55 Search Results for "Williams, R. Ryan"


Document
Depth-3 Circuit Lower Bounds for k-OV

Authors: Tameem Choudhury and Karteek Sreenivasaiah

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 289, 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)


Abstract
The 2-Orthogonal Vectors (2-OV) problem is the following: given two tuples A and B of n Boolean vectors, each of dimension d, decide if there exist vectors u ∈ A, and v ∈ B, such that u and v are orthogonal. This problem, and its generalization k-OV defined analogously for k tuples, are central problems in the area of fine-grained complexity. One of the major conjectures in fine-grained complexity is that k-OV cannot be solved by a randomised algorithm in n^{k-ε}poly(d) time for any constant ε > 0. In this paper, we are interested in unconditional lower bounds against k-OV, but for weaker models of computation than the general Turing Machine. In particular, we are interested in circuit lower bounds to computing k-OV by Boolean circuit families of depth 3 of the form OR-AND-OR, or equivalently, a disjunction of CNFs. We show that for all k ≤ d, any disjunction of t-CNFs computing k-OV requires size Ω((n/t)^k). In particular, when k is a constant, any disjunction of k-CNFs computing k-OV needs to use Ω(n^k) CNFs. This matches the brute-force construction, and for each fixed k > 2, this is the first unconditional Ω(n^k) lower bound against k-OV for a computation model that can compute it in size O(n^k). Our results partially resolve a conjecture by Kane and Williams [Daniel M. Kane and Richard Ryan Williams, 2019] (page 12, conjecture 10) about depth-3 AC⁰ circuits computing 2-OV. As a secondary result, we show an exponential lower bound on the size of AND∘OR∘AND circuits computing 2-OV when d is very large. Since 2-OV reduces to k-OV by projections trivially, this lower bound works against k-OV as well.

Cite as

Tameem Choudhury and Karteek Sreenivasaiah. Depth-3 Circuit Lower Bounds for k-OV. In 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 289, pp. 25:1-25:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{choudhury_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2024.25,
  author =	{Choudhury, Tameem and Sreenivasaiah, Karteek},
  title =	{{Depth-3 Circuit Lower Bounds for k-OV}},
  booktitle =	{41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)},
  pages =	{25:1--25:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-311-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{289},
  editor =	{Beyersdorff, Olaf and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Kupferman, Orna and Lokshtanov, Daniel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.25},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197359},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.25},
  annote =	{Keywords: fine grained complexity, k-OV, circuit lower bounds, depth-3 circuits}
}
Document
Towards Stronger Depth Lower Bounds

Authors: Gabriel Bathie and R. Ryan Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
A fundamental problem in circuit complexity is to find explicit functions that require large depth to compute. When considering the natural DeMorgan basis of {OR,AND}, where negations incur no cost, the best known depth lower bounds for an explicit function in NP have the form (3-o(1))log₂ n, established by Håstad (building on others) in the early 1990s. We make progress on the problem of improving this factor of 3, in two different ways: - We consider an "algorithmic method" approach to proving stronger depth lower bounds for non-uniform circuits in the DeMorgan basis. We show that slightly faster algorithms (than what is known) for counting the number of satisfying assignments on subcubic-size DeMorgan formulas would imply supercubic-size DeMorgan formula lower bounds, implying that the depth must be at least (3+ε)log₂ n for some ε > 0. For example, if #SAT on formulas of size n^{2+2ε} can be solved in 2^{n - n^{1-ε}log^k n} time for some ε > 0 and a sufficiently large constant k, then there is a function computable in 2^{O(n)} time with a SAT oracle which does not have n^{3+ε}-size formulas. In fact, the #SAT algorithm only has to work on formulas that are a conjunction of n^{1-ε} subformulas, each of which is n^{1+3ε} size, in order to obtain the supercubic lower bound. As a proof of concept, we show that our new algorithms-to-lower-bounds connection can be applied to prove new lower bounds for "hybrid" DeMorgan formula models which compute interesting functions at their leaves. - Turning to the {NAND} basis, we establish a greater-than-(3 log₂ n) depth lower bound against uniform circuits solving the SAT problem, using an extension of the "indirect diagonalization" method for NAND formulas. Note that circuits over the NAND basis are a special case of circuits over the DeMorgan basis; however, hard functions such as Andreev’s function (known to require depth (3-o(1))log₂ n in the DeMorgan basis) can still be computed with NAND circuits of depth (3+o(1))log₂ n. Our results imply that SAT requires polylogtime-uniform NAND circuits of depth at least 3.603 log₂ n.

Cite as

Gabriel Bathie and R. Ryan Williams. Towards Stronger Depth Lower Bounds. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 10:1-10:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{bathie_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.10,
  author =	{Bathie, Gabriel and Williams, R. Ryan},
  title =	{{Towards Stronger Depth Lower Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195388},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: DeMorgan formulas, depth complexity, circuit complexity, lower bounds, #SAT, NAND gates, SAT}
}
Document
A VLSI Circuit Model Accounting for Wire Delay

Authors: Ce Jin, R. Ryan Williams, and Nathaniel Young

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Given the need for ever higher performance, and the failure of CPUs to keep providing single-threaded performance gains, engineers are increasingly turning to highly-parallel custom VLSI chips to implement expensive computations. In VLSI design, the gates and wires of a logical circuit are placed on a 2-dimensional chip with a small number of layers. Traditional VLSI models use gate delay to measure the time complexity of the chip, ignoring the lengths of wires. However, as technology has advanced, wire delay is no longer negligible; it has become an important measure in the design of VLSI chips [Markov, Nature (2014)]. Motivated by this situation, we define and study a model for VLSI chips, called wire-delay VLSI, which takes wire delay into account, going beyond an earlier model of Chazelle and Monier [JACM 1985]. - We prove nearly tight upper bounds and lower bounds (up to logarithmic factors) on the time delay of this chip model for several basic problems. For example, And, Or and Parity require Θ(n^{1/3}) delay, while Addition and Multiplication require ̃ Θ(n^{1/2}) delay, and Triangle Detection on (dense) n-node graphs requires ̃ Θ(n) delay. Interestingly, when we allow input bits to be read twice, the delay for Addition can be improved to Θ(n^{1/3}). - We also show that proving significantly higher lower bounds in our wire-delay VLSI model would imply breakthrough results in circuit lower bounds. Motivated by this barrier, we also study conditional lower bounds on the delay of chips based on the Orthogonal Vectors Hypothesis from fine-grained complexity.

Cite as

Ce Jin, R. Ryan Williams, and Nathaniel Young. A VLSI Circuit Model Accounting for Wire Delay. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 66:1-66:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.66,
  author =	{Jin, Ce and Williams, R. Ryan and Young, Nathaniel},
  title =	{{A VLSI Circuit Model Accounting for Wire Delay}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{66:1--66:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.66},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195949},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.66},
  annote =	{Keywords: circuit complexity, systolic arrays, VLSI, wire delay}
}
Document
Faster Detours in Undirected Graphs

Authors: Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Ryan Williams, and Zixuan Xu

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)


Abstract
The k-Detour problem is a basic path-finding problem: given a graph G on n vertices, with specified nodes s and t, and a positive integer k, the goal is to determine if G has an st-path of length exactly dist(s,t) + k, where dist(s,t) is the length of a shortest path from s to t. The k-Detour problem is NP-hard when k is part of the input, so researchers have sought efficient parameterized algorithms for this task, running in f(k)poly(n) time, for f(⋅) as slow-growing as possible. We present faster algorithms for k-Detour in undirected graphs, running in 1.853^k poly(n) randomized and 4.082^kpoly(n) deterministic time. The previous fastest algorithms for this problem took 2.746^k poly(n) randomized and 6.523^k poly(n) deterministic time [Bezáková-Curticapean-Dell-Fomin, ICALP 2017]. Our algorithms use the fact that detecting a path of a given length in an undirected graph is easier if we are promised that the path belongs to what we call a "bipartitioned" subgraph, where the nodes are split into two parts and the path must satisfy constraints on those parts. Previously, this idea was used to obtain the fastest known algorithm for finding paths of length k in undirected graphs [Björklund-Husfeldt-Kaski-Koivisto, JCSS 2017], intuitively by looking for paths of length k in randomly bipartitioned subgraphs. Our algorithms for k-Detour stem from a new application of this idea, which does not involve choosing the bipartitioned subgraphs randomly. Our work has direct implications for the k-Longest Detour problem, another related path-finding problem. In this problem, we are given the same input as in k-Detour, but are now tasked with determining if G has an st-path of length at least dist(s,t)+k. Our results for k-Detour imply that we can solve k-Longest Detour in 3.432^k poly(n) randomized and 16.661^k poly(n) deterministic time. The previous fastest algorithms for this problem took 7.539^k poly(n) randomized and 42.549^k poly(n) deterministic time [Fomin et al., STACS 2022].

Cite as

Shyan Akmal, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Ryan Williams, and Zixuan Xu. Faster Detours in Undirected Graphs. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 7:1-7:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.7,
  author =	{Akmal, Shyan and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia and Williams, Ryan and Xu, Zixuan},
  title =	{{Faster Detours in Undirected Graphs}},
  booktitle =	{31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-295-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{274},
  editor =	{G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186601},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: path finding, detours, parameterized complexity, exact algorithms}
}
Document
Bounded Relativization

Authors: Shuichi Hirahara, Zhenjian Lu, and Hanlin Ren

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)


Abstract
Relativization is one of the most fundamental concepts in complexity theory, which explains the difficulty of resolving major open problems. In this paper, we propose a weaker notion of relativization called bounded relativization. For a complexity class ℭ, we say that a statement is ℭ-relativizing if the statement holds relative to every oracle 𝒪 ∈ ℭ. It is easy to see that every result that relativizes also ℭ-relativizes for every complexity class ℭ. On the other hand, we observe that many non-relativizing results, such as IP = PSPACE, are in fact PSPACE-relativizing. First, we use the idea of bounded relativization to obtain new lower bound results, including the following nearly maximum circuit lower bound: for every constant ε > 0, BPE^{MCSP}/2^{εn} ⊈ SIZE[2ⁿ/n]. We prove this by PSPACE-relativizing the recent pseudodeterministic pseudorandom generator by Lu, Oliveira, and Santhanam (STOC 2021). Next, we study the limitations of PSPACE-relativizing proof techniques, and show that a seemingly minor improvement over the known results using PSPACE-relativizing techniques would imply a breakthrough separation NP ≠ L. For example: - Impagliazzo and Wigderson (JCSS 2001) proved that if EXP ≠ BPP, then BPP admits infinitely-often subexponential-time heuristic derandomization. We show that their result is PSPACE-relativizing, and that improving it to worst-case derandomization using PSPACE-relativizing techniques implies NP ≠ L. - Oliveira and Santhanam (STOC 2017) recently proved that every dense subset in P admits an infinitely-often subexponential-time pseudodeterministic construction, which we observe is PSPACE-relativizing. Improving this to almost-everywhere (pseudodeterministic) or (infinitely-often) deterministic constructions by PSPACE-relativizing techniques implies NP ≠ L. - Santhanam (SICOMP 2009) proved that pr-MA does not have fixed polynomial-size circuits. This lower bound can be shown PSPACE-relativizing, and we show that improving it to an almost-everywhere lower bound using PSPACE-relativizing techniques implies NP ≠ L. In fact, we show that if we can use PSPACE-relativizing techniques to obtain the above-mentioned improvements, then PSPACE ≠ EXPH. We obtain our barrier results by constructing suitable oracles computable in EXPH relative to which these improvements are impossible.

Cite as

Shuichi Hirahara, Zhenjian Lu, and Hanlin Ren. Bounded Relativization. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 6:1-6:45, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{hirahara_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.6,
  author =	{Hirahara, Shuichi and Lu, Zhenjian and Ren, Hanlin},
  title =	{{Bounded Relativization}},
  booktitle =	{38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:45},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-282-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{264},
  editor =	{Ta-Shma, Amnon},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182764},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: relativization, circuit lower bound, derandomization, explicit construction, pseudodeterministic algorithms, interactive proofs}
}
Document
New Lower Bounds and Derandomization for ACC, and a Derandomization-Centric View on the Algorithmic Method

Authors: Lijie Chen

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
In this paper, we obtain several new results on lower bounds and derandomization for ACC⁰ circuits (constant-depth circuits consisting of AND/OR/MOD_m gates for a fixed constant m, a frontier class in circuit complexity): 1) We prove that any polynomial-time Merlin-Arthur proof system with an ACC⁰ verifier (denoted by MA_{ACC⁰}) can be simulated by a nondeterministic proof system with quasi-polynomial running time and polynomial proof length, on infinitely many input lengths. This improves the previous simulation by [Chen, Lyu, and Williams, FOCS 2020], which requires both quasi-polynomial running time and proof length. 2) We show that MA_{ACC⁰} cannot be computed by fixed-polynomial-size ACC⁰ circuits, and our hard languages are hard on a sufficiently dense set of input lengths. 3) We show that NEXP (nondeterministic exponential-time) does not have ACC⁰ circuits of sub-half-exponential size, improving the previous sub-third-exponential size lower bound for NEXP against ACC⁰ by [Williams, J. ACM 2014]. Combining our first and second results gives a conceptually simpler and derandomization-centric proof of the recent breakthrough result NQP := NTIME[2^polylog(n)] ̸ ⊂ ACC⁰ by [Murray and Williams, SICOMP 2020]: Instead of going through an easy witness lemma as they did, we first prove an ACC⁰ lower bound for a subclass of MA, and then derandomize that subclass into NQP, while retaining its hardness against ACC⁰. Moreover, since our derandomization of MA_{ACC⁰} achieves a polynomial proof length, we indeed prove that nondeterministic quasi-polynomial-time with n^ω(1) nondeterminism bits (denoted as NTIMEGUESS[2^polylog(n), n^ω(1)]) has no poly(n)-size ACC⁰ circuits, giving a new proof of a result by Vyas. Combining with a win-win argument based on randomized encodings from [Chen and Ren, STOC 2020], we also prove that NTIMEGUESS[2^polylog(n), n^ω(1)] cannot be 1/2+1/poly(n)-approximated by poly(n)-size ACC⁰ circuits, improving the recent strongly average-case lower bounds for NQP against ACC⁰ by [Chen and Ren, STOC 2020]. One interesting technical ingredient behind our second result is the construction of a PSPACE-complete language that is paddable, downward self-reducible, same-length checkable, and weakly error correctable. Moreover, all its reducibility properties have corresponding AC⁰[2] non-adaptive oracle circuits. Our construction builds and improves upon similar constructions from [Trevisan and Vadhan, Complexity 2007] and [Chen, FOCS 2019], which all require at least TC⁰ oracle circuits for implementing these properties.

Cite as

Lijie Chen. New Lower Bounds and Derandomization for ACC, and a Derandomization-Centric View on the Algorithmic Method. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 34:1-34:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{chen:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.34,
  author =	{Chen, Lijie},
  title =	{{New Lower Bounds and Derandomization for ACC, and a Derandomization-Centric View on the Algorithmic Method}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{34:1--34:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.34},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175373},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.34},
  annote =	{Keywords: Circuit Lower Bounds, Derandomization, Algorithmic Method, ACC}
}
Document
Black-Box Constructive Proofs Are Unavoidable

Authors: Lijie Chen, Ryan Williams, and Tianqi Yang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
Following Razborov and Rudich, a "natural property" for proving a circuit lower bound satisfies three axioms: constructivity, largeness, and usefulness. In 2013, Williams proved that for any reasonable circuit class C, NEXP ⊂ C is equivalent to the existence of a constructive property useful against C. Here, a property is constructive if it can be decided in poly(N) time, where N = 2ⁿ is the length of the truth-table of the given n-input function. Recently, Fan, Li, and Yang initiated the study of black-box natural properties, which require a much stronger notion of constructivity, called black-box constructivity: the property should be decidable in randomized polylog(N) time, given oracle access to the n-input function. They showed that most proofs based on random restrictions yield black-box natural properties, and demonstrated limitations on what black-box natural properties can prove. In this paper, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that the equivalence of Williams holds even with this stronger notion of black-box constructivity: for any reasonable circuit class C, NEXP ⊂ C is equivalent to the existence of a black-box constructive property useful against C. The main technical ingredient in proving this equivalence is a smooth, strong, and locally-decodable probabilistically checkable proof (PCP), which we construct based on a recent work by Paradise. As a by-product, we show that average-case witness lower bounds for PCP verifiers follow from NEXP lower bounds. We also show that randomness is essential in the definition of black-box constructivity: we unconditionally prove that there is no deterministic polylog(N)-time constructive property that is useful against even polynomial-size AC⁰ circuits.

Cite as

Lijie Chen, Ryan Williams, and Tianqi Yang. Black-Box Constructive Proofs Are Unavoidable. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 35:1-35:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.35,
  author =	{Chen, Lijie and Williams, Ryan and Yang, Tianqi},
  title =	{{Black-Box Constructive Proofs Are Unavoidable}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{35:1--35:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.35},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175380},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.35},
  annote =	{Keywords: Circuit lower bounds, natural proofs, probabilistic checkable proofs}
}
Document
On Oracles and Algorithmic Methods for Proving Lower Bounds

Authors: Nikhil Vyas and Ryan Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)


Abstract
This paper studies the interaction of oracles with algorithmic approaches to proving circuit complexity lower bounds, establishing new results on two different kinds of questions. 1) We revisit some prominent open questions in circuit lower bounds, and provide a clean way of viewing them as circuit upper bound questions. Let Missing-String be the (total) search problem of producing a string that does not appear in a given list L containing M bit-strings of length N, where M < 2ⁿ. We show in a generic way how algorithms and uniform circuits (from restricted classes) for Missing-String imply complexity lower bounds (and in some cases, the converse holds as well). We give a local algorithm for Missing-String, which can compute any desired output bit making very few probes into the input, when the number of strings M is small enough. We apply this to prove a new nearly-optimal (up to oracles) time hierarchy theorem with advice. We show that the problem of constructing restricted uniform circuits for Missing-String is essentially equivalent to constructing functions without small non-uniform circuits, in a relativizing way. For example, we prove that small uniform depth-3 circuits for Missing-String would imply exponential circuit lower bounds for Σ₂ EXP, and depth-3 lower bounds for Missing-String would imply non-trivial circuits (relative to an oracle) for Σ₂ EXP problems. Both conclusions are longstanding open problems in circuit complexity. 2) It has been known since Impagliazzo, Kabanets, and Wigderson [JCSS 2002] that generic derandomizations improving subexponentially over exhaustive search would imply lower bounds such as NEXP ̸ ⊂ 𝖯/poly. Williams [SICOMP 2013] showed that Circuit-SAT algorithms running barely faster than exhaustive search would imply similar lower bounds. The known proofs of such results do not relativize (they use techniques from interactive proofs/PCPs). However, it has remained open whether there is an oracle under which the generic implications from circuit-analysis algorithms to circuit lower bounds fail. Building on an oracle of Fortnow, we construct an oracle relative to which the circuit approximation probability problem (CAPP) is in 𝖯, yet EXP^{NP} has polynomial-size circuits. We construct an oracle relative to which SAT can be solved in "half-exponential" time, yet exponential time (EXP) has polynomial-size circuits. Improving EXP to NEXP would give an oracle relative to which Σ₂ 𝖤 has "half-exponential" size circuits, which is open. (Recall it is known that Σ₂ 𝖤 is not in "sub-half-exponential" size, and the proof relativizes.) Moreover, the running time of the SAT algorithm cannot be improved: relative to all oracles, if SAT is in "sub-half-exponential" time then EXP does not have polynomial-size circuits.

Cite as

Nikhil Vyas and Ryan Williams. On Oracles and Algorithmic Methods for Proving Lower Bounds. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 99:1-99:26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{vyas_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.99,
  author =	{Vyas, Nikhil and Williams, Ryan},
  title =	{{On Oracles and Algorithmic Methods for Proving Lower Bounds}},
  booktitle =	{14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)},
  pages =	{99:1--99:26},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-263-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{251},
  editor =	{Tauman Kalai, Yael},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.99},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-176021},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.99},
  annote =	{Keywords: oracles, relativization, circuit complexity, missing string, exponential hierarchy}
}
Document
On the Number of Quantifiers as a Complexity Measure

Authors: Ronald Fagin, Jonathan Lenchner, Nikhil Vyas, and Ryan Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)


Abstract
In 1981, Neil Immerman described a two-player game, which he called the "separability game" [Neil Immerman, 1981], that captures the number of quantifiers needed to describe a property in first-order logic. Immerman’s paper laid the groundwork for studying the number of quantifiers needed to express properties in first-order logic, but the game seemed to be too complicated to study, and the arguments of the paper almost exclusively used quantifier rank as a lower bound on the total number of quantifiers. However, last year Fagin, Lenchner, Regan and Vyas [Fagin et al., 2021] rediscovered the game, provided some tools for analyzing them, and showed how to utilize them to characterize the number of quantifiers needed to express linear orders of different sizes. In this paper, we push forward in the study of number of quantifiers as a bona fide complexity measure by establishing several new results. First we carefully distinguish minimum number of quantifiers from the more usual descriptive complexity measures, minimum quantifier rank and minimum number of variables. Then, for each positive integer k, we give an explicit example of a property of finite structures (in particular, of finite graphs) that can be expressed with a sentence of quantifier rank k, but where the same property needs 2^Ω(k²) quantifiers to be expressed. We next give the precise number of quantifiers needed to distinguish two rooted trees of different depths. Finally, we give a new upper bound on the number of quantifiers needed to express s-t connectivity, improving the previous known bound by a constant factor.

Cite as

Ronald Fagin, Jonathan Lenchner, Nikhil Vyas, and Ryan Williams. On the Number of Quantifiers as a Complexity Measure. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 48:1-48:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{fagin_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.48,
  author =	{Fagin, Ronald and Lenchner, Jonathan and Vyas, Nikhil and Williams, Ryan},
  title =	{{On the Number of Quantifiers as a Complexity Measure}},
  booktitle =	{47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)},
  pages =	{48:1--48:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-256-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{241},
  editor =	{Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.48},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168460},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.48},
  annote =	{Keywords: number of quantifiers, multi-structural games, complexity measure, s-t connectivity, trees, rooted trees}
}
Document
Optimal-Degree Polynomial Approximations for Exponentials and Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation

Authors: Amol Aggarwal and Josh Alman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
For any real numbers B ≥ 1 and δ ∈ (0,1) and function f: [0,B] → ℝ, let d_{B; δ}(f) ∈ ℤ_{> 0} denote the minimum degree of a polynomial p(x) satisfying sup_{x ∈ [0,B]} |p(x) - f(x)| < δ. In this paper, we provide precise asymptotics for d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}) and d_{B; δ}(e^x) in terms of both B and δ, improving both the previously known upper bounds and lower bounds. In particular, we show d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}) = Θ(max{√{B log(δ^{-1})}, log(δ^{-1})/{log(B^{-1} log(δ^{-1}))}}), and d_{B; δ}(e^{x}) = Θ(max{B, log(δ^{-1})/{log(B^{-1} log(δ^{-1}))}}), and we explicitly determine the leading coefficients in most parameter regimes. Polynomial approximations for e^{-x} and e^x have applications to the design of algorithms for many problems, including in scientific computing, graph algorithms, machine learning, and statistics. Our degree bounds show both the power and limitations of these algorithms. We focus in particular on the Batch Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation problem for n sample points in Θ(log n) dimensions with error δ = n^{-Θ(1)}. We show that the running time one can achieve depends on the square of the diameter of the point set, B, with a transition at B = Θ(log n) mirroring the corresponding transition in d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}): - When B = o(log n), we give the first algorithm running in time n^{1 + o(1)}. - When B = κ log n for a small constant κ > 0, we give an algorithm running in time n^{1 + O(log log κ^{-1} /log κ^{-1})}. The log log κ^{-1} /log κ^{-1} term in the exponent comes from analyzing the behavior of the leading constant in our computation of d_{B; δ}(e^{-x}). - When B = ω(log n), we show that time n^{2 - o(1)} is necessary assuming SETH.

Cite as

Amol Aggarwal and Josh Alman. Optimal-Degree Polynomial Approximations for Exponentials and Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 22:1-22:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{aggarwal_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.22,
  author =	{Aggarwal, Amol and Alman, Josh},
  title =	{{Optimal-Degree Polynomial Approximations for Exponentials and Gaussian Kernel Density Estimation}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{22:1--22:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.22},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165846},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.22},
  annote =	{Keywords: polynomial approximation, kernel density estimation, Chebyshev polynomials}
}
Document
Extremely Efficient Constructions of Hash Functions, with Applications to Hardness Magnification and PRFs

Authors: Lijie Chen, Jiatu Li, and Tianqi Yang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)


Abstract
In a recent work, Fan, Li, and Yang (STOC 2022) constructed a family of almost-universal hash functions such that each function in the family is computable by (2n + o(n))-gate circuits of fan-in 2 over the B₂ basis. Applying this family, they established the existence of pseudorandom functions computable by circuits of the same complexity, under the standard assumption that OWFs exist. However, a major disadvantage of the hash family construction by Fan, Li, and Yang (STOC 2022) is that it requires a seed length of poly(n), which limits its potential applications. We address this issue by giving an improved construction of almost-universal hash functions with seed length polylog(n), such that each function in the family is computable with POLYLOGTIME-uniform (2n + o(n))-gate circuits. Our new construction has the following applications in both complexity theory and cryptography. - (Hardness magnification). Let α : ℕ → ℕ be any function such that α(n) ≤ log n / log log n. We show that if there is an n^{α(n)}-sparse NP language that does not have probabilistic circuits of 2n + O(n/log log n) gates, then we have (1) NTIME[2ⁿ] ⊈ SIZE[2^{n^{1/5}}] and (2) NP ⊈ SIZE[n^k] for every constant k. Complementing this magnification phenomenon, we present an O(n)-sparse language in P which requires probabilistic circuits of size at least 2n - 2. This is the first result in hardness magnification showing that even a sub-linear additive improvement on known circuit size lower bounds would imply NEXP ⊄ P_{/poly}. Following Chen, Jin, and Williams (STOC 2020), we also establish a sharp threshold for explicit obstructions: we give an explict obstruction against (2n-2)-size circuits, and prove that a sub-linear additive improvement on the circuit size would imply (1) DTIME[2ⁿ] ⊈ SIZE[2^{n^{1/5}}] and (2) P ⊈ SIZE[n^k] for every constant k. - (Extremely efficient construction of pseudorandom functions). Assuming that one of integer factoring, decisional Diffie-Hellman, or ring learning-with-errors is sub-exponentially hard, we show the existence of pseudorandom functions computable by POLYLOGTIME-uniform AC⁰[2] circuits with 2n + o(n) wires, with key length polylog(n). We also show that PRFs computable by POLYLOGTIME-uniform B₂ circuits of 2n + o(n) gates follows from the existence of sub-exponentially secure one-way functions.

Cite as

Lijie Chen, Jiatu Li, and Tianqi Yang. Extremely Efficient Constructions of Hash Functions, with Applications to Hardness Magnification and PRFs. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 23:1-23:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.23,
  author =	{Chen, Lijie and Li, Jiatu and Yang, Tianqi},
  title =	{{Extremely Efficient Constructions of Hash Functions, with Applications to Hardness Magnification and PRFs}},
  booktitle =	{37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)},
  pages =	{23:1--23:37},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-241-9},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{234},
  editor =	{Lovett, Shachar},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.23},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165852},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.23},
  annote =	{Keywords: Almost universal hash functions, hardness magnification, pseudorandom functions}
}
Document
Superlinear Lower Bounds Based on ETH

Authors: András Z. Salamon and Michael Wehar

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)


Abstract
We introduce techniques for proving superlinear conditional lower bounds for polynomial time problems. In particular, we show that CircuitSAT for circuits with m gates and log(m) inputs (denoted by log-CircuitSAT) is not decidable in essentially-linear time unless the exponential time hypothesis (ETH) is false and k-Clique is decidable in essentially-linear time in terms of the graph’s size for all fixed k. Such conditional lower bounds have previously only been demonstrated relative to the strong exponential time hypothesis (SETH). Our results therefore offer significant progress towards proving unconditional superlinear time complexity lower bounds for natural problems in polynomial time.

Cite as

András Z. Salamon and Michael Wehar. Superlinear Lower Bounds Based on ETH. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 55:1-55:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{salamon_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.55,
  author =	{Salamon, Andr\'{a}s Z. and Wehar, Michael},
  title =	{{Superlinear Lower Bounds Based on ETH}},
  booktitle =	{39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)},
  pages =	{55:1--55:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-222-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{219},
  editor =	{Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.55},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158652},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.55},
  annote =	{Keywords: Circuit Satisfiability, Conditional Lower Bounds, Exponential Time Hypothesis, Limited Nondeterminism}
}
Document
Improved Merlin-Arthur Protocols for Central Problems in Fine-Grained Complexity

Authors: Shyan Akmal, Lijie Chen, Ce Jin, Malvika Raj, and Ryan Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
In a Merlin-Arthur proof system, the proof verifier (Arthur) accepts valid proofs (from Merlin) with probability 1, and rejects invalid proofs with probability arbitrarily close to 1. The running time of such a system is defined to be the length of Merlin’s proof plus the running time of Arthur. We provide new Merlin-Arthur proof systems for some key problems in fine-grained complexity. In several cases our proof systems have optimal running time. Our main results include: - Certifying that a list of n integers has no 3-SUM solution can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(n). Previously, Carmosino et al. [ITCS 2016] showed that the problem has a nondeterministic algorithm running in Õ(n^{1.5}) time (that is, there is a proof system with proofs of length Õ(n^{1.5}) and a deterministic verifier running in Õ(n^{1.5}) time). - Counting the number of k-cliques with total edge weight equal to zero in an n-node graph can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(n^{⌈ k/2⌉}) (where k ≥ 3). For odd k, this bound can be further improved for sparse graphs: for example, counting the number of zero-weight triangles in an m-edge graph can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(m). Previous Merlin-Arthur protocols by Williams [CCC'16] and Björklund and Kaski [PODC'16] could only count k-cliques in unweighted graphs, and had worse running times for small k. - Computing the All-Pairs Shortest Distances matrix for an n-node graph can be done in Merlin-Arthur time Õ(n²). Note this is optimal, as the matrix can have Ω(n²) nonzero entries in general. Previously, Carmosino et al. [ITCS 2016] showed that this problem has an Õ(n^{2.94}) nondeterministic time algorithm. - Certifying that an n-variable k-CNF is unsatisfiable can be done in Merlin-Arthur time 2^{n/2 - n/O(k)}. We also observe an algebrization barrier for the previous 2^{n/2}⋅ poly(n)-time Merlin-Arthur protocol of R. Williams [CCC'16] for #SAT: in particular, his protocol algebrizes, and we observe there is no algebrizing protocol for k-UNSAT running in 2^{n/2}/n^{ω(1)} time. Therefore we have to exploit non-algebrizing properties to obtain our new protocol. - Certifying a Quantified Boolean Formula is true can be done in Merlin-Arthur time 2^{4n/5}⋅ poly(n). Previously, the only nontrivial result known along these lines was an Arthur-Merlin-Arthur protocol (where Merlin’s proof depends on some of Arthur’s coins) running in 2^{2n/3}⋅poly(n) time. Due to the centrality of these problems in fine-grained complexity, our results have consequences for many other problems of interest. For example, our work implies that certifying there is no Subset Sum solution to n integers can be done in Merlin-Arthur time 2^{n/3}⋅poly(n), improving on the previous best protocol by Nederlof [IPL 2017] which took 2^{0.49991n}⋅poly(n) time.

Cite as

Shyan Akmal, Lijie Chen, Ce Jin, Malvika Raj, and Ryan Williams. Improved Merlin-Arthur Protocols for Central Problems in Fine-Grained Complexity. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 3:1-3:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{akmal_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.3,
  author =	{Akmal, Shyan and Chen, Lijie and Jin, Ce and Raj, Malvika and Williams, Ryan},
  title =	{{Improved Merlin-Arthur Protocols for Central Problems in Fine-Grained Complexity}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{3:1--3:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155991},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Fine-grained complexity, Merlin-Arthur proofs}
}
Document
Smaller ACC0 Circuits for Symmetric Functions

Authors: Brynmor Chapman and R. Ryan Williams

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
What is the power of constant-depth circuits with MOD_m gates, that can count modulo m? Can they efficiently compute MAJORITY and other symmetric functions? When m is a constant prime power, the answer is well understood. In this regime, Razborov and Smolensky proved in the 1980s that MAJORITY and MOD_m require super-polynomial-size MOD_q circuits, where q is any prime power not dividing m. However, relatively little is known about the power of MOD_m gates when m is not a prime power. For example, it is still open whether every problem decidable in exponential time can be computed by depth-3 circuits of polynomial-size and only MOD_6 gates. In this paper, we shed some light on the difficulty of proving lower bounds for MOD_m circuits, by giving new upper bounds. We show how to construct MOD_m circuits computing symmetric functions with non-prime power m, with size-depth tradeoffs that beat the longstanding lower bounds for AC^0[m] circuits when m is a prime power. Furthermore, we observe that our size-depth tradeoff circuits have essentially optimal dependence on m and d in the exponent, under a natural circuit complexity hypothesis. For example, we show that for every ε > 0, every symmetric function can be computed using MOD_m circuits of depth 3 and 2^{n^ε} size, for a constant m depending only on ε > 0. In other words, depth-3 CC^0 circuits can compute any symmetric function in subexponential size. This demonstrates a significant difference in the power of depth-3 CC^0 circuits, compared to other models: for certain symmetric functions, depth-3 AC^0 circuits require 2^{Ω(√n)} size [Håstad 1986], and depth-3 AC^0[p^k] circuits (for fixed prime power p^k) require 2^{Ω(n^{1/6})} size [Smolensky 1987]. Even for depth-2 MOD_p ∘ MOD_m circuits, 2^{Ω(n)} lower bounds were known [Barrington Straubing Thérien 1990].

Cite as

Brynmor Chapman and R. Ryan Williams. Smaller ACC0 Circuits for Symmetric Functions. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 38:1-38:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chapman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.38,
  author =	{Chapman, Brynmor and Williams, R. Ryan},
  title =	{{Smaller ACC0 Circuits for Symmetric Functions}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{38:1--38:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.38},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156342},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.38},
  annote =	{Keywords: ACC, CC, circuit complexity, symmetric functions, Chinese Remainder Theorem}
}
Document
Average-Case Hardness of NP and PH from Worst-Case Fine-Grained Assumptions

Authors: Lijie Chen, Shuichi Hirahara, and Neekon Vafa

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
What is a minimal worst-case complexity assumption that implies non-trivial average-case hardness of NP or PH? This question is well motivated by the theory of fine-grained average-case complexity and fine-grained cryptography. In this paper, we show that several standard worst-case complexity assumptions are sufficient to imply non-trivial average-case hardness of NP or PH: - NTIME[n] cannot be solved in quasi-linear time on average if UP ̸ ⊆ DTIME[2^{Õ(√n)}]. - Σ₂TIME[n] cannot be solved in quasi-linear time on average if Σ_kSAT cannot be solved in time 2^{Õ(√n)} for some constant k. Previously, it was not known if even average-case hardness of Σ₃SAT implies the average-case hardness of Σ₂TIME[n]. - Under the Exponential-Time Hypothesis (ETH), there is no average-case n^{1+ε}-time algorithm for NTIME[n] whose running time can be estimated in time n^{1+ε} for some constant ε > 0. Our results are given by generalizing the non-black-box worst-case-to-average-case connections presented by Hirahara (STOC 2021) to the settings of fine-grained complexity. To do so, we construct quite efficient complexity-theoretic pseudorandom generators under the assumption that the nondeterministic linear time is easy on average, which may be of independent interest.

Cite as

Lijie Chen, Shuichi Hirahara, and Neekon Vafa. Average-Case Hardness of NP and PH from Worst-Case Fine-Grained Assumptions. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.45,
  author =	{Chen, Lijie and Hirahara, Shuichi and Vafa, Neekon},
  title =	{{Average-Case Hardness of NP and PH from Worst-Case Fine-Grained Assumptions}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{45:1--45:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.45},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156411},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.45},
  annote =	{Keywords: Average-case complexity, worst-case to average-case reduction}
}
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