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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

We re-visit the complexity of polynomial time pre-processing (kernelization) for the d-Hitting Set problem. This is one of the most classic problems in Parameterized Complexity by itself, and, furthermore, it encompasses several other of the most well-studied problems in this field, such as Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set in Tournaments (FVST) and Cluster Vertex Deletion (CVD). In fact, d-Hitting Set encompasses any deletion problem to a hereditary property that can be characterized by a finite set of forbidden induced subgraphs. With respect to bit size, the kernelization complexity of d-Hitting Set is essentially settled: there exists a kernel with 𝒪(k^d) bits (𝒪(k^d) sets and 𝒪(k^{d-1}) elements) and this it tight by the result of Dell and van Melkebeek [STOC 2010, JACM 2014]. Still, the question of whether there exists a kernel for d-Hitting Set with fewer elements has remained one of the most major open problems in Kernelization.
In this paper, we first show that if we allow the kernelization to be lossy with a qualitatively better loss than the best possible approximation ratio of polynomial time approximation algorithms, then one can obtain kernels where the number of elements is linear for every fixed d. Further, based on this, we present our main result: we show that there exist approximate Turing kernelizations for d-Hitting Set that even beat the established bit-size lower bounds for exact kernelizations - in fact, we use a constant number of oracle calls, each with "near linear" (𝒪(k^{1+ε})) bit size, that is, almost the best one could hope for. Lastly, for two special cases of implicit 3-Hitting set, namely, FVST and CVD, we obtain the "best of both worlds" type of results - (1+ε)-approximate kernelizations with a linear number of vertices. In terms of size, this substantially improves the exact kernels of Fomin et al. [SODA 2018, TALG 2019], with simpler arguments.

Fedor V. Fomin, Tien-Nam Le, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, Stéphan Thomassé, and Meirav Zehavi. Lossy Kernelization for (Implicit) Hitting Set Problems. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 49:1-49:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.49, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Le, Tien-Nam and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Lossy Kernelization for (Implicit) Hitting Set Problems}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {49:1--49:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187020}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.49}, annote = {Keywords: Hitting Set, Lossy Kernelization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

We present the first polynomial-time algorithm to exactly compute the number of labeled chordal graphs on n vertices. Our algorithm solves a more general problem: given n and ω as input, it computes the number of ω-colorable labeled chordal graphs on n vertices, using O(n⁷) arithmetic operations. A standard sampling-to-counting reduction then yields a polynomial-time exact sampler that generates an ω-colorable labeled chordal graph on n vertices uniformly at random. Our counting algorithm improves upon the previous best result by Wormald (1985), which computes the number of labeled chordal graphs on n vertices in time exponential in n.
An implementation of the polynomial-time counting algorithm gives the number of labeled chordal graphs on up to 30 vertices in less than three minutes on a standard desktop computer. Previously, the number of labeled chordal graphs was only known for graphs on up to 15 vertices.

Úrsula Hébert-Johnson, Daniel Lokshtanov, and Eric Vigoda. Counting and Sampling Labeled Chordal Graphs in Polynomial Time. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 58:1-58:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{hebertjohnson_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.58, author = {H\'{e}bert-Johnson, \'{U}rsula and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Vigoda, Eric}, title = {{Counting and Sampling Labeled Chordal Graphs in Polynomial Time}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {58:1--58:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187119}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.58}, annote = {Keywords: Counting algorithms, graph sampling, chordal graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

In the Minimum Bisection problem input is a graph G and the goal is to partition the vertex set into two parts A and B, such that ||A|-|B|| ≤ 1 and the number k of edges between A and B is minimized. The problem is known to be NP-hard, and assuming the Unique Games Conjecture even NP-hard to approximate within a constant factor [Khot and Vishnoi, J.ACM'15]. On the other hand, a 𝒪(log n)-approximation algorithm [Räcke, STOC'08] and a parameterized algorithm [Cygan et al., ACM Transactions on Algorithms'20] running in time k^𝒪(k) n^𝒪(1) is known.
The Minimum Bisection problem can be viewed as a clustering problem where edges represent similarity and the task is to partition the vertices into two equally sized clusters while minimizing the number of pairs of similar objects that end up in different clusters. Motivated by a number of egregious examples of unfair bias in AI systems, many fundamental clustering problems have been revisited and re-formulated to incorporate fairness constraints. In this paper we initiate the study of the Minimum Bisection problem with fairness constraints. Here the input is a graph G, positive integers c and k, a function χ:V(G) → {1, …, c} that assigns a color χ(v) to each vertex v in G, and c integers r_1,r_2,⋯,r_c. The goal is to partition the vertex set of G into two almost-equal sized parts A and B with at most k edges between them, such that for each color i ∈ {1, …, c}, A has exactly r_i vertices of color i. Each color class corresponds to a group which we require the partition (A, B) to treat fairly, and the constraints that A has exactly r_i vertices of color i can be used to encode that no group is over- or under-represented in either of the two clusters.
We first show that introducing fairness constraints appears to make the Minimum Bisection problem qualitatively harder. Specifically we show that unless FPT=W[1] the problem admits no f(c)n^𝒪(1) time algorithm even when k = 0. On the other hand, our main technical contribution shows that is that this hardness result is simply a consequence of the very strict requirement that each color class i has exactly r_i vertices in A. In particular we give an f(k,c,ε)n^𝒪(1) time algorithm that finds a balanced partition (A, B) with at most k edges between them, such that for each color i ∈ [c], there are at most (1±ε)r_i vertices of color i in A.
Our approximation algorithm is best viewed as a proof of concept that the technique introduced by [Lampis, ICALP'18] for obtaining FPT-approximation algorithms for problems of bounded tree-width or clique-width can be efficiently exploited even on graphs of unbounded width. The key insight is that the technique of Lampis is applicable on tree decompositions with unbreakable bags (as introduced in [Cygan et al., SIAM Journal on Computing'14]). An important ingredient of our approximation scheme is a combinatorial result that may be of independent interest, namely that for every k, every graph G admits a tree decomposition with adhesions of size at most 𝒪(k), unbreakable bags, and logarithmic depth.

Tanmay Inamdar, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Vaishali Surianarayanan. Parameterized Complexity of Fair Bisection: (FPT-Approximation meets Unbreakability). In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 63:1-63:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{inamdar_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.63, author = {Inamdar, Tanmay and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Surianarayanan, Vaishali}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Fair Bisection: (FPT-Approximation meets Unbreakability)}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {63:1--63:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.63}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187167}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.63}, annote = {Keywords: FPT Approximation, Minimum Bisection, Unbreakable Tree Decomposition, Treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

Feedback Vertex Set (FVS) is one of the most studied vertex deletion problems in the field of graph algorithms. In the decision version of the problem, given a graph G and an integer k, the question is whether there exists a set S of at most k vertices in G such that G-S is acyclic. It is one of the first few problems which were shown to be NP-complete, and has been extensively studied from the viewpoint of approximation and parameterized algorithms. The best-known polynomial time approximation algorithm for FVS is a 2-factor approximation, while the best known deterministic and randomized FPT algorithms run in time 𝒪^*(3.460^k) and 𝒪^*(2.7^k) respectively.
In this paper, we contribute to the newly established area of parameterized approximation, by studying FVS in this paradigm. In particular, we combine the approaches of parameterized and approximation algorithms for the study of FVS, and achieve an approximation guarantee with a factor better than 2 in randomized FPT running time, that improves over the best known parameterized algorithm for FVS. We give three simple randomized (1+ε) approximation algorithms for FVS, running in times 𝒪^*(2^{εk}⋅ 2.7^{(1-ε)k}), 𝒪^*(({(4/(1+ε))^{(1+ε)}}⋅{(ε/3)^ε})^k), and 𝒪^*(4^{(1-ε)k}) respectively for every ε ∈ (0,1). Combining these three algorithms, we obtain a factor (1+ε) approximation algorithm for FVS, which has better running time than the best-known (randomized) FPT algorithm for every ε ∈ (0, 1). This is the first attempt to look at a parameterized approximation of FVS to the best of our knowledge. Our algorithms are very simple, and they rely on some well-known reduction rules used for arriving at FPT algorithms for FVS.

Satyabrata Jana, Daniel Lokshtanov, Soumen Mandal, Ashutosh Rai, and Saket Saurabh. Parameterized Approximation Scheme for Feedback Vertex Set. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 56:1-56:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{jana_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.56, author = {Jana, Satyabrata and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mandal, Soumen and Rai, Ashutosh and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Parameterized Approximation Scheme for Feedback Vertex Set}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {56:1--56:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185902}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.56}, annote = {Keywords: Feedback Vertex Set, Parameterized Approximation} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

In the Min k-Cut problem, the input is a graph G and an integer k. The task is to find a partition of the vertex set of G into k parts, while minimizing the number of edges that go between different parts of the partition. The problem is NP-complete, and admits a simple 3ⁿ⋅n^𝒪(1) time dynamic programming algorithm, which can be improved to a 2ⁿ⋅n^𝒪(1) time algorithm using the fast subset convolution framework by Björklund et al. [STOC'07]. In this paper we give an algorithm for Min k-Cut with running time 𝒪((2-ε)ⁿ), for ε > 10^{-50}. This is the first algorithm for Min k-Cut with running time 𝒪(cⁿ) for c < 2.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Vaishali Surianarayanan. Breaking the All Subsets Barrier for Min k-Cut. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 90:1-90:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.90, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Surianarayanan, Vaishali}, title = {{Breaking the All Subsets Barrier for Min k-Cut}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {90:1--90:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.90}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181422}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.90}, annote = {Keywords: Exact algorithms, min k-cut, exponential algorithms, graph algorithms, k-way cut} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

For a satisfiable CNF formula ϕ and an integer t, a weak backdoor set to treewidth-t is a set of variables such that there is an assignment to this set that reduces ϕ to a satisfiable formula that has an incidence graph of treewidth at most t. A natural research program in the work on fixed-parameter algorithms (FPT algorithms) for SAT is to delineate the tractability borders for the problem of detecting a small weak backdoor set to treewidth-t formulas. In this line of research, Gaspers and Szeider (ICALP 2012) showed that detecting a weak backdoor set of size at most k to treewidth-1 is W[2]-hard parameterized by k if the input is an arbitrary CNF formula. Fomin, Lokshtanov, Misra, Ramanujan and Saurabh (SODA 2015), showed that if the input is d-CNF, then detecting a weak backdoor set of size at most k to treewidth-t is fixed-parameter tractable (parameterized by k,t,d). These two results indicate that sparsity of the input plays a role in determining the parameterized complexity of detecting weak backdoor sets to treewidth-t.
In this work, we take a major step towards characterizing the precise impact of sparsity on the parameterized complexity of this problem by obtaining algorithmic results for detecting small weak backdoor sets to treewidth-t for input formulas whose incidence graphs belong to a nowhere-dense graph class. Nowhere density provides a robust and well-understood notion of sparsity that is at the heart of several advances on model checking and structural graph theory. Moreover, nowhere-dense graph classes contain many well-studied graph classes such as bounded treewidth graphs, graphs that exclude a fixed (topological) minor and graphs of bounded expansion.
Our main contribution is an algorithm that, given a formula ϕ whose incidence graph belongs to a fixed nowhere-dense graph class and an integer k, in time f(t,k)|ϕ|^O(1), either finds a satisfying assignment of ϕ, or concludes correctly that ϕ has no weak backdoor set of size at most k to treewidth-t.
To obtain this algorithm, we develop a strategy that only relies on the fact that nowhere-dense graph classes are biclique-free. That is, for every nowhere-dense graph class, there is a p such that it is contained in the class of graphs that exclude K_{p,p} as a subgraph. This is a significant feature of our techniques since the class of biclique-free graphs also generalizes the class of graphs of bounded degeneracy, which are incomparable with nowhere-dense graph classes. As a result, our algorithm also generalizes the results of Fomin, Lokshtanov, Misra, Ramanujan and Saurabh (SODA 2015) for the special case of d-CNF formulas as input when d is fixed. This is because the incidence graphs of such formulas exclude K_{d+1,d+1} as a subgraph.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, and M. S. Ramanujan. Backdoor Sets on Nowhere Dense SAT. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 91:1-91:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.91, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Ramanujan, M. S.}, title = {{Backdoor Sets on Nowhere Dense SAT}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {91:1--91:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.91}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164323}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.91}, annote = {Keywords: Fixed-parameter Tractability, Satisfiability, Backdoors, Treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

We prove a structural theorem for unit-disk graphs, which (roughly) states that given a set 𝒟 of n unit disks inducing a unit-disk graph G_𝒟 and a number p ∈ [n], one can partition 𝒟 into p subsets 𝒟₁,… ,𝒟_p such that for every i ∈ [p] and every 𝒟' ⊆ 𝒟_i, the graph obtained from G_𝒟 by contracting all edges between the vertices in 𝒟_i $1𝒟' admits a tree decomposition in which each bag consists of O(p+|𝒟'|) cliques. Our theorem can be viewed as an analog for unit-disk graphs of the structural theorems for planar graphs and almost-embeddable graphs proved very recently by Marx et al. [SODA'22] and Bandyapadhyay et al. [SODA'22].
By applying our structural theorem, we give several new combinatorial and algorithmic results for unit-disk graphs. On the combinatorial side, we obtain the first Contraction Decomposition Theorem (CDT) for unit-disk graphs, resolving an open question in the work Panolan et al. [SODA'19]. On the algorithmic side, we obtain a new FPT algorithm for bipartization (also known as odd cycle transversal) on unit-disk graphs, which runs in 2^{O(√k log k)} ⋅ n^{O(1)} time, where k denotes the solution size. Our algorithm significantly improves the previous slightly subexponential-time algorithm given by Lokshtanov et al. [SODA'22] (which works more generally for disk graphs) and is almost optimal, as the problem cannot be solved in 2^{o(√k)} ⋅ n^{O(1)} time assuming the ETH.

Sayan Bandyapadhyay, William Lochet, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Jie Xue. True Contraction Decomposition and Almost ETH-Tight Bipartization for Unit-Disk Graphs. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 11:1-11:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bandyapadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.11, author = {Bandyapadhyay, Sayan and Lochet, William and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Xue, Jie}, title = {{True Contraction Decomposition and Almost ETH-Tight Bipartization for Unit-Disk Graphs}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {11:1--11:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160190}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.11}, annote = {Keywords: unit-disk graphs, tree decomposition, contraction decomposition, bipartization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 224, 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)

Suppose we are given a pair of points s, t and a set 𝒮 of n geometric objects in the plane, called obstacles. We show that in polynomial time one can construct an auxiliary (multi-)graph G with vertex set 𝒮 and every edge labeled from {0, 1}, such that a set 𝒮_d ⊆ 𝒮 of obstacles separates s from t if and only if G[𝒮_d] contains a cycle whose sum of labels is odd. Using this structural characterization of separating sets of obstacles we obtain the following algorithmic results.
In the Obstacle-removal problem the task is to find a curve in the plane connecting s to t intersecting at most q obstacles. We give a 2.3146^q n^{O(1)} algorithm for Obstacle-removal, significantly improving upon the previously best known q^{O(q³)} n^{O(1)} algorithm of Eiben and Lokshtanov (SoCG'20). We also obtain an alternative proof of a constant factor approximation algorithm for Obstacle-removal, substantially simplifying the arguments of Kumar et al. (SODA'21).
In the Generalized Points-separation problem input consists of the set 𝒮 of obstacles, a point set A of k points and p pairs (s₁, t₁), … (s_p, t_p) of points from A. The task is to find a minimum subset 𝒮_r ⊆ 𝒮 such that for every i, every curve from s_i to t_i intersects at least one obstacle in 𝒮_r. We obtain 2^{O(p)} n^{O(k)}-time algorithm for Generalized Points-separation. This resolves an open problem of Cabello and Giannopoulos (SoCG'13), who asked about the existence of such an algorithm for the special case where (s₁, t₁), … (s_p, t_p) contains all the pairs of points in A. Finally, we improve the running time of our algorithm to f(p,k) ⋅ n^{O(√k)} when the obstacles are unit disks, where f(p,k) = 2^{O(p)} k^{O(k)}, and show that, assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH), the running time dependence on k of our algorithms is essentially optimal.

Neeraj Kumar, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, Subhash Suri, and Jie Xue. Point Separation and Obstacle Removal by Finding and Hitting Odd Cycles. In 38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 224, pp. 52:1-52:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{kumar_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.52, author = {Kumar, Neeraj and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Suri, Subhash and Xue, Jie}, title = {{Point Separation and Obstacle Removal by Finding and Hitting Odd Cycles}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2022)}, pages = {52:1--52:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-227-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {224}, editor = {Goaoc, Xavier and Kerber, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-160609}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2022.52}, annote = {Keywords: points-separation, min color path, constraint removal, barrier resillience} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 226, 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)

Wordle is a single-player word-guessing game where the goal is to discover a secret word w that has been chosen from a dictionary D. In order to discover w, the player can make at most 𝓁 guesses, which must also be words from D, all words in D having the same length k. After each guess, the player is notified of the positions in which their guess matches the secret word, as well as letters in the guess that appear in the secret word in a different position. We study the game of Wordle from a complexity perspective, proving NP-hardness of its natural formalization: to decide given a dictionary D and an integer 𝓁 if the player can guarantee to discover the secret word within 𝓁 guesses. Moreover, we prove that hardness holds even over instances where words have length k = 5, and that even in this case it is NP-hard to approximate the minimum number of guesses required to guarantee discovering the secret word. We also present results regarding its parameterized complexity and offer some related open problems.

Daniel Lokshtanov and Bernardo Subercaseaux. Wordle Is NP-Hard. In 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 226, pp. 19:1-19:8, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2022.19, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Subercaseaux, Bernardo}, title = {{Wordle Is NP-Hard}}, booktitle = {11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)}, pages = {19:1--19:8}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-232-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {226}, editor = {Fraigniaud, Pierre and Uno, Yushi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-159893}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.19}, annote = {Keywords: wordle, np-hardness, complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

In the Multi-Team Formation problem, we are given a ground set C of n candidates, each of which is characterized by a d-dimensional attribute vector in ℝ^d, and two positive integers α and β satisfying α β ≤ n. The goal is to form α disjoint teams T₁,...,T_α ⊆ C, each of which consists of β candidates in C, such that the total score of the teams is maximized, where the score of a team T is the sum of the h_j maximum values of the j-th attributes of the candidates in T, for all j ∈ {1,...,d}. Our main result is an 2^{2^O(d)} n^O(1)-time algorithm for Multi-Team Formation. This bound is ETH-tight since a 2^{2^{d/c}} n^O(1)-time algorithm for any constant c > 12 can be shown to violate the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH). Our algorithm runs in polynomial time for all dimensions up to d = clog log n for a sufficiently small constant c > 0. Prior to our work, the existence of a polynomial time algorithm was an open problem even for d = 3.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, Subhash Suri, and Jie Xue. An ETH-Tight Algorithm for Multi-Team Formation. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 28:1-28:9, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.28, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Suri, Subhash and Xue, Jie}, title = {{An ETH-Tight Algorithm for Multi-Team Formation}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {28:1--28:9}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155391}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.28}, annote = {Keywords: Team formation, Parameterized algorithms, Exponential Time Hypothesis} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

In the Dominating Set problem the input is a graph G and an integer k, the task is to determine whether there exists a vertex set S of size at most k so that every vertex not in S has at least one neighbor in S. We consider the parameterized complexity of the Dominating Set problem, parameterized by the solution size k, and the weak closure of the input graph G. Weak closure of graphs was recently introduced by Fox et al. [SIAM J. Comp. 2020 ] and captures sparseness and triadic closure properties found in real world graphs. A graph G is weakly c-closed if for every induced subgraph G' of G, there exists a vertex v ∈ V(G') such that every vertex u in V(G') which is non-adjacent to v has less than c common neighbors with v. The weak closure of G is the smallest integer γ such that G is weakly γ-closed. We give an algorithm for Dominating Set with running time k^O(γ² k³) n^O(1), resolving an open problem of Koana et al. [ISAAC 2020].
One of the ingredients of our algorithm is a proof that the VC-dimension of (the set system defined by the closed neighborhoods of the vertices of) a weakly γ-closed graph is upper bounded by 6γ. This result may find further applications in the study of weakly closed graphs.

Daniel Lokshtanov and Vaishali Surianarayanan. Dominating Set in Weakly Closed Graphs is Fixed Parameter Tractable. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 29:1-29:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.29, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Surianarayanan, Vaishali}, title = {{Dominating Set in Weakly Closed Graphs is Fixed Parameter Tractable}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {29:1--29:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155404}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.29}, annote = {Keywords: Dominating Set, Weakly Closed Graphs, FPT, Domination Cores, VC-dimension} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

We present approximation and exact algorithms for piecewise regression of univariate and bivariate data using fixed-degree polynomials. Specifically, given a set S of n data points (𝐱₁, y₁),… , (𝐱_n, y_n) ∈ ℝ^d × ℝ where d ∈ {1,2}, the goal is to segment 𝐱_i’s into some (arbitrary) number of disjoint pieces P₁, … , P_k, where each piece P_j is associated with a fixed-degree polynomial f_j: ℝ^d → ℝ, to minimize the total loss function λ k + ∑_{i = 1}ⁿ (y_i - f(𝐱_i))², where λ ≥ 0 is a regularization term that penalizes model complexity (number of pieces) and f: ⨆_{j = 1}^k P_j → ℝ is the piecewise polynomial function defined as f|_{P_j} = f_j. The pieces P₁, … , P_k are disjoint intervals of ℝ in the case of univariate data and disjoint axis-aligned rectangles in the case of bivariate data. Our error approximation allows use of any fixed-degree polynomial, not just linear functions.
Our main results are the following. For univariate data, we present a (1 + ε)-approximation algorithm with time complexity O(n/(ε) log 1/(ε)), assuming that data is presented in sorted order of x_i’s. For bivariate data, we present three results: a sub-exponential exact algorithm with running time n^{O(√n)}; a polynomial-time constant-approximation algorithm; and a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme (QPTAS). The bivariate case is believed to be NP-hard in the folklore but we could not find a published record in the literature, so in this paper we also present a hardness proof for completeness.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Subhash Suri, and Jie Xue. Efficient Algorithms for Least Square Piecewise Polynomial Regression. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 63:1-63:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.63, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Suri, Subhash and Xue, Jie}, title = {{Efficient Algorithms for Least Square Piecewise Polynomial Regression}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {63:1--63:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.63}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146443}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.63}, annote = {Keywords: regression analysis, piecewise polynomial, least square error} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

We provide a polynomial-time algorithm for b-Coloring on graphs of constant clique-width. This unifies and extends nearly all previously known polynomial-time results on graph classes, and answers open questions posed by Campos and Silva [Algorithmica, 2018] and Bonomo et al. [Graphs Combin., 2009]. This constitutes the first result concerning structural parameterizations of this problem. We show that the problem is FPT when parameterized by the vertex cover number on general graphs, and on chordal graphs when parameterized by the number of colors. Additionally, we observe that our algorithm for graphs of bounded clique-width can be adapted to solve the Fall Coloring problem within the same runtime bound. The running times of the clique-width based algorithms for b-Coloring and Fall Coloring are tight under the Exponential Time Hypothesis.

Lars Jaffke, Paloma T. Lima, and Daniel Lokshtanov. b-Coloring Parameterized by Clique-Width. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 43:1-43:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{jaffke_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.43, author = {Jaffke, Lars and Lima, Paloma T. and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{b-Coloring Parameterized by Clique-Width}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {43:1--43:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136881}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.43}, annote = {Keywords: b-Coloring, clique-width, vertex cover, structural parameterization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

Over the past few decades, the study of dense structures from the perspective of approximation algorithms has become a wide area of research. However, from the viewpoint of parameterized algorithm, this area is largely unexplored. In particular, properties of random samples have been successfully deployed to design approximation schemes for a number of fundamental problems on dense structures [Arora et al. FOCS 1995, Goldreich et al. FOCS 1996, Giotis and Guruswami SODA 2006, Karpinksi and Schudy STOC 2009]. In this paper, we fill this gap, and harness the power of random samples as well as structure theory to design kernelization as well as parameterized algorithms on dense structures. In particular, we obtain linear vertex kernels for Edge-Disjoint Paths, Edge Odd Cycle Transversal, Minimum Bisection, d-Way Cut, Multiway Cut and Multicut on everywhere dense graphs. In fact, these kernels are obtained by designing a polynomial-time algorithm when the corresponding parameter is at most Ω(n). Additionally, we obtain a cubic kernel for Vertex-Disjoint Paths on everywhere dense graphs. In addition to kernelization results, we obtain randomized subexponential-time parameterized algorithms for Edge Odd Cycle Transversal, Minimum Bisection, and d-Way Cut. Finally, we show how all of our results (as well as EPASes for these problems) can be de-randomized.

William Lochet, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Exploiting Dense Structures in Parameterized Complexity. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 50:1-50:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{lochet_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.50, author = {Lochet, William and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Exploiting Dense Structures in Parameterized Complexity}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {50:1--50:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.50}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136950}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.50}, annote = {Keywords: Dense graphs, disjoint paths, odd cycle transversal, kernels} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 180, 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)

In a reconfiguration version of a decision problem 𝒬 the input is an instance of 𝒬 and two feasible solutions S and T. The objective is to determine whether there exists a step-by-step transformation between S and T such that all intermediate steps also constitute feasible solutions. In this work, we study the parameterized complexity of the Connected Dominating Set Reconfiguration problem (CDS-R). It was shown in previous work that the Dominating Set Reconfiguration problem (DS-R) parameterized by k, the maximum allowed size of a dominating set in a reconfiguration sequence, is fixed-parameter tractable on all graphs that exclude a biclique K_{d,d} as a subgraph, for some constant d ≥ 1. We show that the additional connectivity constraint makes the problem much harder, namely, that CDS-R is W[1]-hard parameterized by k+𝓁, the maximum allowed size of a dominating set plus the length of the reconfiguration sequence, already on 5-degenerate graphs. On the positive side, we show that CDS-R parameterized by k is fixed-parameter tractable, and in fact admits a polynomial kernel on planar graphs.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Amer E. Mouawad, Fahad Panolan, and Sebastian Siebertz. On the Parameterized Complexity of Reconfiguration of Connected Dominating Sets. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 24:1-24:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.24, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mouawad, Amer E. and Panolan, Fahad and Siebertz, Sebastian}, title = {{On the Parameterized Complexity of Reconfiguration of Connected Dominating Sets}}, booktitle = {15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)}, pages = {24:1--24:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-172-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {180}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Pilipczuk, Marcin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133276}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.24}, annote = {Keywords: reconfiguration, parameterized complexity, connected dominating set, graph structure theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)

A feedback vertex set in a hypergraph H is a set of vertices S such that deleting S from H results in an acyclic hypergraph. Here, deleting a vertex means removing the vertex and all incident hyperedges, and a hypergraph is acyclic if its vertex-edge incidence graph is acyclic. We study the (parameterized complexity of) the Hypergraph Feedback Vertex Set (HFVS) problem: given as input a hypergraph H and an integer k, determine whether H has a feedback vertex set of size at most k. It is easy to see that this problem generalizes the classic Feedback Vertex Set (FVS) problem on graphs. Remarkably, despite the central role of FVS in parameterized algorithms and complexity, the parameterized complexity of a generalization of FVS to hypergraphs has not been studied previously. In this paper, we fill this void. Our main results are as follows
- HFVS is W[2]-hard (as opposed to FVS, which is fixed parameter tractable).
- If the input hypergraph is restricted to a linear hypergraph (no two hyperedges intersect in more than one vertex), HFVS admits a randomized algorithm with running time 2^{𝒪(k³log k)}n^{𝒪(1)}.
- If the input hypergraph is restricted to a d-hypergraph (hyperedges have cardinality at most d), then HFVS admits a deterministic algorithm with running time d^{𝒪(k)}n^{𝒪(1)}. The algorithm for linear hypergraphs combines ideas from the randomized algorithm for FVS by Becker et al. [J. Artif. Intell. Res., 2000] with the branching algorithm for Point Line Cover by Langerman and Morin [Discrete & Computational Geometry, 2005].

Pratibha Choudhary, Lawqueen Kanesh, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, and Saket Saurabh. Parameterized Complexity of Feedback Vertex Sets on Hypergraphs. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 18:1-18:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{choudhary_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.18, author = {Choudhary, Pratibha and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Feedback Vertex Sets on Hypergraphs}}, booktitle = {40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)}, pages = {18:1--18:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-174-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {182}, editor = {Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132596}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.18}, annote = {Keywords: feedback vertex sets, hypergraphs, FPT, randomized algorithms} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

A graph operation that contracts edges is one of the fundamental operations in the theory of graph minors. Parameterized Complexity of editing to a family of graphs by contracting k edges has recently gained substantial scientific attention, and several new results have been obtained. Some important families of graphs, namely the subfamilies of chordal graphs, in the context of edge contractions, have proven to be significantly difficult than one might expect. In this paper, we study the F-Contraction problem, where F is a subfamily of chordal graphs, in the realm of parameterized approximation. Formally, given a graph G and an integer k, F-Contraction asks whether there exists X ⊆ E(G) such that G/X ∈ F and |X| ≤ k. Here, G/X is the graph obtained from G by contracting edges in X. We obtain the following results for the F-Contraction problem.
- Clique Contraction is known to be FPT. However, unless NP ⊆ coNP/poly, it does not admit a polynomial kernel. We show that it admits a polynomial-size approximate kernelization scheme (PSAKS). That is, it admits a (1 + ε)-approximate kernel with {O}(k^{f(ε)}) vertices for every ε > 0.
- Split Contraction is known to be W[1]-Hard. We deconstruct this intractability result in two ways. Firstly, we give a (2+ε)-approximate polynomial kernel for Split Contraction (which also implies a factor (2+ε)-FPT-approximation algorithm for Split Contraction). Furthermore, we show that, assuming Gap-ETH, there is no (5/4-δ)-FPT-approximation algorithm for Split Contraction. Here, ε, δ > 0 are fixed constants.
- Chordal Contraction is known to be W[2]-Hard. We complement this result by observing that the existing W[2]-hardness reduction can be adapted to show that, assuming FPT ≠ W[1], there is no F(k)-FPT-approximation algorithm for Chordal Contraction. Here, F(k) is an arbitrary function depending on k alone. We say that an algorithm is an h(k)-FPT-approximation algorithm for the F-Contraction problem, if it runs in FPT time, and on any input (G, k) such that there exists X ⊆ E(G) satisfying G/X ∈ F and |X| ≤ k, it outputs an edge set Y of size at most h(k) ⋅ k for which G/Y is in F. We find it extremely interesting that three closely related problems have different behavior with respect to FPT-approximation.

Spoorthy Gunda, Pallavi Jain, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Prafullkumar Tale. On the Parameterized Approximability of Contraction to Classes of Chordal Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 51:1-51:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{gunda_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.51, author = {Gunda, Spoorthy and Jain, Pallavi and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Tale, Prafullkumar}, title = {{On the Parameterized Approximability of Contraction to Classes of Chordal Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {51:1--51:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126545}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.51}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Contraction, FPT-Approximation, Inapproximability, Lossy Kernels} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

We prove that the Hadwiger number of an n-vertex graph G (the maximum size of a clique minor in G) cannot be computed in time n^o(n), unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH) fails. This resolves a well-known open question in the area of exact exponential algorithms. The technique developed for resolving the Hadwiger number problem has a wider applicability. We use it to rule out the existence of n^o(n)-time algorithms (up to ETH) for a large class of computational problems concerning edge contractions in graphs.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Ivan Mihajlin, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Computation of Hadwiger Number and Related Contraction Problems: Tight Lower Bounds. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 49:1-49:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.49, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mihajlin, Ivan and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Computation of Hadwiger Number and Related Contraction Problems: Tight Lower Bounds}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {49:1--49:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124568}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.49}, annote = {Keywords: Hadwiger Number, Exponential-Time Hypothesis, Exact Algorithms, Edge Contraction Problems} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

In the Split Vertex Deletion (SVD) problem, the input is an n-vertex undirected graph G and a weight function w: V(G) → ℕ, and the objective is to find a minimum weight subset S of vertices such that G-S is a split graph (i.e., there is bipartition of V(G-S) = C ⊎ I such that C is a clique and I is an independent set in G-S). This problem is a special case of 5-Hitting Set and consequently, there is a simple factor 5-approximation algorithm for this. On the negative side, it is easy to show that the problem does not admit a polynomial time (2-δ)-approximation algorithm, for any fixed δ > 0, unless the Unique Games Conjecture fails.
We start by giving a simple quasipolynomial time (n^O(log n)) factor 2-approximation algorithm for SVD using the notion of clique-independent set separating collection. Thus, on the one hand SVD admits a factor 2-approximation in quasipolynomial time, and on the other hand this approximation factor cannot be improved assuming UGC. It naturally leads to the following question: Can SVD be 2-approximated in polynomial time? In this work we almost close this gap and prove that for any ε > 0, there is a n^O(log 1/(ε))-time 2(1+ε)-approximation algorithm.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Fahad Panolan, Geevarghese Philip, and Saket Saurabh. A (2 + ε)-Factor Approximation Algorithm for Split Vertex Deletion. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 80:1-80:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.80, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Panolan, Fahad and Philip, Geevarghese and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{A (2 + \epsilon)-Factor Approximation Algorithm for Split Vertex Deletion}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {80:1--80:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124879}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.80}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Graph Algorithms, Split Vertex Deletion} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

The Art Gallery problem is a fundamental visibility problem in Computational Geometry. The input consists of a simple polygon P, (possibly infinite) sets G and C of points within P, and an integer k; the task is to decide if at most k guards can be placed on points in G so that every point in C is visible to at least one guard. In the classic formulation of Art Gallery, G and C consist of all the points within P. Other well-known variants restrict G and C to consist either of all the points on the boundary of P or of all the vertices of P. Recently, three new important discoveries were made: the above mentioned variants of Art Gallery are all W[1]-hard with respect to k [Bonnet and Miltzow, ESA'16], the classic variant has an O(log k)-approximation algorithm [Bonnet and Miltzow, SoCG'17], and it may require irrational guards [Abrahamsen et al., SoCG'17]. Building upon the third result, the classic variant and the case where G consists only of all the points on the boundary of P were both shown to be ∃ℝ-complete [Abrahamsen et al., STOC'18]. Even when both G and C consist only of all the points on the boundary of P, the problem is not known to be in NP.
Given the first discovery, the following question was posed by Giannopoulos [Lorentz Center Workshop, 2016]: Is Art Gallery FPT with respect to r, the number of reflex vertices? In light of the developments above, we focus on the variant where G and C consist of all the vertices of P, called Vertex-Vertex Art Gallery. Apart from being a variant of Art Gallery, this case can also be viewed as the classic Dominating Set problem in the visibility graph of a polygon. In this article, we show that the answer to the question by Giannopoulos is positive: Vertex-Vertex Art Gallery is solvable in time r^O(r²)n^O(1). Furthermore, our approach extends to assert that Vertex-Boundary Art Gallery and Boundary-Vertex Art Gallery are both FPT as well. To this end, we utilize structural properties of "almost convex polygons" to present a two-stage reduction from Vertex-Vertex Art Gallery to a new constraint satisfaction problem (whose solution is also provided in this paper) where constraints have arity 2 and involve monotone functions.

Akanksha Agrawal, Kristine V. K. Knudsen, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. The Parameterized Complexity of Guarding Almost Convex Polygons. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 3:1-3:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.3, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Knudsen, Kristine V. K. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{The Parameterized Complexity of Guarding Almost Convex Polygons}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {3:1--3:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121614}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.3}, annote = {Keywords: Art Gallery, Reflex vertices, Monotone 2-CSP, Parameterized Complexity, Fixed Parameter Tractability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

Given two points in the plane, a set of obstacles defined by closed curves, and an integer k, does there exist a path between the two designated points intersecting at most k of the obstacles? This is a fundamental and well-studied problem arising naturally in computational geometry, graph theory, wireless computing, and motion planning. It remains NP-hard even when the obstacles are very simple geometric shapes (e.g., unit-length line segments). In this paper, we show that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) parameterized by k, by giving an algorithm with running time k^O(k³) n^O(1). Here n is the number connected areas in the plane drawing of all the obstacles.

Eduard Eiben and Daniel Lokshtanov. Removing Connected Obstacles in the Plane Is FPT. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 39:1-39:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{eiben_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.39, author = {Eiben, Eduard and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{Removing Connected Obstacles in the Plane Is FPT}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {39:1--39:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121972}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.39}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity and algorithms, planar graphs, motion planning, barrier coverage, barrier resilience, colored path, minimum constraint removal} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 164, 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)

We present an algorithm for the extensively studied Long Path and Long Cycle problems on unit disk graphs that runs in time 2^{𝒪(√k)}(n+m). Under the Exponential Time Hypothesis, Long Path and Long Cycle on unit disk graphs cannot be solved in time 2^{o(√k)}(n+m)^𝒪(1) [de Berg et al., STOC 2018], hence our algorithm is optimal. Besides the 2^{𝒪(√k)}(n+m)^𝒪(1)-time algorithm for the (arguably) much simpler Vertex Cover problem by de Berg et al. [STOC 2018] (which easily follows from the existence of a 2k-vertex kernel for the problem), this is the only known ETH-optimal fixed-parameter tractable algorithm on UDGs. Previously, Long Path and Long Cycle on unit disk graphs were only known to be solvable in time 2^{𝒪(√klog k)}(n+m). This algorithm involved the introduction of a new type of a tree decomposition, entailing the design of a very tedious dynamic programming procedure. Our algorithm is substantially simpler: we completely avoid the use of this new type of tree decomposition. Instead, we use a marking procedure to reduce the problem to (a weighted version of) itself on a standard tree decomposition of width 𝒪(√k).

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. ETH-Tight Algorithms for Long Path and Cycle on Unit Disk Graphs. In 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 164, pp. 44:1-44:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.44, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{ETH-Tight Algorithms for Long Path and Cycle on Unit Disk Graphs}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2020)}, pages = {44:1--44:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-143-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {164}, editor = {Cabello, Sergio and Chen, Danny Z.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.44}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122024}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.44}, annote = {Keywords: Optimality Program, ETH, Unit Disk Graphs, Parameterized Complexity, Long Path, Long Cycle} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

Parameterization above a guarantee is a successful paradigm in Parameterized Complexity. To the best of our knowledge, all fixed-parameter tractable problems in this paradigm share an additive form defined as follows. Given an instance (I,k) of some (parameterized) problem Π with a guarantee g(I), decide whether I admits a solution of size at least (at most) k+g(I). Here, g(I) is usually a lower bound (resp. upper bound) on the maximum (resp. minimum) size of a solution. Since its introduction in 1999 for Max SAT and Max Cut (with g(I) being half the number of clauses and half the number of edges, respectively, in the input), analysis of parameterization above a guarantee has become a very active and fruitful topic of research.
We highlight a multiplicative form of parameterization above a guarantee: Given an instance (I,k) of some (parameterized) problem Π with a guarantee g(I), decide whether I admits a solution of size at least (resp. at most) k ⋅ g(I). In particular, we study the Long Cycle problem with a multiplicative parameterization above the girth g(I) of the input graph, and provide a parameterized algorithm for this problem. Apart from being of independent interest, this exemplifies how parameterization above a multiplicative guarantee can arise naturally. We also show that, for any fixed constant ε>0, multiplicative parameterization above g(I)^(1+ε) of Long Cycle yields para-NP-hardness, thus our parameterization is tight in this sense. We complement our main result with the design (or refutation of the existence) of algorithms for other problems parameterized multiplicatively above girth.

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Parameterization Above a Multiplicative Guarantee. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 39:1-39:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.39, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Parameterization Above a Multiplicative Guarantee}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {39:1--39:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117248}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.39}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Above-Guarantee Parameterization, Girth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

In the past decade, the design of fault tolerant data structures for networks has become a central topic of research. Particular attention has been given to the construction of a subgraph H of a given digraph D with as fewest arcs/vertices as possible such that, after the failure of any set F of at most k ≥ 1 arcs, testing whether D-F has a certain property P is equivalent to testing whether H-F has that property. Here, reachability (or, more generally, distance preservation) is the most basic requirement to maintain to ensure that the network functions properly. Given a vertex s ∈ V(D), Baswana et al. [STOC'16] presented a construction of H with O(2^kn) arcs in time O(2^{k}nm) where n=|V(D)| and m= |E(D)| such that for any vertex v ∈ V(D): if there exists a path from s to v in D-F, then there also exists a path from s to v in H-F. Additionally, they gave a tight matching lower bound. While the question of the improvement of the dependency on k arises for special classes of digraphs, an arguably more basic research direction concerns the dependency on n (for reachability between a pair of vertices s,t ∈ V(D)) - which are the largest classes of digraphs where the dependency on n can be made sublinear, logarithmic or even constant? Already for the simple classes of directed paths and tournaments, Ω(n) arcs are mandatory. Nevertheless, we prove that "almost acyclicity" suffices to eliminate the dependency on n entirely for a broad class of dense digraphs called bounded independence digraphs. Also, the dependence in k is only a polynomial factor for this class of digraphs. In fact, our sparsification procedure extends to preserve parity-based reachability. Additionally, it finds notable applications in Kernelization: we prove that the classic Directed Feedback Arc Set (DFAS) problem as well as Directed Edge Odd Cycle Transversal (DEOCT) (which, in sharp contrast to DFAS, is W[1]-hard on general digraphs) admit polynomial kernels on bounded independence digraphs. In fact, for any p ∈ N, we can design a polynomial kernel for the problem of hitting all cycles of length ℓ where (ℓ mod p = 1). As a complementary result, we prove that DEOCT is NP-hard on tournaments by establishing a combinatorial identity between the minimum size of a feedback arc set and the minimum size of an edge odd cycle transversal. In passing, we also improve upon the running time of the sub-exponential FPT algorithm for DFAS in digraphs of bounded independence number given by Misra et at. [FSTTCS 2018], and give the first sub-exponential FPT algorithm for DEOCT in digraphs of bounded independence number.

William Lochet, Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, Roohani Sharma, and Meirav Zehavi. Fault Tolerant Subgraphs with Applications in Kernelization. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 47:1-47:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lochet_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.47, author = {Lochet, William and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Fault Tolerant Subgraphs with Applications in Kernelization}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {47:1--47:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117326}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.47}, annote = {Keywords: sparsification, kernelization, fault tolerant subgraphs, directed feedback arc set, directed edge odd cycle transversal, bounded independence number digraphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)

A bond of a graph G is an inclusion-wise minimal disconnecting set of G, i.e., bonds are cut-sets that determine cuts [S,V\S] of G such that G[S] and G[V\S] are both connected. Given s,t in V(G), an st-bond of G is a bond whose removal disconnects s and t. Contrasting with the large number of studies related to maximum cuts, there are very few results regarding the largest bond of general graphs. In this paper, we aim to reduce this gap on the complexity of computing the largest bond and the largest st-bond of a graph. Although cuts and bonds are similar, we remark that computing the largest bond of a graph tends to be harder than computing its maximum cut. We show that Largest Bond remains NP-hard even for planar bipartite graphs, and it does not admit a constant-factor approximation algorithm, unless P = NP. We also show that Largest Bond and Largest st-Bond on graphs of clique-width w cannot be solved in time f(w) x n^{o(w)} unless the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails, but they can be solved in time f(w) x n^{O(w)}. In addition, we show that both problems are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the size of the solution, but they do not admit polynomial kernels unless NP subseteq coNP/poly.

Gabriel L. Duarte, Daniel Lokshtanov, Lehilton L. C. Pedrosa, Rafael C. S. Schouery, and Uéverton S. Souza. Computing the Largest Bond of a Graph. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 12:1-12:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{duarte_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.12, author = {Duarte, Gabriel L. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Pedrosa, Lehilton L. C. and Schouery, Rafael C. S. and Souza, U\'{e}verton S.}, title = {{Computing the Largest Bond of a Graph}}, booktitle = {14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)}, pages = {12:1--12:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-129-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {148}, editor = {Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114732}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.12}, annote = {Keywords: bond, cut, maximum cut, connected cut, FPT, treewidth, clique-width} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

In the Bisection problem, we are given as input an edge-weighted graph G. The task is to find a partition of V(G) into two parts A and B such that ||A| - |B|| <= 1 and the sum of the weights of the edges with one endpoint in A and the other in B is minimized. We show that the complexity of the Bisection problem on trees, and more generally on graphs of bounded treewidth, is intimately linked to the (min, +)-Convolution problem. Here the input consists of two sequences (a[i])^{n-1}_{i = 0} and (b[i])^{n-1}_{i = 0}, the task is to compute the sequence (c[i])^{n-1}_{i = 0}, where c[k] = min_{i=0,...,k}(a[i] + b[k - i]).
In particular, we prove that if (min, +)-Convolution can be solved in O(tau(n)) time, then Bisection of graphs of treewidth t can be solved in time O(8^t t^{O(1)} log n * tau(n)), assuming a tree decomposition of width t is provided as input. Plugging in the naive O(n^2) time algorithm for (min, +)-Convolution yields a O(8^t t^{O(1)} n^2 log n) time algorithm for Bisection. This improves over the (dependence on n of the) O(2^t n^3) time algorithm of Jansen et al. [SICOMP 2005] at the cost of a worse dependence on t. "Conversely", we show that if Bisection can be solved in time O(beta(n)) on edge weighted trees, then (min, +)-Convolution can be solved in O(beta(n)) time as well. Thus, obtaining a sub-quadratic algorithm for Bisection on trees is extremely challenging, and could even be impossible. On the other hand, for unweighted graphs of treewidth t, by making use of a recent algorithm for Bounded Difference (min, +)-Convolution of Chan and Lewenstein [STOC 2015], we obtain a sub-quadratic algorithm for Bisection with running time O(8^t t^{O(1)} n^{1.864} log n).

Eduard Eiben, Daniel Lokshtanov, and Amer E. Mouawad. Bisection of Bounded Treewidth Graphs by Convolutions. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 42:1-42:11, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{eiben_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.42, author = {Eiben, Eduard and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mouawad, Amer E.}, title = {{Bisection of Bounded Treewidth Graphs by Convolutions}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {42:1--42:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.42}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111639}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.42}, annote = {Keywords: bisection, convolution, treewidth, fine-grained analysis, hardness in P} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 144, 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)

An undirected graph G is d-degenerate if every subgraph of G has a vertex of degree at most d. By the classical theorem of Erdős and Gallai from 1959, every graph of degeneracy d>1 contains a cycle of length at least d+1. The proof of Erdős and Gallai is constructive and can be turned into a polynomial time algorithm constructing a cycle of length at least d+1. But can we decide in polynomial time whether a graph contains a cycle of length at least d+2? An easy reduction from Hamiltonian Cycle provides a negative answer to this question: Deciding whether a graph has a cycle of length at least d+2 is NP-complete. Surprisingly, the complexity of the problem changes drastically when the input graph is 2-connected. In this case we prove that deciding whether G contains a cycle of length at least d+k can be done in time 2^{O(k)}|V(G)|^O(1). In other words, deciding whether a 2-connected n-vertex G contains a cycle of length at least d+log{n} can be done in polynomial time. Similar algorithmic results hold for long paths in graphs. We observe that deciding whether a graph has a path of length at least d+1 is NP-complete. However, we prove that if graph G is connected, then deciding whether G contains a path of length at least d+k can be done in time 2^{O(k)}n^O(1). We complement these results by showing that the choice of degeneracy as the "above guarantee parameterization" is optimal in the following sense: For any epsilon>0 it is NP-complete to decide whether a connected (2-connected) graph of degeneracy d has a path (cycle) of length at least (1+epsilon)d.

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Going Far From Degeneracy. In 27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 144, pp. 47:1-47:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2019.47, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Going Far From Degeneracy}}, booktitle = {27th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2019)}, pages = {47:1--47:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-124-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {144}, editor = {Bender, Michael A. and Svensson, Ola and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-111688}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2019.47}, annote = {Keywords: Longest path, longest cycle, fixed-parameter tractability, above guarantee parameterization} }

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Invited Talk

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

We survey some recent graph algorithms that are based on picking a vertex at random and declaring it to be a part of the solution. This simple idea has been deployed to obtain state-of-the-art parameterized, exact exponential time, and approximation algorithms for a number of problems, such as Feedback Vertex Set and 3-Hitting Set. We will also discuss a recent 2-approximation algorithm for Feedback Vertex Set in Tournaments that is based on picking a vertex at random and declaring it to not be part of the solution.

Daniel Lokshtanov. Picking Random Vertices (Invited Talk). In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, p. 3:1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.3, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{Picking Random Vertices}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {3:1--3:1}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109478}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.3}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Algorithm} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

A graph G is contractible to a graph H if there is a set X subseteq E(G), such that G/X is isomorphic to H. Here, G/X is the graph obtained from G by contracting all the edges in X. For a family of graphs F, the F-Contraction problem takes as input a graph G on n vertices, and the objective is to output the largest integer t, such that G is contractible to a graph H in F, where |V(H)|=t. When F is the family of paths, then the corresponding F-Contraction problem is called Path Contraction. The problem Path Contraction admits a simple algorithm running in time 2^n * n^{O(1)}. In spite of the deceptive simplicity of the problem, beating the 2^n * n^{O(1)} bound for Path Contraction seems quite challenging. In this paper, we design an exact exponential time algorithm for Path Contraction that runs in time 1.99987^n * n^{O(1)}. We also define a problem called 3-Disjoint Connected Subgraphs, and design an algorithm for it that runs in time 1.88^n * n^{O(1)}. The above algorithm is used as a sub-routine in our algorithm for Path Contraction.

Akanksha Agrawal, Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Prafullkumar Tale. Path Contraction Faster Than 2^n. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 11:1-11:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.11, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Tale, Prafullkumar}, title = {{Path Contraction Faster Than 2^n}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {11:1--11:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105874}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.11}, annote = {Keywords: path contraction, exact exponential time algorithms, graph algorithms, enumerating connected sets, 3-disjoint connected subgraphs} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

A few years ago, Alon et al. [ISMB 2008] gave a simple randomized O((2e)^km epsilon^{-2})-time exponential-space algorithm to approximately compute the number of paths on k vertices in a graph G up to a multiplicative error of 1 +/- epsilon. Shortly afterwards, Alon and Gutner [IWPEC 2009, TALG 2010] gave a deterministic exponential-space algorithm with running time (2e)^{k+O(log^3k)}m log n whenever epsilon^{-1}=k^{O(1)}. Recently, Brand et al. [STOC 2018] provided a speed-up at the cost of reintroducing randomization. Specifically, they gave a randomized O(4^km epsilon^{-2})-time exponential-space algorithm. In this article, we revisit the algorithm by Alon and Gutner. We modify the foundation of their work, and with a novel twist, obtain the following results.
- We present a deterministic 4^{k+O(sqrt{k}(log^2k+log^2 epsilon^{-1}))}m log n-time polynomial-space algorithm. This matches the running time of the best known deterministic polynomial-space algorithm for deciding whether a given graph G has a path on k vertices.
- Additionally, we present a randomized 4^{k+O(log k(log k + log epsilon^{-1}))}m log n-time polynomial-space algorithm. While Brand et al. make non-trivial use of exterior algebra, our algorithm is very simple; we only make elementary use of the probabilistic method.
Thus, the algorithm by Brand et al. runs in time 4^{k+o(k)}m whenever epsilon^{-1}=2^{o(k)}, while our deterministic and randomized algorithms run in time 4^{k+o(k)}m log n whenever epsilon^{-1}=2^{o(k^{1/4})} and epsilon^{-1}=2^{o(k/(log k))}, respectively. Prior to our work, no 2^{O(k)}n^{O(1)}-time polynomial-space algorithm was known. Additionally, our approach is embeddable in the classic framework of divide-and-color, hence it immediately extends to approximate counting of graphs of bounded treewidth; in comparison, Brand et al. note that their approach is limited to graphs of bounded pathwidth.

Andreas Björklund, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Approximate Counting of k-Paths: Deterministic and in Polynomial Space. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 24:1-24:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bjorklund_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.24, author = {Bj\"{o}rklund, Andreas and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Approximate Counting of k-Paths: Deterministic and in Polynomial Space}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {24:1--24:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106001}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.24}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity, approximate counting, \{ k\}-Path} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Perturbed graphic matroids are binary matroids that can be obtained from a graphic matroid by adding a noise of small rank. More precisely, an r-rank perturbed graphic matroid M is a binary matroid that can be represented in the form I +P, where I is the incidence matrix of some graph and P is a binary matrix of rank at most r. Such matroids naturally appear in a number of theoretical and applied settings. The main motivation behind our work is an attempt to understand which parameterized algorithms for various problems on graphs could be lifted to perturbed graphic matroids.
We study the parameterized complexity of a natural generalization (for matroids) of the following fundamental problems on graphs: Steiner Tree and Multiway Cut. In this generalization, called the Space Cover problem, we are given a binary matroid M with a ground set E, a set of terminals T subseteq E, and a non-negative integer k. The task is to decide whether T can be spanned by a subset of E \ T of size at most k.
We prove that on graphic matroid perturbations, for every fixed r, Space Cover is fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by k. On the other hand, the problem becomes W[1]-hard when parameterized by r+k+|T| and it is NP-complete for r <= 2 and |T|<= 2.
On cographic matroids, that are the duals of graphic matroids, Space Cover generalizes another fundamental and well-studied problem, namely Multiway Cut. We show that on the duals of perturbed graphic matroids the Space Cover problem is fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by r+k.

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Covering Vectors by Spaces in Perturbed Graphic Matroids and Their Duals. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 59:1-59:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.59, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Covering Vectors by Spaces in Perturbed Graphic Matroids and Their Duals}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {59:1--59:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.59}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106351}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.59}, annote = {Keywords: Binary matroids, perturbed graphic matroids, spanning set, parameterized complexity} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

Bidimensionality is the most common technique to design subexponential-time parameterized algorithms on special classes of graphs, particularly planar graphs. The core engine behind it is a combinatorial lemma of Robertson, Seymour and Thomas that states that every planar graph either has a sqrt{k} x sqrt{k}-grid as a minor, or its treewidth is O(sqrt{k}). However, bidimensionality theory cannot be extended directly to several well-known classes of geometric graphs like unit disk or map graphs. This is mainly due to the presence of large cliques in these classes of graphs. Nevertheless, a relaxation of this lemma has been proven useful for unit disk graphs. Inspired by this, we prove a new decomposition lemma for map graphs, the intersection graphs of finitely many simply-connected and interior-disjoint regions of the Euclidean plane. Informally, our lemma states the following. For any map graph G, there exists a collection (U_1,...,U_t) of cliques of G with the following property: G either contains a sqrt{k} x sqrt{k}-grid as a minor, or it admits a tree decomposition where every bag is the union of O(sqrt{k}) cliques in the above collection.
The new lemma appears to be a handy tool in the design of subexponential parameterized algorithms on map graphs. We demonstrate its usability by designing algorithms on map graphs with running time 2^{O({sqrt{k}log{k}})} * n^{O(1)} for Connected Planar F-Deletion (that encompasses problems such as Feedback Vertex Set and Vertex Cover). Obtaining subexponential algorithms for Longest Cycle/Path and Cycle Packing is more challenging. We have to construct tree decompositions with more powerful properties and to prove sublinear bounds on the number of ways an optimum solution could "cross" bags in these decompositions.
For Longest Cycle/Path, these are the first subexponential-time parameterized algorithm on map graphs. For Feedback Vertex Set and Cycle Packing, we improve upon known 2^{O({k^{0.75}log{k}})} * n^{O(1)}-time algorithms on map graphs.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Decomposition of Map Graphs with Applications. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 60:1-60:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.60, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Decomposition of Map Graphs with Applications}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {60:1--60:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.60}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106366}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.60}, annote = {Keywords: Longest Cycle, Cycle Packing, Feedback Vertex Set, Map Graphs, FPT} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 115, 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)

We consider problems where the input is a set of points in the plane and an integer k, and the task is to find a subset S of the input points of size k such that S satisfies some property. We focus on properties that depend only on the order type of the points and are monotone under point removals. We exhibit a property defined by three forbidden patterns for which finding a k-point subset with the property is W[1]-complete and (assuming the exponential time hypothesis) cannot be solved in time n^{o(k/log k)}. However, we show that problems of this type are fixed-parameter tractable for all properties that include all collinear point sets, properties that exclude at least one convex polygon, and properties defined by a single forbidden pattern.

David Eppstein and Daniel Lokshtanov. The Parameterized Complexity of Finding Point Sets with Hereditary Properties. In 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 115, pp. 11:1-11:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{eppstein_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.11, author = {Eppstein, David and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{The Parameterized Complexity of Finding Point Sets with Hereditary Properties}}, booktitle = {13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)}, pages = {11:1--11:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-084-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {115}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Pilipczuk, Michal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102121}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.11}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity, fixed-parameter tractability, point set pattern matching, largest pattern-avoiding subset, order type} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 115, 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)

In the embedded planar diameter improvement problem (EPDI) we are given a graph G embedded in the plane and a positive integer d. The goal is to determine whether one can add edges to the planar embedding of G in such a way that planarity is preserved and in such a way that the resulting graph has diameter at most d. Using non-constructive techniques derived from Robertson and Seymour's graph minor theory, together with the effectivization by self-reduction technique introduced by Fellows and Langston, one can show that EPDI can be solved in time f(d)* |V(G)|^{O(1)} for some function f(d). The caveat is that this algorithm is not strongly uniform in the sense that the function f(d) is not known to be computable. On the other hand, even the problem of determining whether EPDI can be solved in time f_1(d)* |V(G)|^{f_2(d)} for computable functions f_1 and f_2 has been open for more than two decades [Cohen at. al. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 2017]. In this work we settle this later problem by showing that EPDI can be solved in time f(d)* |V(G)|^{O(d)} for some computable function f. Our techniques can also be used to show that the embedded k-outerplanar diameter improvement problem (k-EOPDI), a variant of EPDI where the resulting graph is required to be k-outerplanar instead of planar, can be solved in time f(d)* |V(G)|^{O(k)} for some computable function f. This shows that for each fixed k, the problem k-EOPDI is strongly uniformly fixed parameter tractable with respect to the diameter parameter d.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Mateus de Oliveira Oliveira, and Saket Saurabh. A Strongly-Uniform Slicewise Polynomial-Time Algorithm for the Embedded Planar Diameter Improvement Problem. In 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 115, pp. 25:1-25:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.25, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and de Oliveira Oliveira, Mateus and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{A Strongly-Uniform Slicewise Polynomial-Time Algorithm for the Embedded Planar Diameter Improvement Problem}}, booktitle = {13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)}, pages = {25:1--25:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-084-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {115}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Pilipczuk, Michal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102265}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.25}, annote = {Keywords: Embedded Planar Diameter Improvement, Constructive Algorithms, Nooses} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 117, 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)

In this paper we study recently introduced conflict version of the classical Feedback Vertex Set (FVS) problem. For a family of graphs F, we consider the problem F-CF-Feedback Vertex Set (F-CF-FVS, for short). The F-CF-FVS problem takes as an input a graph G, a graph H in F (where V(G)=V(H)), and an integer k, and the objective is to decide if there is a set S subseteq V(G) of size at most k such that G-S is a forest and S is an independent set in H. Observe that if we instantiate F to be the family of edgeless graphs then we get the classical FVS problem. Jain, Kanesh, and Misra [CSR 2018] showed that in contrast to FVS, F-CF-FVS is W[1]-hard on general graphs and admits an FPT algorithm if F is the family of d-degenerate graphs. In this paper, we relate F-CF-FVS to the Independent Set problem on special classes of graphs, and obtain a complete dichotomy result on the Parameterized Complexity of the problem F-CF-FVS, when F is a hereditary graph family. In particular, we show that F-CF-FVS is FPT parameterized by the solution size if and only if F+Cluster IS is FPT parameterized by the solution size. Here, F+Cluster IS is the Independent Set problem in the (edge) union of a graph G in F and a cluster graph H (G and H are explicitly given). Next, we exploit this characterization to obtain new FPT results as well as intractability results for F-CF-FVS. In particular, we give an FPT algorithm for F+Cluster IS when F is the family of K_{i,j}-free graphs. We show that for the family of bipartite graph B, B-CF-FVS is W[1]-hard, when parameterized by the solution size. Finally, we consider, for each 0< epsilon<1, the family of graphs F_epsilon, which comprise of graphs G such that |E(G)| <= |V(G)|^(2-epsilon), and show that F_epsilon-CF-FVS is W[1]-hard, when parameterized by the solution size, for every 0<epsilon<1.

Akanksha Agrawal, Pallavi Jain, Lawqueen Kanesh, Daniel Lokshtanov, and Saket Saurabh. Conflict Free Feedback Vertex Set: A Parameterized Dichotomy. In 43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 117, pp. 53:1-53:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.53, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Jain, Pallavi and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Conflict Free Feedback Vertex Set: A Parameterized Dichotomy}}, booktitle = {43rd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2018)}, pages = {53:1--53:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-086-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {117}, editor = {Potapov, Igor and Spirakis, Paul and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-96355}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2018.53}, annote = {Keywords: Conflict-free, Feedback Vertex Set, FPT algorithm, W\lbrack1\rbrack-hardness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

Let F be a family of graphs. A canonical vertex deletion problem corresponding to F is defined as follows: given an n-vertex undirected graph G and a weight function w: V(G) - >R^+, find a minimum weight subset S subseteq V(G) such that G-S belongs to F. This is known as Weighted F Vertex Deletion problem. In this paper we devise a recursive scheme to obtain O(log^{O(1)} n)-approximation algorithms for such problems, building upon the classical technique of finding balanced separators in a graph. Roughly speaking, our scheme applies to those problems, where an optimum solution S together with a well-structured set X, form a balanced separator of the input graph. In this paper, we obtain the first O(log^{O(1)} n)-approximation algorithms for the following vertex deletion problems.
- Let {F} be a finite set of graphs containing a planar graph, and F=G(F) be the family of graphs such that every graph H in G(F) excludes all graphs in F as minors. The vertex deletion problem corresponding to F=G(F) is the Weighted Planar F-Minor-Free Deletion (WPF-MFD) problem. We give randomized and deterministic approximation algorithms for WPF-MFD with ratios O(log^{1.5} n) and O(log^2 n), respectively. Previously, only a randomized constant factor approximation algorithm for the unweighted version of the problem was known [FOCS 2012].
- We give an O(log^2 n)-factor approximation algorithm for Weighted Chordal Vertex Deletion (WCVD), the vertex deletion problem to the family of chordal graphs. On the way to this algorithm, we also obtain a constant factor approximation algorithm for Multicut on chordal graphs.
- We give an O(log^3 n)-factor approximation algorithm for Weighted Distance Hereditary Vertex Deletion (WDHVD), also known as Weighted Rankwidth-1 Vertex Deletion (WR-1VD). This is the vertex deletion problem to the family of distance hereditary graphs, or equivalently, the family of graphs of rankwidth one.
We believe that our recursive scheme can be applied to obtain O(log^{O(1)} n)-approximation algorithms for many other problems as well.

Akanksha Agrawal, Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Polylogarithmic Approximation Algorithms for Weighted-F-Deletion Problems. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 1:1-1:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.1, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Polylogarithmic Approximation Algorithms for Weighted-F-Deletion Problems}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {1:1--1:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94058}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.1}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Planar- F-Deletion, Separator} }

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Brief Announcement

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

In the Directed Feedback Vertex Set (DFVS) problem, we are given as input a directed graph D and an integer k, and the objective is to check whether there exists a set S of at most k vertices such that F=D-S is a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Determining whether DFVS admits a polynomial kernel (parameterized by the solution size) is one of the most important open problems in parameterized complexity. In this article, we give a polynomial kernel for DFVS parameterized by the solution size plus the size of any treewidth-eta modulator, for any positive integer eta. We also give a polynomial kernel for the problem, which we call Vertex Deletion to treewidth-eta DAG, where given as input a directed graph D and a positive integer k, the objective is to decide whether there exists a set of at most k vertices, say S, such that D-S is a DAG and the treewidth of D-S is at most eta.

Daniel Lokshtanov, M. S. Ramanujan, Saket Saurabh, Roohani Sharma, and Meirav Zehavi. Brief Announcement: Treewidth Modulator: Emergency Exit for DFVS. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 110:1-110:4, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.110, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Ramanujan, M. S. and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Brief Announcement: Treewidth Modulator: Emergency Exit for DFVS}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {110:1--110:4}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.110}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91146}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.110}, annote = {Keywords: Polynomial Kernel, Directed Feedback Vertex Set, Treewidth Modulator} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

Given a Counting Monadic Second Order (CMSO) sentence psi, the CMSO[psi] problem is defined as follows. The input to CMSO[psi] is a graph G, and the objective is to determine whether G |= psi. Our main theorem states that for every CMSO sentence psi, if CMSO[psi] is solvable in polynomial time on "globally highly connected graphs", then CMSO[psi] is solvable in polynomial time (on general graphs). We demonstrate the utility of our theorem in the design of parameterized algorithms. Specifically we show that technical problem-specific ingredients of a powerful method for designing parameterized algorithms, recursive understanding, can be replaced by a black-box invocation of our main theorem. We also show that our theorem can be easily deployed to show fixed parameterized tractability of a wide range of problems, where the input is a graph G and the task is to find a connected induced subgraph of G such that "few" vertices in this subgraph have neighbors outside the subgraph, and additionally the subgraph has a CMSO-definable property.

Daniel Lokshtanov, M. S. Ramanujan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Reducing CMSO Model Checking to Highly Connected Graphs. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 135:1-135:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.135, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Ramanujan, M. S. and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Reducing CMSO Model Checking to Highly Connected Graphs}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {135:1--135:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.135}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91391}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.135}, annote = {Keywords: Fixed Parameter Tractability Model Checking Recursive Understanding} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 99, 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)

We study the problem of finding a minimum-distortion embedding of the shortest path metric of an unweighted graph into a "simpler" metric X. Computing such an embedding (exactly or approximately) is a non-trivial task even when X is the metric induced by a path, or, equivalently, the real line. In this paper we give approximation and fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) algorithms for minimum-distortion embeddings into the metric of a subdivision of some fixed graph H, or, equivalently, into any fixed 1-dimensional simplicial complex. More precisely, we study the following problem: For given graphs G, H and integer c, is it possible to embed G with distortion c into a graph homeomorphic to H? Then embedding into the line is the special case H=K_2, and embedding into the cycle is the case H=K_3, where K_k denotes the complete graph on k vertices. For this problem we give
- an approximation algorithm, which in time f(H)* poly (n), for some function f, either correctly decides that there is no embedding of G with distortion c into any graph homeomorphic to H, or finds an embedding with distortion poly(c);
- an exact algorithm, which in time f'(H, c)* poly (n), for some function f', either correctly decides that there is no embedding of G with distortion c into any graph homeomorphic to H, or finds an embedding with distortion c. Prior to our work, poly(OPT)-approximation or FPT algorithms were known only for embedding into paths and trees of bounded degrees.

Timothy Carpenter, Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Anastasios Sidiropoulos. Algorithms for Low-Distortion Embeddings into Arbitrary 1-Dimensional Spaces. In 34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 99, pp. 21:1-21:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{carpenter_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.21, author = {Carpenter, Timothy and Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Sidiropoulos, Anastasios}, title = {{Algorithms for Low-Distortion Embeddings into Arbitrary 1-Dimensional Spaces}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2018)}, pages = {21:1--21:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-066-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {99}, editor = {Speckmann, Bettina and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87344}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2018.21}, annote = {Keywords: Metric embeddings, minimum-distortion embeddings, 1-dimensional simplicial complex, Fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, Approximation algorithms} }

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Complete Volume

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 89, 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)

LIPIcs, Volume 89, IPEC'17, Complete Volume

Daniel Lokshtanov and Naomi Nishimura. LIPIcs, Volume 89, IPEC'17, Complete Volume. In 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 89, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@Proceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2017, title = {{LIPIcs, Volume 89, IPEC'17, Complete Volume}}, booktitle = {12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-051-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {89}, editor = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Nishimura, Naomi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-86166}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017}, annote = {Keywords: Complexity Measures and Classes, Analysis of Algorithms and Problem Complexity, Discrete Mathematics} }

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Front Matter

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 89, 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)

Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization

Daniel Lokshtanov and Naomi Nishimura. Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization. In 12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 89, pp. 0:i-0:xii, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.0, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Nishimura, Naomi}, title = {{Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization}}, booktitle = {12th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2017)}, pages = {0:i--0:xii}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-051-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {89}, editor = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Nishimura, Naomi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.0}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-85437}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2017.0}, annote = {Keywords: Front Matter, Table of Contents, Preface, Conference Organization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 96, 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)

The duality between packing and covering problems lies at the heart of fundamental combinatorial proofs, as well as well-known algorithmic methods such as the primal-dual method for approximation and win/win-approach for parameterized analysis. The very essence of this duality is encompassed by a well-known property called the Erdös-Pósa property, which has been extensively studied for over five decades. Informally, we say that a class of graphs F admits the Erdös-Pósa property if there exists f such that for any graph G, either G has vertex-disjoint "copies" of the graphs in F, or there is a set S \subseteq V(G) of f(k) vertices that intersects all copies of the graphs in F. In the context of any graph class G, the most natural question that arises in this regard is as follows - do obstructions to G have the Erdös-Pósa property? Having this view in mind, we focus on the class of interval graphs. Structural properties of interval graphs are intensively studied, also as they lead to the design of polynomial-time algorithms for classic problems that are NP-hard on general graphs. Nevertheless, about one of the most basic properties of such graphs, namely, the Erdös-Pósa property, nothing is known. In this paper, we settle this anomaly: we prove that the family of obstructions to interval graphs - namely, the family of chordless cycles and ATs---admits the Erdös-Pósa property. Our main theorem immediately results in an algorithm to decide whether an input graph G has vertex-disjoint ATs and chordless cycles, or there exists a set of O(k^2 log k) vertices in G that hits all ATs and chordless cycles.

Akanksha Agrawal, Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Erdös-Pósa Property of Obstructions to Interval Graphs. In 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 96, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2018.7, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Erd\"{o}s-P\'{o}sa Property of Obstructions to Interval Graphs}}, booktitle = {35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)}, pages = {7:1--7:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-062-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {96}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-84815}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.7}, annote = {Keywords: Interval Graphs, Obstructions, Erd\"{o}s-P\'{o}sa Property} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 93, 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)

For a family of graphs F, an n-vertex graph G, and a positive integer k, the F-Deletion problem asks whether we can delete at most k vertices from G to obtain a graph in F. F-Deletion generalizes many classical graph problems such as Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set, and Odd Cycle Transversal. A (multi) graph G = (V, \cup_{i=1}^{\alpha} E_{i}), where the edge set of G is partitioned into \alpha color classes, is called an \alpha-edge-colored graph. A natural extension of the F-Deletion problem to edge-colored graphs is the Simultaneous (F_1, \ldots, F_\alpha)-Deletion problem. In the latter problem, we are given an \alpha-edge-colored graph G and the goal is to find a set S of at most k vertices such that each graph G_i - S, where G_i = (V, E_i) and 1 \leq i \leq \alpha, is in F_i. Recently, a subset of the authors considered the aforementioned problem with F_1 = \ldots = F_\alpha being the family of all forests. They showed that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by k and \alpha, and can be solved in O(2^{O(\alpha k)}n^{O(1)})
time. In this work, we initiate the investigation of the complexity of Simultaneous (F_1, \ldots, F_\alpha)-Deletion with different families of graphs. In the process, we obtain a complete characterization of the parameterized complexity of this problem when one or more of the F_i's is the class of bipartite graphs and the rest (if any) are forests.
We show that if F_1 is the family of all bipartite graphs and each of F_2 = F_3 = \ldots = F_\alpha is the family of all forests then the problem is fixed-parameter tractable
parameterized by k and \alpha. However, even when F_1 and F_2 are both the family of all bipartite graphs, then the Simultaneous (F_1, F_2)-Deletion} problem itself is already W[1]-hard.

Akanksha Agrawal, R. Krithika, Daniel Lokshtanov, Amer E. Mouawad, and M. S. Ramanujan. On the Parameterized Complexity of Simultaneous Deletion Problems. In 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 93, pp. 9:1-9:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.9, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Krithika, R. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mouawad, Amer E. and Ramanujan, M. S.}, title = {{On the Parameterized Complexity of Simultaneous Deletion Problems}}, booktitle = {37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)}, pages = {9:1--9:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-055-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {93}, editor = {Lokam, Satya and Ramanujam, R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-84128}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.9}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity, feedback vertex set, odd cycle transversal, edge-colored graphs, simultaneous deletion} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 93, 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)

The family of judicious partitioning problems, introduced by Bollob\'as and Scott to the field of extremal combinatorics, has been extensively studied from a structural point of view for over two decades. This rich realm of problems aims to counterbalance the objectives of classical partitioning problems such as Min Cut, Min Bisection and Max Cut. While these classical problems focus solely on the minimization/maximization of the number of edges crossing the cut, judicious (bi)partitioning problems ask the natural question of the minimization/maximization of the number of edges lying in the (two) sides of the cut. In particular, Judicious Bipartition (JB) seeks a bipartition that is "judicious" in the sense that neither side is burdened by too many edges, and Balanced JB also requires that the sizes of the sides themselves are "balanced" in the sense that neither of them is too large. Both of these problems were defined in the work by Bollob\'as and Scott, and have received notable scientific attention since then. In this paper, we shed light on the study of judicious partitioning problems from the viewpoint of algorithm design. Specifically, we prove that BJB is FPT (which also proves that JB is FPT).

Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, Roohani Sharma, and Meirav Zehavi. Balanced Judicious Bipartition is Fixed-Parameter Tractable. In 37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 93, pp. 40:1-40:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.40, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Balanced Judicious Bipartition is Fixed-Parameter Tractable}}, booktitle = {37th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2017)}, pages = {40:1--40:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-055-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {93}, editor = {Lokam, Satya and Ramanujam, R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-84115}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2017.40}, annote = {Keywords: Judicious Partition, Tree Decomposition, Parameterized Complexity, Odd Cycle Transversal, Minimum Bisection} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

Deterministic polynomial-time computation of a representation of a transversal matroid is a longstanding open problem. We present a deterministic computation of a so-called union representation of a transversal matroid in time quasipolynomial in the rank of the matroid. More precisely, we output a collection of linear matroids such that a set is independent in the transversal matroid if and only if it is independent in at least one of them. Our proof directly implies that if one is interested in preserving independent sets of size at most r, for a given r\in\mathbb{N}, but does not care whether larger independent sets are preserved, then a union representation can be computed deterministically in time quasipolynomial in r. This consequence is of independent interest, and sheds light on the power of union~representation.
Our main result also has applications in Parameterized Complexity. First, it yields a fast computation of representative sets, and due to our relaxation in the context of r, this computation also extends to (standard) truncations. In turn, this computation enables to efficiently solve various problems, such as subcases of subgraph isomorphism, motif search and packing problems, in the presence of color lists. Such problems have been studied to model scenarios where pairs of elements to be matched may not be identical but only similar, and color lists aim to describe the set of compatible elements associated with each element.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Fahad Panolan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Quasipolynomial Representation of Transversal Matroids with Applications in Parameterized Complexity. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 32:1-32:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.32, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Quasipolynomial Representation of Transversal Matroids with Applications in Parameterized Complexity}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {32:1--32:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83144}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.32}, annote = {Keywords: travserval matroid, matroid representation, union representation, representative set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)

The optimization version of the Unique Label Cover problem is at the heart of the Unique Games Conjecture which has played an important role in the proof of several tight inapproximability results. In recent years, this problem has been also studied extensively from the point of view of parameterized complexity. Chitnis et al. [FOCS 2012, SICOMP 2016] proved that this problem is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) and Wahlström [SODA 2014] gave an FPT algorithm with an improved parameter dependence. Subsequently, Iwata, Wahlström and Yoshida [SICOMP 2016] proved that the edge version of Unique Label Cover can be solved in linear FPT-time, and they left open the existence of such an algorithm for the node version of the problem. In this paper, we resolve this question by presenting the first linear-time FPT algorithm for Node Unique Label Cover.

Daniel Lokshtanov, M. S. Ramanujan, and Saket Saurabh. A Linear-Time Parameterized Algorithm for Node Unique Label Cover. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 57:1-57:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.57, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Ramanujan, M. S. and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{A Linear-Time Parameterized Algorithm for Node Unique Label Cover}}, booktitle = {25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)}, pages = {57:1--57:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-049-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {87}, editor = {Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78152}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.57}, annote = {Keywords: Algorithms and data structures, Fixed Parameter Tractability, Unique Label Cover, Linear Time FPT Algorithms.} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We consider the problem of covering a set of vectors of a given finite dimensional linear space (vector space) by a subspace generated by a set of vectors of minimum size. Specifically, we study the Space Cover problem, where we are given a matrix M and a subset of its columns T; the task is to find a minimum set F of columns of M disjoint with T such that that the linear span of F contains all vectors of T. This is a fundamental problem arising in different domains, such as coding theory, machine learning, and graph algorithms.
We give a parameterized algorithm with running time 2^{O(k)}||M|| ^{O(1)} solving this problem in the case when M is a totally unimodular matrix over rationals, where k is the size of F. In other words, we show that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by the rank of the covering subspace. The algorithm is "asymptotically optimal" for the following reasons.
Choice of matrices: Vector matroids corresponding to totally unimodular matrices over rationals are exactly the regular matroids. It is known that for matrices corresponding to a more general class of matroids, namely, binary matroids, the problem becomes W[1]-hard being parameterized by k.
Choice of the parameter: The problem is NP-hard even if |T|=3 on matrix-representations of a subclass of regular matroids, namely cographic matroids. Thus for a stronger parameterization, like by the size of T, the problem becomes intractable.
Running Time: The exponential dependence in the running time of our algorithm cannot be asymptotically improved unless Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH) fails.
Our algorithm exploits the classical decomposition theorem of Seymour for regular matroids.

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, Daniel Lokshtanov, and Saket Saurabh. Covering Vectors by Spaces: Regular Matroids. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 56:1-56:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.56, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Covering Vectors by Spaces: Regular Matroids}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {56:1--56:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73865}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.56}, annote = {Keywords: regular matroids, spanning set, parameterized complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

We give algorithms with running time 2^{O({\sqrt{k}\log{k}})} n^{O(1)} for the following problems. Given an n-vertex unit disk graph G and an integer k, decide whether G contains (i) a path on exactly/at least k vertices, (ii) a cycle on exactly k vertices, (iii) a cycle on at least k vertices, (iv) a feedback vertex set of size at most k, and (v) a set of k pairwise vertex disjoint cycles.
For the first three problems, no subexponential time parameterized algorithms were previously known. For the remaining two problems, our algorithms significantly outperform the previously best known parameterized algorithms that run in time 2^{O(k^{0.75}\log{k})} n^{O(1)}. Our algorithms are based on a new kind of tree decompositions of unit disk graphs where the separators can have size up to k^{O(1)} and there exists a solution that crosses every separator at most O(\sqrt{k}) times. The running times of our algorithms are optimal up to the log{k} factor in the exponent, assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Finding, Hitting and Packing Cycles in Subexponential Time on Unit Disk Graphs. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 65:1-65:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.65, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Finding, Hitting and Packing Cycles in Subexponential Time on Unit Disk Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {65:1--65:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.65}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73937}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.65}, annote = {Keywords: Longest Cycle, Cycle Packing, Feedback Vertex Set, Unit Disk Graph, Parameterized Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 80, 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)

The Cycle Packing problem asks whether a given undirected graph G=(V,E) contains k vertex-disjoint cycles. Since the publication of the classic Erdos-Posa theorem in 1965, this problem received significant scientific attention in the fields of Graph Theory and Algorithm Design. In particular, this problem is one of the first problems studied in the framework of Parameterized Complexity. The non-uniform fixed-parameter tractability of Cycle Packing follows from the Robertson–Seymour theorem, a fact already observed by Fellows and Langston in the 1980s. In 1994, Bodlaender showed that Cycle Packing can be solved in time 2^{O(k^2)}|V| using exponential space. In case a solution exists, Bodlaender's algorithm also outputs a solution (in the same time). It has later become common knowledge that Cycle Packing admits a 2^{O(k\log^2 k)}|V|-time (deterministic) algorithm using exponential space, which is a consequence of the Erdos-Posa theorem. Nowadays, the design of this algorithm is given as an exercise in textbooks on Parameterized Complexity. Yet, no algorithm that runs in time 2^{o(k\log^2k)}|V|^{O(1)}, beating the bound 2^{O(k\log^2k)}\cdot |V|^{O(1)}, has been found. In light of this, it seems natural to ask whether the 2^{O(k\log^2k)}|V|^{O(1)}$ bound is essentially optimal. In this paper, we answer this question negatively by developing a 2^{O(k\log^2k/log log k})} |V|-time (deterministic) algorithm for Cycle Packing. In case a solution exists, our algorithm also outputs a solution (in the same time). Moreover, apart from beating the known bound, our algorithm runs in time linear in |V|, and its space complexity is polynomial in the input size.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Amer E. Mouawad, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Packing Cycles Faster Than Erdos-Posa. In 44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 80, pp. 71:1-71:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.71, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mouawad, Amer E. and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Packing Cycles Faster Than Erdos-Posa}}, booktitle = {44th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2017)}, pages = {71:1--71:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-041-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {80}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Indyk, Piotr and Kuhn, Fabian and Muscholl, Anca}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.71}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-73857}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2017.71}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Graph Algorithms, Cycle Packing, Erd\"{o}s-P\'{o}sa Theorem} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 66, 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)

The edit operation that contracts edges, which is a fundamental operation in the theory of graph minors, has recently gained substantial scientific attention from the viewpoint of Parameterized Complexity. In this paper, we examine an important family of graphs, namely the family of split graphs, which in the context of edge contractions, is proven to be significantly less obedient than one might expect. Formally, given a graph G and an integer k, the Split Contraction problem asks whether there exists a subset X of edges of G such that G/X is a split graph and X has at most k elements. Here, G/X is the graph obtained from G by contracting edges in X. It was previously claimed that the Split Contraction problem is fixed-parameter tractable. However, we show that, despite its deceptive simplicity, it is W[1]-hard. Our main result establishes the following conditional lower bound: under the Exponential Time Hypothesis, the Split Contraction problem cannot be solved in time 2^(o(l^2)) * poly(n) where l is the vertex cover number of the input graph. We also verify that this lower bound is essentially tight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first tight lower bound of the form 2^(o(l^2)) * poly(n) for problems parameterized by the vertex cover number of the input graph. In particular, our approach to obtain this lower bound borrows the notion of harmonious coloring from Graph Theory, and might be of independent interest.

Akanksha Agrawal, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Split Contraction: The Untold Story. In 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 66, pp. 5:1-5:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2017.5, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Split Contraction: The Untold Story}}, booktitle = {34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)}, pages = {5:1--5:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-028-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {66}, editor = {Vollmer, Heribert and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-70297}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.5}, annote = {Keywords: Split Graph, Parameterized Complexity, Edge Contraction} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 66, 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)

The rigidity of a matrix A for a target rank r over a field F is the minimum Hamming distance between A and a matrix of rank at most r. Rigidity is a classical concept in Computational Complexity Theory: constructions of rigid matrices are known to imply lower bounds of significant importance relating to arithmetic circuits. Yet, from the viewpoint of Parameterized Complexity, the study of central properties of matrices in general, and of the rigidity of a matrix in particular, has been neglected. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive study of different aspects of the computation of the rigidity of general matrices in the framework of Parameterized Complexity. Naturally, given parameters r and k, the Matrix Rigidity problem asks whether the rigidity of A for the target rank r is at most k. We show that in case F equals the reals or F is any finite field, this problem is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to k+r. To this end, we present a dimension reduction procedure, which may be a valuable primitive in future studies of problems of this nature. We also employ central tools in Real Algebraic Geometry, which are not well known in Parameterized Complexity, as a black box. In particular, we view the output of our dimension reduction procedure as an algebraic variety. Our main results are complemented by a W[1]-hardness result and a subexponential-time parameterized algorithm for a special case of Matrix Rigidity, highlighting the different flavors of this problem.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, S. M. Meesum, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Matrix Rigidity from the Viewpoint of Parameterized Complexity. In 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 66, pp. 32:1-32:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2017.32, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Meesum, S. M. and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Matrix Rigidity from the Viewpoint of Parameterized Complexity}}, booktitle = {34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)}, pages = {32:1--32:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-028-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {66}, editor = {Vollmer, Heribert and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-70019}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.32}, annote = {Keywords: Matrix Rigidity, Parameterized Complexity, Linear Algebra} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 63, 11th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2016)

In the l-Component Order Connectivity problem (l in N), we are given a graph G on n vertices, m edges and a non-negative integer k and asks whether there exists a set of vertices S subseteq V(G) such that |S| <= k and the size of the largest connected component in G-S is at most l. In this paper, we give a kernel for l-Component Order Connectivity with at most 2*l*k vertices that takes n^{O(l)} time for every constant l. On the way to obtaining our kernel, we prove a generalization of the q-Expansion Lemma to weighted graphs. This generalization may be of independent interest.

Mithilesh Kumar and Daniel Lokshtanov. A 2lk Kernel for l-Component Order Connectivity. In 11th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 63, pp. 20:1-20:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{kumar_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2016.20, author = {Kumar, Mithilesh and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{A 2lk Kernel for l-Component Order Connectivity}}, booktitle = {11th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2016)}, pages = {20:1--20:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-023-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {63}, editor = {Guo, Jiong and Hermelin, Danny}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2016.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69345}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2016.20}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized algorithms, Kernel, Component Order Connectivity, Max-min allocation, Weighted expansion} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 65, 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)

A bipartite tournament is a directed graph T:=(A cup B, E) such that every pair of vertices (a,b), a in A, b in B are connected by an arc, and no arc connects two vertices of A or two vertices of B. A feedback vertex set is a set S of vertices in T such that T - S is acyclic. In this article we consider the Feedback Vertex Set problem in bipartite tournaments. Here the input is a bipartite tournament T on n vertices together with an integer k, and the task is to determine whether T has a feedback vertex set of size at most k. We give a new algorithm for Feedback Vertex Set in Bipartite Tournaments. The running time of our algorithm is upper-bounded by O(1.6181^k + n^{O(1)}), improving over the previously best known algorithm with running time (2^k)k^{O(1)} + n^{O(1)} [Hsiao, ISAAC 2011]. As a by-product, we also obtain the fastest currently known exact exponential-time algorithm for the problem, with running time O(1.3820^n).

Mithilesh Kumar and Daniel Lokshtanov. Faster Exact and Parameterized Algorithm for Feedback Vertex Set in Bipartite Tournaments. In 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 65, pp. 24:1-24:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{kumar_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.24, author = {Kumar, Mithilesh and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{Faster Exact and Parameterized Algorithm for Feedback Vertex Set in Bipartite Tournaments}}, booktitle = {36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)}, pages = {24:1--24:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-027-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {65}, editor = {Lal, Akash and Akshay, S. and Saurabh, Saket and Sen, Sandeep}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68591}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.24}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized algorithms, Exact algorithms, Feedback vertex set, Tour- naments, Bipartite tournaments} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

A key result in the field of kernelization, a subfield of parameterized complexity, states that the classic Disjoint Cycle Packing problem, i.e. finding k vertex disjoint cycles in a given graph G, admits no polynomial kernel unless NP subseteq coNP/poly. However, very little is known about this problem beyond the aforementioned kernelization lower bound (within the parameterized complexity framework). In the hope of clarifying the picture and better understanding the types of "constraints" that separate "kernelizable" from "non-kernelizable" variants of Disjoint Cycle Packing, we investigate two relaxations of the problem. The first variant, which we call Almost Disjoint Cycle Packing, introduces a "global" relaxation parameter t. That is, given a graph G and integers k and t, the goal is to find at least k distinct cycles such that every vertex of G appears in at most t of the cycles. The second variant, Pairwise Disjoint Cycle Packing, introduces a "local" relaxation parameter and we seek at least k distinct cycles such that every two cycles intersect in at most t vertices. While the Pairwise Disjoint Cycle Packing problem admits a polynomial kernel for all t >= 1, the kernelization complexity of Almost Disjoint Cycle Packing reveals an interesting spectrum of upper and lower bounds. In particular, for t = k/c, where c could be a function of k, we obtain a kernel of size O(2^{c^{2}}*k^{7+c}*log^3(k)) whenever c in o(sqrt(k))). Thus the kernel size varies from being sub-exponential when c in o(sqrt(k)), to quasipolynomial when c in o(log^l(k)), l in R_+, and polynomial when c in O(1). We complement these results for Almost Disjoint Cycle Packing by showing that the problem does not admit a polynomial kernel whenever t in O(k^{epsilon}), for any 0 <= epsilon < 1.

Akanksha Agrawal, Daniel Lokshtanov, Diptapriyo Majumdar, Amer E. Mouawad, and Saket Saurabh. Kernelization of Cycle Packing with Relaxed Disjointness Constraints. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 26:1-26:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.26, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Majumdar, Diptapriyo and Mouawad, Amer E. and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Kernelization of Cycle Packing with Relaxed Disjointness Constraints}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {26:1--26:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63053}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.26}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity, cycle packing, kernelization, relaxation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 53, 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)

In the Closest String problem one is given a family S of equal-length strings over some fixed alphabet, and the task is to find a string y that minimizes the maximum Hamming distance between y and a string from S. While polynomial-time approximation schemes (PTASes) for this problem are known for a long time [Li et al.; J. ACM'02], no efficient polynomial-time approximation scheme (EPTAS) has been proposed so far. In this paper, we prove that the existence of an EPTAS for Closest String is in fact unlikely, as it would imply that FPT=W[1], a highly unexpected collapse in the hierarchy of parameterized complexity classes. Our proof also shows that the existence of a PTAS for Closest String with running time f(eps) n^o(1/eps), for any computable function f, would contradict the Exponential Time Hypothesis.

Marek Cygan, Daniel Lokshtanov, Marcin Pilipczuk, Michal Pilipczuk, and Saket Saurabh. Lower Bounds for Approximation Schemes for Closest String. In 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 53, pp. 12:1-12:10, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{cygan_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.12, author = {Cygan, Marek and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Pilipczuk, Marcin and Pilipczuk, Michal and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Lower Bounds for Approximation Schemes for Closest String}}, booktitle = {15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)}, pages = {12:1--12:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-011-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {53}, editor = {Pagh, Rasmus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-60232}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.12}, annote = {Keywords: closest string, PTAS, efficient PTAS} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 51, 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)

A rectilinear Steiner tree for a set T of points in the plane is a tree which connects T using horizontal and vertical lines. In the Rectilinear Steiner Tree problem, input is a set T of n points in the Euclidean plane (R^2) and the goal is to find an rectilinear Steiner tree for T of smallest possible total length. A rectilinear Steiner arborecence for a set T of points and root r in T is a rectilinear Steiner tree S for T such that the path in S from r to any point t in T is a shortest path. In the Rectilinear Steiner Arborescense problem the input is a set T of n points in R^2, and a root r in T, the task is to find an rectilinear Steiner arborescence for T, rooted at r of smallest possible total length. In this paper, we give the first subexponential time algorithms for both problems. Our algorithms are deterministic and run in 2^{O(sqrt{n}log n)} time.

Fedor Fomin, Sudeshna Kolay, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, and Saket Saurabh. Subexponential Algorithms for Rectilinear Steiner Tree and Arborescence Problems. In 32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 51, pp. 39:1-39:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.39, author = {Fomin, Fedor and Kolay, Sudeshna and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Subexponential Algorithms for Rectilinear Steiner Tree and Arborescence Problems}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2016)}, pages = {39:1--39:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-009-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {51}, editor = {Fekete, S\'{a}ndor and Lubiw, Anna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-59310}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2016.39}, annote = {Keywords: Rectilinear graphs, Steiner arborescence, parameterized algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

For a family of graphs F, a graph G, and a positive integer k, the F-DELETION problem asks whether we can delete at most k vertices from G to obtain a graph in F. F-DELETION generalizes many classical graph problems such as Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set, and Odd Cycle Transversal. A graph G = (V, cup_{i=1}^{alpha} E_{i}), where the edge set of G is partitioned into alpha color classes, is called an alpha-edge-colored graph. A natural extension of the F-DELETION problem to edge-colored graphs is the alpha-SIMULTANEOUS F-DELETION problem. In the latter problem, we are given an alpha-edge-colored graph G and the goal is to find a set S of at most k vertices such that each graph G_i\S, where G_i = (V, E_i) and 1 <= i <= alpha, is in F. In this work, we study alpha-SIMULTANEOUS F-DELETION for F being the family of forests. In other words, we focus on the alpha-SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK VERTEX SET (alpha-SIMFVS) problem. Algorithmically, we show that, like its classical counterpart, alpha-SIMFVS parameterized by k is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) and admits a polynomial kernel, for any fixed constant alpha. In particular, we give an algorithm running in 2^{O(alpha * k)} * n^{O(1)} time and a kernel with O(alpha * k^{3(alpha + 1)}) vertices. The running time of our algorithm implies that alpha-SIMFVS is FPT even when alpha in o(log(n)). We complement this positive result by showing that for alpha in O(log(n)), where n is the number of vertices in the input graph, alpha-SIMFVS becomes W[1]-hard. Our positive results answer one of the open problems posed by Cai and Ye (MFCS 2014).

Akanksha Agrawal, Daniel Lokshtanov, Amer E. Mouawad, and Saket Saurabh. Simultaneous Feedback Vertex Set: A Parameterized Perspective. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.7, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Mouawad, Amer E. and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Simultaneous Feedback Vertex Set: A Parameterized Perspective}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {7:1--7:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57084}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.7}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity ,feedback vertex set, kernel, edge-colored graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

We prove that for every positive integer r and for every graph class G of bounded expansion, the r-DOMINATING SET problem admits a linear kernel on graphs from G. Moreover, in the more general case when G is only assumed to be nowhere dense, we give an almost linear kernel on G for the classic DOMINATING SET problem, i.e., for the case r=1. These results generalize a line of previous research on finding linear kernels for DOMINATING SET and r-DOMINATING SET (Alber et al., JACM 2004, Bodlaender et al., FOCS 2009, Fomin et al., SODA 2010, Fomin et al., SODA 2012, Fomin et al., STACS 2013). However, the approach taken in this work, which is based on the theory of sparse graphs, is radically different and conceptually much simpler than the previous approaches.
We complement our findings by showing that for the closely related CONNECTED DOMINATING SET problem, the existence of such kernelization algorithms is unlikely, even though the problem is known to admit a linear kernel on H-topological-minor-free graphs (Fomin et al., STACS 2013). Also, we prove that for any somewhere dense class G, there is some r for which r-DOMINATING SET is W[2]-hard on G. Thus, our results fall short of proving a sharp dichotomy for the parameterized complexity of r-DOMINATING SET on subgraph-monotone graph classes: we conjecture that the border of tractability lies exactly between nowhere dense and somewhere dense graph classes.

Pål Grønås Drange, Markus Dregi, Fedor V. Fomin, Stephan Kreutzer, Daniel Lokshtanov, Marcin Pilipczuk, Michal Pilipczuk, Felix Reidl, Fernando Sánchez Villaamil, Saket Saurabh, Sebastian Siebertz, and Somnath Sikdar. Kernelization and Sparseness: the Case of Dominating Set. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 31:1-31:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{drange_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.31, author = {Drange, P\r{a}l Gr{\o}n\r{a}s and Dregi, Markus and Fomin, Fedor V. and Kreutzer, Stephan and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Pilipczuk, Marcin and Pilipczuk, Michal and Reidl, Felix and S\'{a}nchez Villaamil, Fernando and Saurabh, Saket and Siebertz, Sebastian and Sikdar, Somnath}, title = {{Kernelization and Sparseness: the Case of Dominating Set}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {31:1--31:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57327}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.31}, annote = {Keywords: kernelization, dominating set, bounded expansion, nowhere dense} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

A tournament is a directed graph T such that every pair of vertices is connected by an arc. A feedback vertex set is a set S of vertices in T such that T\S is acyclic. In this article we consider the FEEDBACK VERTEX SET problem in tournaments. Here the input is a tournament T and an integer k, and the task is to determine whether T has a feedback vertex set of size at most k. We give a new algorithm for FEEDBACK VERTEX SET IN TOURNAMENTS. The running time of our algorithm is upper-bounded by O(1.6181^k + n^{O(1)}) and by O(1.466^n). Thus our algorithm simultaneously improves over the fastest known parameterized algorithm for the problem by Dom et al. running in time O(2^kk^{O(1)} + n^{O(1)}), and the fastest known exact exponential-time algorithm by Gaspers and Mnich with running time O(1.674^n). On the way to proving our main result we prove a strengthening of a special case of a graph partitioning theorem due to Bollobas and Scott. In particular we show that the vertices of any undirected m-edge graph of maximum degree d can be colored white or black in such a way that for each of the two colors, the number of edges with both endpoints of that color is between m/4-d/2 and m/4+d/2.

Mithilesh Kumar and Daniel Lokshtanov. Faster Exact and Parameterized Algorithm for Feedback Vertex Set in Tournaments. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 49:1-49:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{kumar_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.49, author = {Kumar, Mithilesh and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{Faster Exact and Parameterized Algorithm for Feedback Vertex Set in Tournaments}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {49:1--49:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57501}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.49}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized algorithms, Exact algorithms, Feedback vertex set, Tour- naments, Graph partitions} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 43, 10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015)

Let F be a family of graphs. Given an input graph G and a positive integer k, testing whether G has a k-sized subset of vertices S, such that G\S belongs to F, is a prototype vertex deletion problem. These type of problems have attracted a lot of attention in recent times in the domain of parameterized complexity. In this paper, we study two such problems; when F is either a family of cactus graphs or a family of odd-cactus graphs. A graph H is called a cactus graph if every pair of cycles in H intersect on at most one vertex. Furthermore, a cactus graph H is called an odd cactus, if every cycle of H is of odd length. Let us denote by C and C_{odd}, families of cactus and odd cactus, respectively. The vertex deletion problems corresponding to C and C_{odd} are called Diamond Hitting Set and Even Cycle Transversal, respectively. In this paper we design randomized algorithms with running time 12^{k}*n^{O(1)} for both these problems. Our algorithms considerably improve the running time for Diamond Hitting Set and Even Cycle Transversal, compared to what is known about them.

Sudeshna Kolay, Daniel Lokshtanov, Fahad Panolan, and Saket Saurabh. Quick but Odd Growth of Cacti. In 10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 43, pp. 258-269, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{kolay_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.258, author = {Kolay, Sudeshna and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Quick but Odd Growth of Cacti}}, booktitle = {10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015)}, pages = {258--269}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-92-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {43}, editor = {Husfeldt, Thore and Kanj, Iyad}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.258}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-55883}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.258}, annote = {Keywords: Even Cycle Transversal, Diamond Hitting Set, Randomized Algorithms} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 4, Issue 11 (2015)

This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14451 "Optimality and tight results in parameterized complexity". Over the last two decades parameterized complexity has become one of the main tools for handling intractable problems. Recently, tools have been developed not only to classify problems, but also to make statements about how close an algorithm is to being optimal with respect to running time. The focus of this seminar is to highlight and discuss recent, relevant
results within this optimality framework and discover fruitful research directions. The report contains the abstracts of the results presented at the seminar, as well as a collection of open problems stated at the seminar.

Stefan Kratsch, Daniel Lokshtanov, Dániel Marx, and Peter Rossmanith. Optimality and tight results in parameterized complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 14451). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 4, Issue 11, pp. 1-21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@Article{kratsch_et_al:DagRep.4.11.1, author = {Kratsch, Stefan and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Rossmanith, Peter}, title = {{Optimality and tight results in parameterized complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 14451)}}, pages = {1--21}, journal = {Dagstuhl Reports}, ISSN = {2192-5283}, year = {2015}, volume = {4}, number = {11}, editor = {Kratsch, Stefan and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Rossmanith, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.4.11.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49677}, doi = {10.4230/DagRep.4.11.1}, annote = {Keywords: Algorithms, parameterized complexity, kernels, width measures, exponential time hypothesis, lower bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 29, 34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014)

In the Tree Deletion Set problem the input is a graph G together with an integer k. The objective is to determine whether there exists a set S of at most k vertices such that G \ S is a tree. The problem is NP-complete and even NP-hard to approximate within any factor of OPT^c for any constant c. In this paper we give an O(k^5) size kernel for the Tree Deletion Set problem. An appealing feature of our kernelization algorithm is a new reduction rule, based on system of linear equations, that we use to handle the instances on which Tree Deletion Set is hard to approximate.

Archontia C. Giannopoulou, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Ondrej Suchy. Tree Deletion Set Has a Polynomial Kernel (but no OPT^O(1) Approximation). In 34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 29, pp. 85-96, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@InProceedings{giannopoulou_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.85, author = {Giannopoulou, Archontia C. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Suchy, Ondrej}, title = {{Tree Deletion Set Has a Polynomial Kernel (but no OPT^O(1) Approximation)}}, booktitle = {34th International Conference on Foundation of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2014)}, pages = {85--96}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-77-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2014}, volume = {29}, editor = {Raman, Venkatesh and Suresh, S. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.85}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-48261}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2014.85}, annote = {Keywords: Tree Deletion Set, Feedback Vertex Set, Kernelization, Linear Equations} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2014)

This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14071 "Graph Modification Problems". The seminar was held from February 9 to February 14, 2014. This report contains abstracts for presentations about the recent
developments on algorithms and structural results for graph modification problems, as well as related areas. Furthermore, the report contains a summary of open problems in this area of research.

Hans L. Bodlaender, Pinar Heggernes, and Daniel Lokshtanov. Graph Modification Problems (Dagstuhl Seminar 14071). In Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp. 38-59, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2014)

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@Article{bodlaender_et_al:DagRep.4.2.38, author = {Bodlaender, Hans L. and Heggernes, Pinar and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, title = {{Graph Modification Problems (Dagstuhl Seminar 14071)}}, pages = {38--59}, journal = {Dagstuhl Reports}, ISSN = {2192-5283}, year = {2014}, volume = {4}, number = {2}, editor = {Bodlaender, Hans L. and Heggernes, Pinar and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagRep.4.2.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-45443}, doi = {10.4230/DagRep.4.2.38}, annote = {Keywords: graphs, algorithms, graph modification, fixed parameter tractable, graph classes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 20, 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)

We give the first linear kernels for Dominating Set and Connected Dominating Set problems on graphs excluding a fixed graph H as a topological minor.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Linear kernels for (connected) dominating set on graphs with excluded topological subgraphs. In 30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 20, pp. 92-103, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2013)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2013.92, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.}, title = {{Linear kernels for (connected) dominating set on graphs with excluded topological subgraphs}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2013)}, pages = {92--103}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-50-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2013}, volume = {20}, editor = {Portier, Natacha and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.92}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-39255}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2013.92}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized complexity, kernelization, algorithmic graph minors, dominating set, connected dominating set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 18, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2012)

In the Odd Cycle Transversal (OCT) problem we are given a graph G on n vertices and an integer k, the objective is to determine whether there exists a vertex set O in G of size at most k such that G - O is bipartite. Reed, Smith and Vetta [Oper. Res. Lett., 2004] gave an algorithm for OCT with running time 3^kn^{O(1)}. Assuming the exponential time hypothesis of Impagliazzo, Paturi and Zane, the running time can not be improved to 2^{o(k)}n^{O(1)}. We show that OCT admits a randomized algorithm running in O(n^{O(1)} + 2^{O(sqrt{k} log k)}n) time when the input graph is planar. As a byproduct we also obtain a linear time algorithm for OCT on planar graphs with running time O(n^O(1) + 2O( sqrt(k) log k) n) time. This improves over an algorithm of Fiorini et al. [Disc. Appl. Math., 2008].

Daniel Lokshtanov, Saket Saurabh, and Magnus Wahlström. Subexponential Parameterized Odd Cycle Transversal on Planar Graphs. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2012). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 18, pp. 424-434, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2012.424, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, title = {{Subexponential Parameterized Odd Cycle Transversal on Planar Graphs}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2012)}, pages = {424--434}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-47-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2012}, volume = {18}, editor = {D'Souza, Deepak and Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar and Telikepalli, Kavitha}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2012.424}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-38783}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2012.424}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Theory, Parameterized Algorithms, Odd Cycle Transversal} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 13, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2011)

We initiate the study of the Bipartite Contraction problem from the perspective of parameterized complexity. In this problem we are given a graph G on n vertices and an integer k, and the task is to determine whether we can obtain a bipartite graph from G by a sequence of at most k edge contractions. Our main result is an f(k) n^{O(1)} time algorithm for Bipartite Contraction. Despite a strong resemblance between Bipartite Contraction and the classical Odd Cycle Transversal (OCT) problem, the methods developed to tackle OCT do not seem to be directly applicable to Bipartite Contraction. To obtain our result, we combine several techniques and concepts that are central in parameterized complexity: iterative compression, irrelevant vertex, and important separators. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the irrelevant vertex technique and the concept of important separators are applied in unison. Furthermore, our algorithm may serve as a comprehensible example of the usage of the irrelevant vertex technique.

Pinar Heggernes, Pim van 't Hof, Daniel Lokshtanov, and Christophe Paul. Obtaining a Bipartite Graph by Contracting Few Edges. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2011). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 13, pp. 217-228, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{heggernes_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2011.217, author = {Heggernes, Pinar and van 't Hof, Pim and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Paul, Christophe}, title = {{Obtaining a Bipartite Graph by Contracting Few Edges}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2011)}, pages = {217--228}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-34-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2011}, volume = {13}, editor = {Chakraborty, Supratik and Kumar, Amit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2011.217}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-33579}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2011.217}, annote = {Keywords: fixed parameter tractability, graph modification problems, edge contractions, bipartite graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 9, 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)

We study a general class of problems called F-Deletion problems. In an F-Deletion problem, we are asked whether a subset of at most k
vertices can be deleted from a graph G such that the resulting graph does not contain as a minor any graph from the family F of forbidden minors. We obtain a number of algorithmic results on the F-Deletion problem when F contains a planar graph. We give
- a linear vertex kernel on graphs excluding t-claw K_(1,t), the star with t leaves, as an induced subgraph, where t is a fixed integer.
- an approximation algorithm achieving an approximation ratio of O(log^(3/2) OPT), where $OPT$ is the size of an optimal solution on general undirected graphs.
Finally, we obtain polynomial kernels for the case when F only contains graph theta_c as a minor for a fixed integer c. The graph theta_c consists of two vertices connected by $c$ parallel edges. Even though this may appear to be a very restricted class of problems it already encompasses well-studied problems such as Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set and Diamond Hitting Set. The generic kernelization algorithm is based on a non-trivial application of protrusion techniques, previously used only for problems on topological graph classes.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Neeldhara Misra, Geevarghese Philip, and Saket Saurabh. Hitting forbidden minors: Approximation and Kernelization. In 28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 9, pp. 189-200, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2011)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2011.189, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Neeldhara and Philip, Geevarghese and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Hitting forbidden minors: Approximation and Kernelization}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2011)}, pages = {189--200}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-25-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2011}, volume = {9}, editor = {Schwentick, Thomas and D\"{u}rr, Christoph}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.189}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-30103}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2011.189}, annote = {Keywords: kernelization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 8, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010)

Computing the Dodgson Score of a candidate in an election is a hard computational problem, which has been analyzed using classical and parameterized analysis. In this paper we resolve two open problems regarding the parameterized complexity of DODGSON SCORE. We show that DODGSON SCORE parameterized by the target score value $k$ does not have a polynomial kernel unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level; this complements a result of Fellows, Rosamond and Slinko who obtain a non-trivial kernel of exponential size for a generalization of this problem. We also prove that DODGSON SCORE parameterized by the number $n$ of votes is hard for $W[1]$.

Michael Fellows, Bart M. P. Jansen, Daniel Lokshtanov, Frances A. Rosamond, and Saket Saurabh. Determining the Winner of a Dodgson Election is Hard. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 8, pp. 459-468, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{fellows_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.459, author = {Fellows, Michael and Jansen, Bart M. P. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Rosamond, Frances A. and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Determining the Winner of a Dodgson Election is Hard}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2010)}, pages = {459--468}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-23-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2010}, volume = {8}, editor = {Lodaya, Kamal and Mahajan, Meena}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.459}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-28866}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.459}, annote = {Keywords: Dodgson Score, Parameterized Complexity, Kernelization Lower Bounds} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 5, 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (2010)

In this paper we make the first step beyond bidimensionality by obtaining subexponential time algorithms for problems on directed graphs.
We develop two different methods to achieve subexponential time parameterized algorithms for problems on sparse directed graphs.
We exemplify our approaches with two well studied problems. For the first problem, $k$-Leaf Out-Branching, which is to find an oriented spanning tree with at least $k$ leaves, we obtain an algorithm solving the problem in time $2^{\cO(\sqrt{k} \log k)} n+ n^{\cO(1)}$ on directed graphs whose underlying undirected graph excludes some fixed graph $H$ as a minor. For the special case when the input directed graph is planar, the running time can be improved to $2^{\cO(\sqrt{k} )}n + n^{\cO(1)}$.
The second example is a generalization of the {\sc Directed Hamiltonian Path} problem, namely $k$-Internal Out-Branching, which is to find an oriented spanning tree with at least $k$ internal vertices. We obtain an algorithm solving the problem in time $2^{\cO(\sqrt{k} \log k)} + n^{\cO(1)}$ on directed graphs whose underlying undirected graph excludes some fixed apex graph $H$ as a minor.
Finally, we observe that for any $\ve>0$, the $k$-Directed Path problem is solvable in time $\cO((1+\ve)^k n^{f(\ve)})$, where $f$ is some function of $\ve$.
Our methods are based on non-trivial combinations of obstruction theorems for undirected graphs, kernelization, problem specific combinatorial structures and a layering technique similar to the one employed by Baker to obtain PTAS for planar graphs.

Frederic Dorn, Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Venkatesh Raman, and Saket Saurabh. Beyond Bidimensionality: Parameterized Subexponential Algorithms on Directed Graphs. In 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 5, pp. 251-262, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2010)

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@InProceedings{dorn_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2459, author = {Dorn, Frederic and Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Raman, Venkatesh and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Beyond Bidimensionality: Parameterized Subexponential Algorithms on Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science}, pages = {251--262}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-16-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2010}, volume = {5}, editor = {Marion, Jean-Yves and Schwentick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2459}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-24599}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2010.2459}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Subexponential Algorithms, Directed Graphs, Out-Branching, Internal Out-Branching} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 4, IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (2009)

Partial Cover problems are optimization versions
of fundamental and well studied problems like {\sc Vertex Cover} and {\sc Dominating Set}.
Here one is interested in covering (or dominating) the maximum number of edges (or vertices) using a given number ($k$) of vertices, rather than covering all edges (or vertices). In general graphs, these problems are hard for parameterized complexity classes when parameterized by $k$.
It was recently shown by Amini et. al. [{\em FSTTCS 08}\,] that {\sc Partial Vertex Cover} and {\sc Partial Dominating Set} are fixed parameter tractable on large classes of sparse graphs, namely $H$-minor free graphs,
which include planar graphs and graphs of bounded genus. In particular, it was shown that on planar graphs both problems can be solved in time $2^{\cO(k)}n^{\cO(1)}$.

Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Venkatesh Raman, and Saket Saurabh. Subexponential Algorithms for Partial Cover Problems. In IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 4, pp. 193-201, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2009.2318, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Raman, Venkatesh and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Subexponential Algorithms for Partial Cover Problems}}, booktitle = {IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science}, pages = {193--201}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-13-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2009}, volume = {4}, editor = {Kannan, Ravi and Narayan Kumar, K.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2009.2318}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-23186}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2009.2318}, annote = {Keywords: Partial cover problems, parameterized complexity, subexponential time algorithms, irrelevant vertex technique} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 3, 26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (2009)

The {\sc $k$-Leaf Out-Branching} problem is to find an out-branching, that is a rooted oriented spanning tree, with at least $k$ leaves in a given digraph. The problem has recently received much attention from the viewpoint of parameterized algorithms. Here, we take a kernelization based approach to the {\sc $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching} problem. We give the first polynomial kernel for {\sc Rooted $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching}, a variant of {\sc $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching} where the root of the tree searched for is also a part of the input. Our kernel has cubic size and is obtained using extremal combinatorics.
For the {\sc $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching} problem, we show that no polynomial kernel is possible unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to third level by applying a recent breakthrough result by Bodlaender et al. (ICALP 2008) in a non-trivial fashion. However, our positive results for {\sc Rooted $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching} immediately imply that the seemingly intractable {\sc $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching} problem admits a data reduction to $n$ independent $O(k^3)$ kernels. These two results, tractability and intractability side by side, are the first ones separating {\it many-to-one kernelization} from {\it Turing kernelization}. This answers affirmatively an open problem regarding ``cheat kernelization'' raised by Mike Fellows and Jiong Guo independently.

Henning Fernau, Fedor V. Fomin, Daniel Lokshtanov, Daniel Raible, Saket Saurabh, and Yngve Villanger. Kernel(s) for Problems with No Kernel: On Out-Trees with Many Leaves. In 26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 3, pp. 421-432, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2009)

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@InProceedings{fernau_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2009.1843, author = {Fernau, Henning and Fomin, Fedor V. and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Raible, Daniel and Saurabh, Saket and Villanger, Yngve}, title = {{Kernel(s) for Problems with No Kernel: On Out-Trees with Many Leaves}}, booktitle = {26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science}, pages = {421--432}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-09-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2009}, volume = {3}, editor = {Albers, Susanne and Marion, Jean-Yves}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2009.1843}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-18437}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2009.1843}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized algorithms, Kernelization, Out-branching, Max-leaf, Lower bounds} }

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