC 2022) that infinitely-often one-way functions fail to exist iff conditional Kolmogorov complexity can be approximated on average over all polynomial-time samplable distributions. Together, these results yield the claimed characterizations. Our techniques, combined with previous work, also yield a characterization of auxiliary-input one-way functions and equivalences between different average-case tractability assumptions for conditional Kolmogorov complexity and its variants. Our results suggest that novel average-case tractability assumptions such as tractability in the semi-worst case and over independent polynomial-time samplable distributions might be worthy of further study.

Cite as

Zhenjian Lu and Rahul Santhanam. Impagliazzo’s Worlds Through the Lens of Conditional Kolmogorov Complexity. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 110:1-110:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{lu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.110,
  author =	{Lu, Zhenjian and Santhanam, Rahul},
  title =	{{Impagliazzo’s Worlds Through the Lens of Conditional Kolmogorov Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)},
  pages =	{110:1--110:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-322-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{297},
  editor =	{Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.110},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202538},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.110},
  annote =	{Keywords: meta-complexity, Kolmogorov complexity, one-way functions, average-case complexity}
}
Document
A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem

Authors: Scott Aaronson, Harry Buhrman, and William Kretschmer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Relational problems (those with many possible valid outputs) are different from decision problems, but it is easy to forget just how different. This paper initiates the study of FBQP/qpoly, the class of relational problems solvable in quantum polynomial-time with the help of polynomial-sized quantum advice, along with its analogues for deterministic and randomized computation (FP, FBPP) and advice (/poly, /rpoly). Our first result is that FBQP/qpoly ≠ FBQP/poly, unconditionally, with no oracle - a striking contrast with what we know about the analogous decision classes. The proof repurposes the separation between quantum and classical one-way communication complexities due to Bar-Yossef, Jayram, and Kerenidis. We discuss how this separation raises the prospect of near-term experiments to demonstrate "quantum information supremacy," a form of quantum supremacy that would not depend on unproved complexity assumptions. Our second result is that FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly - that is, Adleman’s Theorem fails for relational problems - unless PSPACE ⊂ NP/poly. Our proof uses IP = PSPACE and time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. On the other hand, we show that proving FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly will be hard, as it implies a superpolynomial circuit lower bound for PromiseBPEXP. We prove the following further results: - Unconditionally, FP ≠ FBPP and FP/poly ≠ FBPP/poly (even when these classes are carefully defined). - FBPP/poly = FBPP/rpoly (and likewise for FBQP). For sampling problems, by contrast, SampBPP/poly ≠ SampBPP/rpoly (and likewise for SampBQP).

Cite as

Scott Aaronson, Harry Buhrman, and William Kretschmer. A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 1:1-1:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1,
  author =	{Aaronson, Scott and Buhrman, Harry and Kretschmer, William},
  title =	{{A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195290},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Relational problems, quantum advice, randomized advice, FBQP, FBPP}
}
Document
Extended Abstract
Noisy Decoding by Shallow Circuits with Parities: Classical and Quantum (Extended Abstract)

Authors: Jop Briët, Harry Buhrman, Davi Castro-Silva, and Niels M. P. Neumann

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
We consider the problem of decoding corrupted error correcting codes with NC⁰[⊕] circuits in the classical and quantum settings. We show that any such classical circuit can correctly recover only a vanishingly small fraction of messages, if the codewords are sent over a noisy channel with positive error rate. Previously this was known only for linear codes with large dual distance, whereas our result applies to any code. By contrast, we give a simple quantum circuit that correctly decodes the Hadamard code with probability Ω(ε²) even if a (1/2 - ε)-fraction of a codeword is adversarially corrupted. Our classical hardness result is based on an equidistribution phenomenon for multivariate polynomials over a finite field under biased input-distributions. This is proved using a structure-versus-randomness strategy based on a new notion of rank for high-dimensional polynomial maps that may be of independent interest. Our quantum circuit is inspired by a non-local version of the Bernstein-Vazirani problem, a technique to generate "poor man’s cat states" by Watts et al., and a constant-depth quantum circuit for the OR function by Takahashi and Tani.

Cite as

Jop Briët, Harry Buhrman, Davi Castro-Silva, and Niels M. P. Neumann. Noisy Decoding by Shallow Circuits with Parities: Classical and Quantum (Extended Abstract). In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 21:1-21:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{briet_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.21,
  author =	{Bri\"{e}t, Jop and Buhrman, Harry and Castro-Silva, Davi and Neumann, Niels M. P.},
  title =	{{Noisy Decoding by Shallow Circuits with Parities: Classical and Quantum (Extended Abstract)}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{21:1--21:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.21},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195490},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.21},
  annote =	{Keywords: Coding theory, circuit complexity, quantum complexity theory, higher-order Fourier analysis, non-local games}
}
Document
Quantum Majority Vote

Authors: Harry Buhrman, Noah Linden, Laura Mančinska, Ashley Montanaro, and Maris Ozols

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
Majority vote is a basic method for amplifying correct outcomes that is widely used in computer science and beyond. While it can amplify the correctness of a quantum device with classical output, the analogous procedure for quantum output is not known. We introduce quantum majority vote as the following task: given a product state |ψ_1⟩ ⊗ … ⊗ |ψ_n⟩ where each qubit is in one of two orthogonal states |ψ⟩ or |ψ^⟂⟩, output the majority state. We show that an optimal algorithm for this problem achieves worst-case fidelity of 1/2 + Θ(1/√n). Under the promise that at least 2/3 of the input qubits are in the majority state, the fidelity increases to 1 - Θ(1/n) and approaches 1 as n increases. We also consider the more general problem of computing any symmetric and equivariant Boolean function f: {0,1}ⁿ → {0,1} in an unknown quantum basis, and show that a generalization of our quantum majority vote algorithm is optimal for this task. The optimal parameters for the generalized algorithm and its worst-case fidelity can be determined by a simple linear program of size O(n). The time complexity of the algorithm is O(n⁴ log n) where n is the number of input qubits.

Cite as

Harry Buhrman, Noah Linden, Laura Mančinska, Ashley Montanaro, and Maris Ozols. Quantum Majority Vote. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, p. 29:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.29,
  author =	{Buhrman, Harry and Linden, Noah and Man\v{c}inska, Laura and Montanaro, Ashley and Ozols, Maris},
  title =	{{Quantum Majority Vote}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.29},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175321},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: quantum algorithms, quantum majority vote, Schur-Weyl duality}
}
Document
Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates

Authors: Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 232, 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)


Abstract
In the classical RAM, we have the following useful property. If we have an algorithm that uses M memory cells throughout its execution, and in addition is sparse, in the sense that, at any point in time, only m out of M cells will be non-zero, then we may "compress" it into another algorithm which uses only m log M memory and runs in almost the same time. We may do so by simulating the memory using either a hash table, or a self-balancing tree. We show an analogous result for quantum algorithms equipped with quantum random-access gates. If we have a quantum algorithm that runs in time T and uses M qubits, such that the state of the memory, at any time step, is supported on computational-basis vectors of Hamming weight at most m, then it can be simulated by another algorithm which uses only O(m log M) memory, and runs in time Õ(T). We show how this theorem can be used, in a black-box way, to simplify the presentation in several papers. Broadly speaking, when there exists a need for a space-efficient history-independent quantum data-structure, it is often possible to construct a space-inefficient, yet sparse, quantum data structure, and then appeal to our main theorem. This results in simpler and shorter arguments.

Cite as

Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates. In 17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 232, pp. 10:1-10:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10,
  author =	{Buhrman, Harry and Loff, Bruno and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian},
  title =	{{Memory Compression with Quantum Random-Access Gates}},
  booktitle =	{17th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2022)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-237-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{232},
  editor =	{Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Morimae, Tomoyuki},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165177},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2022.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: complexity theory, data structures, algorithms, quantum walk}
}
Document
Limits of Quantum Speed-Ups for Computational Geometry and Other Problems: Fine-Grained Complexity via Quantum Walks

Authors: Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
Many computational problems are subject to a quantum speed-up: one might find that a problem having an O(n³)-time or O(n²)-time classic algorithm can be solved by a known O(n^{1.5})-time or O(n)-time quantum algorithm. The question naturally arises: how much quantum speed-up is possible? The area of fine-grained complexity allows us to prove optimal lower-bounds on the complexity of various computational problems, based on the conjectured hardness of certain natural, well-studied problems. This theory has recently been extended to the quantum setting, in two independent papers by Buhrman, Patro and Speelman [Buhrman et al., 2021], and by Aaronson, Chia, Lin, Wang, and Zhang [Aaronson et al., 2020]. In this paper, we further extend the theory of fine-grained complexity to the quantum setting. A fundamental conjecture in the classical setting states that the 3SUM problem cannot be solved by (classical) algorithms in time O(n^{2-ε}), for any ε > 0. We formulate an analogous conjecture, the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture, which states that there exist no sublinear O(n^{1-ε})-time quantum algorithms for the 3SUM problem. Based on the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture, we show new lower-bounds on the time complexity of quantum algorithms for several computational problems. Most of our lower-bounds are optimal, in that they match known upper-bounds, and hence they imply tight limits on the quantum speedup that is possible for these problems. These results are proven by adapting to the quantum setting known classical fine-grained reductions from the 3SUM problem. This adaptation is not trivial, however, since the original classical reductions require pre-processing the input in various ways, e.g. by sorting it according to some order, and this pre-processing (provably) cannot be done in sublinear quantum time. We overcome this bottleneck by combining a quantum walk with a classical dynamic data-structure having a certain "history-independence" property. This type of construction has been used in the past to prove upper bounds, and here we use it for the first time as part of a reduction. This general proof strategy allows us to prove tight lower bounds on several computational-geometry problems, on Convolution-3SUM and on the 0-Edge-Weight-Triangle problem, conditional on the Quantum-3SUM-Conjecture. We believe this proof strategy will be useful in proving tight (conditional) lower-bounds, and limits on quantum speed-ups, for many other problems.

Cite as

Harry Buhrman, Bruno Loff, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. Limits of Quantum Speed-Ups for Computational Geometry and Other Problems: Fine-Grained Complexity via Quantum Walks. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 31:1-31:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31,
  author =	{Buhrman, Harry and Loff, Bruno and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian},
  title =	{{Limits of Quantum Speed-Ups for Computational Geometry and Other Problems: Fine-Grained Complexity via Quantum Walks}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{31:1--31:12},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156273},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.31},
  annote =	{Keywords: complexity theory, fine-grained complexity, 3SUM, computational geometry problems, data structures, quantum walk}
}
Document
A Framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses

Authors: Harry Buhrman, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)


Abstract
The strong exponential-time hypothesis (SETH) is a commonly used conjecture in the field of complexity theory. It essentially states that determining whether a CNF formula is satisfiable can not be done faster than exhaustive search over all possible assignments. This hypothesis and its variants gave rise to a fruitful field of research, fine-grained complexity, obtaining (mostly tight) lower bounds for many problems in P whose unconditional lower bounds are very likely beyond current techniques. In this work, we introduce an extensive framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses, as quantum analogues to what SETH is for classical computation. Using the QSETH framework, we are able to translate quantum query lower bounds on black-box problems to conditional quantum time lower bounds for many problems in P. As an example, we provide a conditional quantum time lower bound of Ω(n^1.5) for the Longest Common Subsequence and Edit Distance problems. We also show that the n² SETH-based lower bound for a recent scheme for Proofs of Useful Work carries over to the quantum setting using our framework, maintaining a quadratic gap between verifier and prover. Lastly, we show that the assumptions in our framework can not be simplified further with relativizing proof techniques, as they are false in relativized worlds.

Cite as

Harry Buhrman, Subhasree Patro, and Florian Speelman. A Framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 19:1-19:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{buhrman_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19,
  author =	{Buhrman, Harry and Patro, Subhasree and Speelman, Florian},
  title =	{{A Framework of Quantum Strong Exponential-Time Hypotheses}},
  booktitle =	{38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-180-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{187},
  editor =	{Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136642},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: complexity theory, fine-grained complexity, longest common subsequence, edit distance, quantum query complexity, strong exponential-time hypothesis}
}
Document
Approaching MCSP from Above and Below: Hardness for a Conditional Variant and AC^0[p]

Authors: Rahul Ilango

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
The Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) asks whether a given Boolean function has a circuit of at most a given size. MCSP has been studied for over a half-century and has deep connections throughout theoretical computer science including to cryptography, computational learning theory, and proof complexity. For example, we know (informally) that if MCSP is easy to compute, then most cryptography can be broken. Despite this cryptographic hardness connection and extensive research, we still know relatively little about the hardness of MCSP unconditionally. Indeed, until very recently it was unknown whether MCSP can be computed in AC^0[2] (Golovnev et al., ICALP 2019). Our main contribution in this paper is to formulate a new "oracle" variant of circuit complexity and prove that this problem is NP-complete under randomized reductions. In more detail, we define the Minimum Oracle Circuit Size Problem (MOCSP) that takes as input the truth table of a Boolean function f, a size threshold s, and the truth table of an oracle Boolean function O, and determines whether there is a circuit with O-oracle gates and at most s wires that computes f. We prove that MOCSP is NP-complete under randomized polynomial-time reductions. We also extend the recent AC^0[p] lower bound against MCSP by Golovnev et al. to a lower bound against the circuit minimization problem for depth-d formulas, (AC^0_d)-MCSP. We view this result as primarily a technical contribution. In particular, our proof takes a radically different approach from prior MCSP-related hardness results.

Cite as

Rahul Ilango. Approaching MCSP from Above and Below: Hardness for a Conditional Variant and AC^0[p]. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 34:1-34:26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{ilango:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.34,
  author =	{Ilango, Rahul},
  title =	{{Approaching MCSP from Above and Below: Hardness for a Conditional Variant and AC^0\lbrackp\rbrack}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:26},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117191},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Minimum Circuit Size Problem, reductions, NP-completeness, circuit lower bounds}
}
Document
Bounding Quantum-Classical Separations for Classes of Nonlocal Games

Authors: Tom Bannink, Jop Briët, Harry Buhrman, Farrokh Labib, and Troy Lee

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 126, 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)


Abstract
We bound separations between the entangled and classical values for several classes of nonlocal t-player games. Our motivating question is whether there is a family of t-player XOR games for which the entangled bias is 1 but for which the classical bias goes down to 0, for fixed t. Answering this question would have important consequences in the study of multi-party communication complexity, as a positive answer would imply an unbounded separation between randomized communication complexity with and without entanglement. Our contribution to answering the question is identifying several general classes of games for which the classical bias can not go to zero when the entangled bias stays above a constant threshold. This rules out the possibility of using these games to answer our motivating question. A previously studied set of XOR games, known not to give a positive answer to the question, are those for which there is a quantum strategy that attains value 1 using a so-called Schmidt state. We generalize this class to mod-m games and show that their classical value is always at least 1/m + (m-1)/m t^{1-t}. Secondly, for free XOR games, in which the input distribution is of product form, we show beta(G) >= beta^*(G)^{2^t} where beta(G) and beta^*(G) are the classical and entangled biases of the game respectively. We also introduce so-called line games, an example of which is a slight modification of the Magic Square game, and show that they can not give a positive answer to the question either. Finally we look at two-player unique games and show that if the entangled value is 1-epsilon then the classical value is at least 1-O(sqrt{epsilon log k}) where k is the number of outputs in the game. Our proofs use semidefinite-programming techniques, the Gowers inverse theorem and hypergraph norms.

Cite as

Tom Bannink, Jop Briët, Harry Buhrman, Farrokh Labib, and Troy Lee. Bounding Quantum-Classical Separations for Classes of Nonlocal Games. In 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 126, pp. 12:1-12:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{bannink_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2019.12,
  author =	{Bannink, Tom and Bri\"{e}t, Jop and Buhrman, Harry and Labib, Farrokh and Lee, Troy},
  title =	{{Bounding Quantum-Classical Separations for Classes of Nonlocal Games}},
  booktitle =	{36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:11},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-100-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{126},
  editor =	{Niedermeier, Rolf and Paul, Christophe},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102512},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Nonlocal games, communication complexity, bounded separations, semidefinite programming, pseudorandomness, Gowers norms}
}
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